Reconfiguring the time zone, locales and keymaps in Sabayon Linux

This is an example of how to reconfigure the time zone, locales and keymaps in a Sabayon Linux installation from the command line. Sabayon Linux uses systemd, therefore much of this example should also be applicable in other Linux distributions that use systemd, and will certainly be applicable in Gentoo Linux installations that use systemd rather than OpenRC.

You can check the currently selected keymaps (console and X Windows) and locale using the ‘localectl status‘ command. For example:

user $ localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: uk
      X11 Layout: gb
       X11 Model: pc105

Let’s say I had previously configured my installation to use only the en_GB and en_US locales but I now want to add Swiss Italian. The steps would be as shown below. I will assume the system being configured is in Switzerland and therefore I will also reconfigure the time zone accordingly, but that is not essential.

Check if the desired time zone exists:

root # timedatectl list-timezones | grep Zurich
Europe/Zurich

Set the desired time zone:

root # timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Zurich

Check if the Swiss Italian locale (it_CH) has already been added:

root # localectl list-locales
C.utf8
en_GB
en_GB.iso88591
en_GB.utf8
en_US
en_US.iso88591
en_US.utf8

If the desired locale is not present, add it:

root # nano /etc/locale.gen
root # grep -v "^#\|^$" /etc/locale.gen
C.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_GB ISO-8859-1
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_US ISO-8859-1
it_CH.UTF-8 UTF-8
it_CH ISO-8859-1

Generate the locales:

root # locale-gen
 * Generating 7 locales (this might take a while) with 1 jobs
 *  (1/7) Generating C.UTF-8 ...                                          [ ok ]
 *  (2/7) Generating en_GB.ISO-8859-1 ...                                 [ ok ]
 *  (3/7) Generating en_GB.UTF-8 ...                                      [ ok ]
 *  (4/7) Generating en_US.ISO-8859-1 ...                                 [ ok ]
 *  (5/7) Generating en_US.UTF-8 ...                                      [ ok ]
 *  (6/7) Generating it_CH.ISO-8859-1 ...                                 [ ok ]
 *  (7/7) Generating it_CH.UTF-8 ...                                      [ ok ]
 * Generation complete
 * Adding locales to archive ...                                          [ ok ]

Check the locales have been added:

root # localectl list-locales
C.utf8
en_GB
en_GB.iso88591
en_GB.utf8
en_US
en_US.iso88591
en_US.utf8
it_CH
it_CH.iso88591
it_CH.utf8

Set the desired locale:

root # localectl set-locale LANG=it_CH.UTF-8

Check which Italian console keymaps are available:

root # localectl list-keymaps | grep it
it
it-ibm
it2
mac-it

But let’s say I want to use a Swiss German keymap (sg) for the console instead of an Italian keymap. Check if a console keymap for Swiss German exists:

root # localectl list-keymaps | grep sg
sg
sg-latin1
sg-latin1-lk450

By the way, Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives store console keymaps differently to some distributions, and the command ‘localectl list-keymaps‘ in Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives will return an error message (the command ‘localectl set-keymap’ will still work though):

user $ localectl list-keymaps
Failed to read list of keymaps: No such file or directory

Set the console keymap to Swiss German:

root # localectl set-keymap sg

Let’s say I want to use a Swiss keymap in X Windows. Check if it exists:

root # localectl list-x11-keymap-layouts | grep sg
root # localectl list-x11-keymap-layouts | grep ch
ch

Set the X Windows keymap to Swiss:

root # localectl set-x11-keymap ch

Update the environment variables and profile:

root # env-update && source /etc/profile
>>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...

Edit /etc/default/grub and change (or add, if none exists) the console keymap entry in GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT to be vconsole.keymap=sg, and also rd.vconsole.keymap=sg (‘rd‘ stands for ‘RAM disk’) because Sabayon Linux uses an initramfs:

root # nano /etc/default/grub

Regenerate grub.cfg:

root # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Generazione file di configurazione GRUB...
Trovato sfondo: /boot/grub/default-splash.png
Trovata immagine linux: /boot/kernel-genkernel-x86_64-5.4.0-sabayon
Trovata immagine initrd: /boot/initramfs-genkernel-x86_64-5.4.0-sabayon
fatto

Reboot to check if everything is working:

root # systemctl reboot

Check that the list of locales is as expected:

root # eselect locale list
Available targets for the LANG variable:
  [1]   C
  [2]   C.utf8
  [3]   en_GB
  [4]   en_GB.iso88591
  [5]   en_GB.utf8
  [6]   en_US
  [7]   en_US.iso88591
  [8]   en_US.utf8
  [9]   it_CH
  [10]  it_CH.iso88591
  [11]  it_CH.utf8
  [12]  POSIX
  [13]  it_CH.UTF-8 *
  [ ]   (free form)

Check if the current configuration is as expected:

root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch

If the Desktop Environment is KDE, check the file ~/.config/locale-plasmarc to see if the LANG variable is set to the locale just configured.

root # cat /home/fitzcarraldo/.config/plasma-localerc
[Formats]
LANG=en_GB.UTF-8

If it is not, delete the file:

root # rm /home/fitzcarraldo/.config/plasma-localerc

then logout, login again and re-check the file:

root # cat /home/fitzcarraldo/.config/plasma-localerc
[Formats]
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8

The system should now be ready for use with the new time zone, locale and keymaps.

user $ date
gio 2 lug 2020, 15:55:21, CEST
user $ localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch

Using a mixture of locale variables

It is not mandatory for all the locale variables to be for the same locale. For example, suppose I want to use the currency and number formats of one of the other locales I added. That is not so outlandish: I could be a Swiss national whose mother tongue is Swiss Italian, working in the Swiss branch of a British company and I want the currency format and number format on my work computer to be British, but everything else to be Swiss. To achieve this I can additionally do the following:

root # localectl set-locale LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
root # localectl set-locale LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
root # env-update && source /etc/profile

Check that the main locale and keymaps remain as they were but that the two locale variables have been changed to the British locale:

root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
                  LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
                  LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch
root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_TIME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=

You can see above that only $LC_NUMERIC and $LC_MONETARY have changed, as I wanted. As I did not change the time zone, the command I used earlier to set the time zone to Europe/Zurich is still in force:

root # date
gio 2 lug 2020, 16:12:18, CEST

By the way, if you try to change one of the variables from en_GB.UTF-8 back to it_CH.UTF-8, the change does not show in the output of the locale command. For example, let’s say you want to change LC_NUMERIC back to it_CH.UTF-8:

root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
                  LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
                  LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch
root # localectl set-locale LC_NUMERIC=it_CH.UTF-8
root # cat /etc/locale.conf   
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
root # cat /etc/env.d/02locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
                  LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch
root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8  <-- Notice it didn't change
LC_TIME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=
root # env-update && source /etc/profile
>>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8 <-- Notice it still didn't change
LC_TIME="en_GB.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=

This is one of the reasons I’m not keen on the layer of abstraction added by systemd. The way to get LC_NUMERIC back to it_CH.UTF-8 is to change all the locale variables to en_GB.UTF-8 then back to it_CH.UTF-8:

root # localectl set-locale LANG=en_GB.UTF-8
root # env-update && source /etc/profile
root # localectl set-locale LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
root # env-update && source /etc/profile
root # reboot

After rebooting, the change will have been applied:

root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TIME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=
root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sh
      X11 Layout: ch

Notice that everything has changed back to it_CH.UTF-8, including $LC_MONETARY, so you’d have to repeat the command ‘localectl set-locale LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8‘ if you wanted that to still be the British format.

If you use KDE, also check the contents of the file ~/.config/plasma-localerc to make sure it contains the correct locale:

user $ cat ~/.config/plasma-localerc
[Formats]
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8

Optionally you could edit that file to add desired settings. For example:

[Formats]
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_TIME=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_COLLATE=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_PAPER=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_NAME=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_ADDRESS=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_TELEPHONE=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MEASUREMENT=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_IDENTIFICATION=it_CH.UTF-8
useDetailed=true

Alternatively, delete that file then logout and login again to make KDE Plasma pick up the values of the variables from the existing configuration. KDE Plasma will recreate the file.

Using WS-Discovery to enable Windows 10 to browse SMB shares in my home network of Linux computers

I have not used Windows 10 for more than two years now (see ‘Bye bye Windows 10, and good riddance‘ regarding my failed attempts to upgrade Windows 10 Version 1607 to 1703 and 1709). Nevertheless I am aware that, since Version 1709, Windows 10 no longer has SMBv1 and Computer Browser service installed by default. Computer Browser service used NetBIOS and SMBv1 to provide what Microsoft named ‘My Network Places‘ or ‘Network Neighborhood’. Thus Microsoft has dropped the concepts of network ‘workgroups’, ‘master browsers’, NetBIOS, NetBIOS broadcasts, WINS and so on. SMB has not been dropped, though; Versions 2 and 3 of the SMB protocol are now used, albeit using a different mechanism for device discovery.

Although they perform different jobs, Microsoft bundled the Computer Browser service software with the SMBv1 software. Microsoft could have provided them separately, but it made some sense to bundle them together in the early days of Windows networking. Thus, as SMBv1 is not installed by default in Windows 10 Version 1709 and later versions, neither is Computer Browser service. To put it another way, if you install SMBv1 in Windows 10 you automatically install Computer Browser service as well. None of that interested me since I stopped using Windows 10 after Version 1607. Since then my home network has comprised a server, desktop and laptops running various Linux distributions with Samba and using broadcast NetBIOS for name resolution. Of course I know that NetBIOS — especially broadcast NetBIOS for name resolution — is ancient networking technology, but it works well for my home networking needs. All my machines can browse each other’s SMB shares and create/copy/move/delete remote files and folders. The File Manager + app on my phone running Android 9 can also browse SMB shares on the Linux machines and create/copy/move/delete remote files and folders.

Two of my blog posts from 2016 and 2017 explain how I set up my home network for file sharing. One of the machines in the network had Windows 10 1607 installed, but that was replaced with Lubuntu in 2018.

SMBv1 is an inherently insecure protocol, so, after I dropped Windows, I reconfigured Samba on my Linux machines to use only SMBv3, which works fine. Subsequently I found that Android 9 on my Samsung Galaxy Note 8 phone apparently does not support SMBv3, only SMBv1 and SMBv2, so I reconfigured Samba on my Linux machines to allow SMBv2 as well as SMBv3. In other words, the Linux machines use SMBv3 with each other but SMBv2 with the phone (see my comments in the Comments section of my 2016 post ‘A correct method of configuring Samba for browsing SMB shares in a home network‘).

Anyway, I happen to have an evaluation copy of Windows 10 Enterprise Version 1709 installed in a VirtualBox VM (virtual machine) on one of my Linux laptops and, purely to satisfy my curiosity, I decided to try to get Windows 10 Version 1709 to browse and access SMB shares on the Linux machines in my home network, and vice versa, without having to dispense with broadcast NetBIOS name resolution for the Linux machines and without having to install SMBv1 (and Computer Browser service) in Windows 10.

When I first booted Windows 10 Enterprise 1709, SMB shares on my Linux machines were not displayed in File Explorer, and Windows 10 could not find them if I entered the UNC (Universal Naming Convention) address ‘\\hostname\foldername‘ or ‘\\IPaddress\foldername‘ (e.g. ‘\\AKHANATEN\anne‘ or ‘\\192.168.1.70\anne‘) in File Explorer’s address bar. My Web searches indicated that many people cannot see SMB shares in File Explorer either but can access a share by entering the UNC address in the File Explorer address bar. Apparently the advice from Microsoft these days is to use ‘Map a Network Drive…’ in File Explorer. Therefore, given that I wanted to be able to browse SMB shares in ‘File Explorer’ > ‘Network’, I clearly had some work to do. My goal for Windows 10 was twofold: to be able to view my remote SMB shares in Windows 10 File Explorer automatically and to be able to access (copy/move/delete/open) my remote SMB shares in Windows 10 File Explorer. Of course I also wanted to be able to browse and access SMB shares on the Windows 10 machine from the Linux machines.

Now, Windows 10 comes with Web Services Dynamic Discovery (WS-Discovery) installed. This enables SMB hosts running WS-Discovery software to be found by clients running WS-Discovery software. I believe Version 20.04 of the KDE Applications package kio-extras will support SMB host discovery using WS-Discovery, but that version is not available in the Stable Branch of Gentoo Linux installed on my main laptop, nor in Lubuntu 18.04 which is installed on my family’s desktop machine. So I thought I would have a look at what is currently available for those two distributions. I was particularly interested to see if I could find an implementation of WS-Discovery for Linux that would run in parallel with broadcast NetBIOS name resolution currently installed on the Linux machines in my home network, as broadcast NetBIOS name resolution works fine with SMBv2 and SMBv3 for Linux and Android devices in a home network (my Samsung Galaxy Note 8 phone can browse the SMB shares on any of the Linux machines in my home network).

Thanks are due to Steffen Christgau for creating a daemon that can be used in Linux installations to enable Windows 10 to discover SMB shares on Linux machines via WS-Discovery: wsdd – A Web Service Discovery host daemon. The README file for wsdd states:

wsdd implements a Web Service Discovery host daemon. This enables (Samba) hosts, like your local NAS device, to be found by Web Service Discovery Clients like Windows.

It also implements the client side of the discovery protocol which allows to search for Windows machines and other devices implementing WSD. This mode of operation is called discovery mode.

wsdd only depends on Python 3 and can be installed in many Linux distributions. If no wsdd package exists for a specific distribution, it can simply be run from the command line or from a Bash script. The following blog post by Ralph Mönchmeyer explains how to use wsdd (although not a complete solution for my specific case): Samba 4, shares, wsdd and Windows 10 – how to list Linux Samba servers in the Win 10 Explorer.

Below I list the steps I took to enable me to browse SMB shares in an evaluation copy of Windows 10 Enterprise Version 1709 running in a VM on one of my Linux laptops. I don’t have access to the latest version of Windows 10 (2004), but hopefully some or most of the following will still be applicable.

Step 1. Disable firewalls temporarily

I disabled the firewall in the Linux machine and in the Windows 10 machine so that the firewalls could be ruled out if there were any problems getting share browsing to work. Once all the steps were completed I re-enabled the firewalls.

Step 2. Specify the workgroup in Windows 10

Select ‘Control Panel’ > ‘System and Security’ > ‘System’ and, under ‘Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings’, if necessary click ‘Change settings’ to rename the workgroup. The default workgroup name was ‘WORKGROUP‘ so I renamed it to ‘HOME‘, my current network’s workgroup.

Step 3. Ensure the correct SMB protocol in Windows 10

SMBv1 (and Computer Browser service) are disabled by default in Windows 10 Version 1709 and later (see ‘SMBv1 is not installed by default in Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server version 1709 and later versions‘) but I nevertheless made sure that SMBv1 is disabled and that SMBv2 and SMBv3 are installed (see ‘How to detect, enable and disable SMBv1, SMBv2, and SMBv3 in Windows‘). I did the following in PowerShell (Run as administrator):

PS C:\WINDOWS\system32> Disable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName SMB1Protocol
PS C:\WINDOWS\system32> Set-SmbServerConfiguration -EnableSMB2Protocol $true

Step 4. Disable NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP in Windows 10

Select ‘Settings’ > ‘Network & Internet’ > ‘Ethernet’ > ‘Change adapter options’.

Right-click ‘Ethernet’, click ‘Properties’, select ‘Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)’ and click ‘Properties’. Click ‘Advanced’. Click on the WINS tab (even though my network does not use WINS), select ‘Disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP’ and click ‘OK’, ‘OK’ and ‘Close’.

Step 5. Configure ‘Function Discovery’ in Windows 10

See the article ‘SMBv1 is not installed by default in Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server version 1709 and later versions | Microsoft Docs‘, in particular the following:

Explorer Network Browsing

The Computer Browser service relies on the SMBv1 protocol to populate the Windows Explorer Network node (also known as “Network Neighborhood”). This legacy protocol is long deprecated, doesn’t route, and has limited security. Because the service cannot function without SMBv1, it is removed at the same time.

However, if you still have to use the Explorer Network in home and small business workgroup environments to locate Windows-based computers, you can follow these steps on your Windows-based computers that no longer use SMBv1:

  1. Start the “Function Discovery Provider Host” and “Function Discovery Resource Publication” services, and then set them to Automatic (Delayed Start).
  2. When you open Explorer Network, enable network discovery when you are prompted.

All Windows devices within that subnet that have these settings will now appear in Network for browsing. This uses the WS-DISCOVERY protocol. Contact your other vendors and manufacturers if their devices still don’t appear in this browse list after the Windows devices appear. It is possible they have this protocol disabled or that they support only SMBv1.

Press Windows Key+R, enter ‘services.msc‘ (without the quotes) and click ‘OK’.

Change the ‘Startup type’ of ‘Functions Discovery Provider Host’ to ‘Automatic (Delayed Start)’.

Change the ‘Startup type’ of ‘Function Discovery Resource Publication’ to ‘Automatic (Delayed Start)’.

Step 6. Configure the sharing options in Windows 10

Select ‘Settings’ > ‘Network & Internet’ > ‘Sharing options’ and configure the options as follows:

Private (current profile)
  1. Network discovery
    • ‘Turn on network discovery’ is selected.
    • ‘Turn on automatic setup of network connected devices.’ is ticked.
  2. File and printer sharing
    • ‘Turn on file and printer sharing’ is selected.
  3. HomeGroup connections
    • ‘Allow Windows to manage homegroup connections (recommended)’ is selected.
Guest or Public
  1. Network discovery
    • ‘Turn on network discovery’ is selected.
  2. File and printer sharing
    • ‘Turn on file and printer sharing’ is selected.
All Networks
  1. Public folder sharing
    • ‘Turn on sharing so anyone with network access can read and write files in the Public folders’ is selected.
  2. Media streaming
    • Nothing is selected.
  3. File sharing connections
    • ‘Use 128-bit encryption to help protect file sharing connections (recommended)’ is selected.
  4. Password protected sharing
    • ‘Turn off password protected sharing’ is selected.

Step 7. Install WS-Discovery daemon on the Linux machines

Gentoo Linux
In Gentoo I simply installed the package net-misc/wsdd from the guru overlay:

root # eix -I wsdd
[I] net-misc/wsdd [1]
     Available versions:  (~)0.5 (~)0.6 {samba PYTHON_TARGETS="python3_6 python3_7 python3_8"}
     Installed versions:  0.6(00:39:07 07/06/20)(-samba PYTHON_TARGETS="python3_7 -python3_6 -python3_8")
     Homepage:            https://github.com/christgau/wsdd
     Description:         A Web Service Discovery host daemon.

[1] "guru" /var/lib/layman/guru

and, as I use OpenRC in Gentoo, I configured /etc/conf.d/wsdd.conf as follows:

# /etc/conf.d/wsdd

# Override the default user/group under which wsdd runs.
# Must follow the user[:group] notation.
#WSDD_USER="daemon:daemon"

# Specify alternative log file location.
#WSDD_LOG_FILE="/var/log/wsdd.log"

# Disable automatic detection of the workgroup from samba configuration.
#WSDD_WORKGROUP="MYGROUP"
WSDD_WORKGROUP="HOME"

# Additional options for the daemon, e.g. to listen on interface eth0 only.
# Refer to wsdd(1) for details.
#WSDD_OPTS="-i eth0"
WSDD_OPTS="--shortlog --interface enp4s0f1 --interface wlp3s0 --hostname tutankhamun --discovery"

Specifying the interfaces and hostname are optional, but wsdd seemed to work better when I specified them explicitly. You can ascertain the interfaces by using the command ‘ip address‘ or the deprecated command ‘ifconfig‘.

I added the service to the default runlevel so that it is started automatically when I boot the machine, and then I started it:

root # rc-update add wsdd default
root # rc-service wsdd start

Lubuntu 18.04

In Lubuntu 18.04 (which uses systemd) wsdd can be installed either manually or from a package:

a) Manual installation

user $ wget https://github.com/christgau/wsdd/archive/master.zip
user $ unzip master.zip
user $ sudo cp wsdd-master/src/wsdd.py /usr/bin/wsdd
user $ sudo cp wsdd-master/etc/systemd/wsdd.service /etc/systemd/system/

Edit the systemd service file /etc/systemd/system/wsdd.service to add desired options to the ExecStart command and to change the group from ‘nobody‘ to ‘nogroup‘:

...
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wsdd --workgroup HOME --shortlog --interface eno1 --interface wlp2s0 --hostname thutmoseiii --discovery
...
User=nobody
Group=nogroup
...

You can check whether the user and group exist in your installation as follows:

user $ grep ^nobody /etc/passwd
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
user $ grep ^nobody /etc/group
user $ grep ^nogroup /etc/group
nogroup:x:65534:

Actually, I prefer to specify ‘daemon‘ for the user and group in the wsdd.service file (which is also what the Gentoo Linux ebuild uses and what the .deb package uses):

...
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wsdd --workgroup HOME --shortlog --interface eno1 --interface wlp2s0 --hostname thutmoseiii --discovery
...
User=daemon
Group=daemon
...

You can check that this user and group also exist:

user $ grep ^daemon /etc/passwd
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
user $ grep ^daemon /etc/group
daemon:x:1:

(I tried both nobody:nogroup and daemon:daemon, and there was no apparent difference in behaviour.)

Enable the service so that it starts automatically when the machine is booted, and also start it now:

user $ sudo systemctl enable wsdd
user $ sudo systemctl start wsdd

b) Installing from a package

Here is a link to a .deb package for wsdd Version 0.6.0:

https://pkg.ltec.ch/public/pool/main/w/wsdd/

The resulting installation differs slightly from the manual procedure; the package creates a configuration file /etc/wsdd.conf and you declare the wsdd options in that file instead:

# command line parameters for wsdd (consult man page)
WSDD_PARAMS=""

The package also installs a systemd service file /lib/systemd/system/wsdd.service containing the following:

[Unit]
Description=Web Services Dynamic Discovery host daemon
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=simple
EnvironmentFile=/etc/wsdd.conf
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wsdd $WSDD_PARAMS
User=daemon
Group=daemon

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

The package installs the Python 3 executable wsdd in the directory /usr/bin/. It’s a very straightforward package.

Step 8. Configure Samba to make Windows 10 prompt for username and password

When you click on a network share in Windows 10’s File Explorer, Windows 10 uses the Windows 10 username and password to try to access the SMB share on the remote machine (see ‘Samba share does not ask for credentials from Windows Client‘). This will obviously not work unless the usernames/passwords on both machines match. To make Windows 10 prompt the user to enter the remote username and password, edit the file /etc/samba/smb.conf on each Linux machine and comment out the line ‘map to guest = bad user‘ (see the smb.conf files listed in my 2016 article ‘A correct method of configuring Samba for browsing SMB shares in a home network‘).

Step 9. Enable guest access in Windows 10

If I enter a SMB share’s UNC address in File Explorer’s address bar, or if I double-click on the remote machine’s icon in File Explorer (after WS-Discovery has made the SMB share visible in File Explorer), Windows 10 displays the following error message:

Network Error

Windows cannot access \\hostname

Check the spelling of the name. Otherwise, there might be a problem with your network. To try to identify and resolve network problems, click Diagnose.

Error Code: 0x80070035
The network path was not found.

This has nothing to do with the fact that SMBv1 is disabled in Windows 10. It happens because Windows 10 1709 and onwards have guest logins disabled:

To enable guest logins I edited the Windows 10 Registry and changed the following key from zero to one:

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanWorkstation\Parameters]

“AllowInsecureGuestAuth”=dword:1

Step 10. Configure the Windows 10 firewall

Select ‘Windows Defender Security Center’ > ‘Firewall & network protection’.

Click ‘Allow an app through the firewall’.

If not already ticked, select ‘Private’ and ‘Public’ for ‘Network Discovery’ and for ‘File and Printer Sharing’.

Step 11. Configure the Linux firewall

This is where things get more complicated. According to the README for wsdd:

Firewall Setup

Both incoming and outgoing multicast traffic on port 3702 must be allowed. For IPv4, the multicast address is 239.255.255.250, for IPv6 the link local SSDP multicast address (ff02::c) is used.

Incoming TCP traffic (and related outgoing traffic) on port 5357 must be allowed.

My laptops and desktop use UFW, and below I explain how I configured UFW to satisfy the above requirements.

Firstly, as my firewall is configured to deny incoming traffic and allow outgoing traffic by default, I enabled UFW and added the following DNS rules to UFW’s main rules (the following two commands add rules for both IPv4 and IPv6):

user $ sudo ufw allow 53/tcp
user $ sudo ufw allow 53/udp

Note that, in order for the multicast rule I use to work, xt_pkttype must either have been built into the kernel or built as a kernel module and have been loaded:

user $ lsmod | grep pkttype
xt_pkttype             16384  2
x_tables               40960  17 ip6table_filter,xt_conntrack,iptable_filter,xt_LOG,xt_multiport,xt_tcpudp,xt_addrtype,ip6t_rt,ip6_tables,ipt_REJECT,xt_CT,xt_pkttype,iptable_raw,ip_tables,xt_limit,xt_hl,ip6t_REJECT

To load the module automatically at boot, in Gentoo Linux I added ‘xt_pkttype‘ to the list of modules in the file /etc/conf.d/modules, and in Lubuntu 18.04 I added ‘xt_pkttype‘ to the list of modules in the file /etc/modules-load.d/modules.conf.

Also note that my firewall had previously already been configured for NetBIOS and SMB by using the following commands:

user $ # Rules for SMB
user $ # IPv4:
user $ sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 137,138 proto udp
user $ sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 139,445 proto tcp
user $ # IPv6:
user $ # (NetBIOS is undefined for IPv6 but I believe SMB uses Port 445 in IPv6)
user $ sudo ufw allow from ff80::/10 to any port 445 proto tcp

IPv4

The end of the file /etc/ufw/before.rules previously looked like this:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 224.0.0.251 --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 239.255.255.250 --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT
# The following is needed to enable Samba commands to
# work properly for broadcast NetBIOS name resolution
#
# raw table rules
*raw
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-F OUTPUT
-A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
COMMIT

I inserted seven lines as shown below:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 224.0.0.251 --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 239.255.255.250 --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST WS-Discovery for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -m pkttype --pkt-type multicast -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --sport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 5357 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --sport 5357 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT
# The following is needed to enable Samba commands to
# work properly for broadcast NetBIOS name resolution
#
# raw table rules
*raw
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-F OUTPUT
-A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
COMMIT

Actually the two IPv4 rules shown above for mDNS and UPnP that were already in the file /etc/ufw/before.rules have become redundant because the first of the five new rules I added encompasses them. It does no harm to leave those two rules in the file, though.

IPv6

The end of the file /etc/ufw/before6.rules previously looked like this:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::fb --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::f --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT

I inserted six lines as shown below:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::fb --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::f --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST WS-Discovery for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -m pkttype --pkt-type multicast -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -s fe80::/10 --dport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -s fe80::/10 --sport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p tcp -s fe80::/10 --dport 5357 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p tcp -s fe80::/10 --sport 5357 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT

Actually the two IPv6 rules shown above for mDNS and UPnP that were already in the file /etc/ufw/before6.rules have become redundant because the first of the five new rules I added encompasses them. It does no harm to leave those two rules in the file, though.

Because the Linux machines in my network still use broadcast NetBIOS for name resolution I left all the NetBIOS rules in UFW as they were, including the extra lines I previously added to /etc/ufw/before.rules (see the raw table rule at the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules listed above and my blog post ‘Prevent Linux firewalls interfering with Samba commands in a home network that uses broadcast NetBIOS name resolution‘).

Actually, as my laptops change firewall zones automatically (see my post ‘Firewall zones (profiles) in Linux, and how to switch them automatically if you use UFW‘), on my laptops I added the new rules to the zone for my home network specified in my NetworkManager Dispatcher hook script /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/20_ufw-zones.

After reloading UFW, the UFW status on my machines now looks like this (I’ve excluded rules unrelated to this topic):

user $ sudo ufw status verbose
Status: active
Logging: on (low)
Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed)
New profiles: skip

To                         Action      From
--                         ------      ----
137,138/udp                ALLOW IN    192.168.1.0/24
139,445/tcp                ALLOW IN    192.168.1.0/24
53/tcp                     ALLOW IN    Anywhere
53/udp                     ALLOW IN    Anywhere
445/tcp                    ALLOW IN    ff80::/10
53/tcp (v6)                ALLOW IN    Anywhere (v6)
53/udp (v6)                ALLOW IN    Anywhere (v6)

Note that UFW does not display rules declared in /etc/ufw/{before,before6}.rules

Step 12. Re-enable the Windows 10 firewall

Select ‘Settings’ > ‘Network & Internet’ > ‘Windows Firewall’.

Step 13. Check that wsdd is working as expected

To check that wsdd is actually detecting other machines running WS-Discovery, you can stop the daemon running and instead launch wsdd manually in a terminal window with verbose logging enabled.

For example, on my laptop running Gentoo Linux I did the following:

user $ sudo rc-service wsdd stop
user $ wsdd --workgroup HOME --verbose --interface enp4s0f1 --interface wlp3s0 --hostname tutankhamun --discovery

And on my family’s desktop running Lubuntu 18.04 I did the following:

user $ sudo systemctl stop wsdd
user $ wsdd --workgroup HOME --verbose --interface eno1 --interface wlp2s0 --hostname thutmoseiii --discovery

Check the output in the terminal window includes a discovered line for each machine running Windows 10 and for each Linux machine running wsdd. For example:

...
2020-06-16 00:31:09,331:wsdd INFO(pid 17574): discovered MSWIN10PC in Workgroup:HOME on 192.168.1.111%eno1
...
2020-06-16 00:31:10,013:wsdd INFO(pid 17574): discovered MSWIN10PC in Workgroup:HOME on [fe80::fc7e:7068:8c2c:e664]%eno1
...

After pressing Ctrl+C to stop wsdd running in the terminal, you can restart the daemon:

Gentoo Linux

user $ sudo rc-service wsdd start

Lubuntu 18.04

user $ sudo systemctl start wsdd

With wsdd running on the Linux machines they become visible in File Explorer on Windows 10 machines connected to the network. However, the converse is not necessarily true, as explained further on.

As I had previously configured Samba on my Linux machines to use broadcast NetBIOS to resolve names, Samba on the Linux machines fails to resolve the hostnames of the Windows 10 machines because Windows 10 no longer supports NetBIOS name resolution (neither broadcast nor WINS). I confirmed this by using the smbclient command in a terminal window:

user $ sudo smbclient //MSEDGEWIN10/TestSMBShare1 --debuglevel=10
...
added interface eno1 ip=192.168.1.111 bcast=192.168.1.255 netmask=255.255.255.0
Netbios name list:-
my_netbios_names[0]="THUTMOSEIII"
Client started (version 4.7.6-Ubuntu).
Opening cache file at /var/cache/samba/gencache.tdb
Opening cache file at /var/run/samba/gencache_notrans.tdb
sitename_fetch: No stored sitename for realm ''
internal_resolve_name: looking up MSEDGEWIN10#20 (sitename (null))
no entry for MSEDGEWIN10#20 found.
name_resolve_bcast: Attempting broadcast lookup for name MSEDGEWIN10
Connection to MSEDGEWIN10 failed (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL)

However, in Gentoo Linux (Stable Branch, KDE Plasma 5.18.5, KDE Applications 19.12.3) on my main laptop I can enter ‘smb://hostname/sharename‘ (e.g. smb://msedgewin10/Users/Public) in the Dolphin file manager’s address bar and browse the contents of the SMB share on the Window 10 machine. I assume this is because Avahi on the Linux machine performs name resolution anyway even though the broadcast NetBIOS lookup has failed. Although Lubuntu 18.04 also has the Avahi daemon running, it does not resolve the hostname when I enter ‘smb://hostname/sharename‘ in PCManFM’s address bar; I have to enter ‘smb://IPaddress/sharename‘ (e.g. smb://192.168.1.64/Users/Public) to be able to browse the contents of the Windows 10 shared folder.

Conclusion

wsdd running on Linux machines enables Windows 10 to view networked Linux machines in File Explorer and browse SMBv2 and SMBv3 shares residing on Linux machines. It does not guarantee I will be able to view Windows 10 machines in Linux file managers automatically, though. But I can access Windows 10 machines by entering ‘smb://IPaddress/sharename‘ in the Linux file manager’s address bar, or, depending on what has been installed in the Linux installation and how it has been configured, by entering ‘smb://hostname/sharename‘.

To access a Linux SMB shared folder (as declared in that machine’s smb.conf file) in Windows 10 File Explorer, either I double-click on the Linux machine’s icon in the Network view or I enter the UNC address (e.g. \\tutankhamun\Users\Public) in the address bar. I can then access the files and sub-folders.

To browse a Windows 10 SMB shared folder and files in KDE Dolphin in Gentoo Linux current Stable Branch on my main laptop, I enter the UNC address (e.g. smb://msedgewin10/Users/Public) or click on the location I previously bookmarked under ‘Places’ in the left pane of the Dolphin window. I can then access the files and sub-folders. To browse a Windows 10 SMB shared folder and files in LXDE PCManFM in Lubuntu 18.04, I enter the UNC address with an IP address instead of a hostname (e.g. smb://192.168.1.64/Users/Public). I can then access the files and sub-folders. I am going to have to do some more digging to try to find out why KDE Dolphin in Gentoo Linux on my main laptop (kio-extras installed from Gentoo ebuild kio-extras-19.12.3-r2) can access Windows 10 by hostname but PCManFM in Lubuntu 18.04 cannot.

To enable machines running Window 10 to browse SMB shares on my other Linux machines I would need to perform the same Linux-related steps in each of those installations. My server firewall uses IPTABLES directly, rather than UFW, so the syntax of the additional firewall rules would be different.

Addendum, 16 June 2020: I suspected the problem browsing the Windows 10 SMB shares from Lubuntu 18.04 is due to PCManFM, so I installed a different file manager: SpaceFM (Version 1.0.5 for GTK2) and its associated utility udevil (Version 0.4.4). SpaceFM allows me to enter UNC addresses such as ‘smb://mswin10pc/Users/Public‘ without any problems. So, problem solved in Lubuntu 18.04 now as well.

How to send a message to running X Windows sessions in a multi-user Linux system

The ‘wall‘ command can be used to broadcast a message from a TTY console to other logged-in TTY console users in a multi-user Linux system. The Linux command ‘notify-send‘ can be used to send a message (a.k.a. notification) within an X Windows session, and Desktop Environments such as KDE and GNOME use notify-send to display pop-up notifications to the user. However, apparently no program exists in Linux to broadcast a message to other running X Windows sessions; that sounds like the sort of thing systemd developers would implement. A few years ago Unix & Linux Stack Exchange user Andy posted a Bash script notify-send-all to do just that (see Show a notification across all running X displays). For example, if you wanted to send a message to all the users of a multi-seat, multi-user Linux system who are currently logged-in to Desktop Environments, you could enter the following command to run the script in your home directory:

$ sudo ./notify-send-all -t 50000 "Warning" "Don't forget the staff meeting at 15:00 today."

Below is a slightly modified version of Andy‘s script that works for me in Lubuntu 18.04:

#!/bin/bash
PATH=/usr/bin:/bin
who|grep -E "\(:[0-9](\.[0-9])*\)"|awk '{print $1$5}'|sort -u > /tmp/xusers
while read XUSER; do
    NAME=(${XUSER/(/ })
    DISPLAY=${NAME[1]/)/}
    DBUS_ADDRESS=unix:path=/run/user/$(id -u ${NAME[0]})/bus
    sudo -u ${NAME[0]} DISPLAY=${DISPLAY} \
                       DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=${DBUS_ADDRESS} \
                       PATH=${PATH} \
                       notify-send "$@"
done < /tmp/xusers

Here is my tidied-up version:

#!/bin/bash
who | awk '{print $1, $NF}' | tr -d "()" | sort -u |
while read XUSER DISPNUM; do
    sudo -u $XUSER DISPLAY=$DISPNUM \
                   DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=unix:path=/run/user/$(id -u $XUSER)/bus \
                   notify-send "$@"
done

In Gentoo Linux DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS needs to be found differently, and the following version of Andy‘s script works for me in that Linux distribution:

#!/bin/bash
PATH=/usr/bin:/bin
export $(dbus-launch)
who|grep -E "\(:[0-9](\.[0-9])*\)"|awk '{print $1$5}'|sort -u > /tmp/xusers
while read XUSER; do
    NAME=(${XUSER/(/ })
    DISPLAY=${NAME[1]/)/}
    sudo -u ${NAME[0]} DISPLAY=${DISPLAY} \
                       ${DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS} \
                       PATH=${PATH} \
                       notify-send "$@"
done < /tmp/xusers

And here is my tidied-up version:

#!/bin/bash
export $(dbus-launch)
who | awk '{print $1, $NF}' | tr -d "()" | sort -u |
while read XUSER DISPNUM; do
    sudo -u $XUSER DISPLAY=$DISPNUM \
                   $BUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS \
                   notify-send "$@"
done

notify-send-all will be of academic interest to users of single-user systems, but it’s nice to know such a thing is possible relatively easily in Linux.

Using Bash scripts in Linux to delete the history, cookies and cache files of Firefox, Google Chrome and Thunderbird

The browsing data stored by Firefox, Google Chrome and Thunderbird can be deleted using the respective application’s GUI. But you can also do that using a Bash script, which could be useful if you want to delete unnecessary/unwanted files before e.g. backing up your home directory, or if you want a quick and easy way to clear-out browsing data. In this post I list the scripts and Desktop Configuration files I have created in Gentoo Linux and in Lubuntu 18.04 to remove browsing data.

In the case of Thunderbird, I am not sure if it is safe to delete Thunderbird’s cache files so my script only deletes cookies. Anyway, that could be added later if it transpires there is no harm in deleting Thunderbird’s cache files.

I am using the following 64-bit versions of the two browsers and e-mail client:

  • Mozilla Firefox 74.0
  • Mozilla Thunderbird 68.5.0 in Gentoo Linux only
  • Google Chrome 80.0.3987.132 in Gentoo Linux
  • Google Chrome 67.0.3396.99 in Lubuntu 18.04

I have not tested my scripts with other versions of Firefox, Chrome and Thunderbird, nor in other installations, so please do check carefully the directory paths and commands in the script against the directory paths in your installation before selecting ‘[D]elete‘ in the running script.

In Lubuntu 18.04 I had to install sqlite3 first:

$ sudo apt install sqlite3

In Gentoo Linux it was already installed:

$ eix -I sqlite
[I] dev-db/sqlite
     Available versions:  (3) 3.29.0^t 3.30.1^t 3.31.1^t
       {debug doc icu +readline secure-delete static-libs tcl test tools ABI_MIPS="n32 n64 o32" ABI_RISCV="lp64 lp64d" ABI_S390="32 64" ABI_X86="32 64 x32"}
     Installed versions:  3.31.1(3)^t(19:53:28 13/03/20)(icu readline secure-delete -debug -doc -static-libs -tcl -test -tools ABI_MIPS="-n32 -n64 -o32" ABI_RISCV="-lp64 -lp64d" ABI_S390="-32 -64" ABI_X86="32 64 -x32")
     Homepage:            https://sqlite.org/
     Description:         SQL database engine

Firefox and Thunderbird

I created the Bash script Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.sh listed below. The user can select only Firefox or only Thunderbird, or both, and the script enables the user to choose whether to just view the current situation or to delete the data. The script checks if the applications are running and will not do anything if they are. In fact, the script offers the user the option to terminate the applications if they happen to be running. The script is still usable if either Firefox or Thunderbird are not installed. The same script can be used in Gentoo and in Lubuntu 18.04, and I believe it would also work in Ubuntu but have not tested it with that distribution.

#!/bin/bash
#
# If Delete is selected for Firefox, this script deletes the entire history, cookies, site data and cache.
# If Delete is selected for Thunderbird, this script deletes the cookies and leaves the cache intact.
#
echo
echo "WARNING:"
echo "The Firefox Browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo "The Thunderbird e-mail client must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo
FIREFOX=$( ls $HOME/.mozilla/firefox 2>/dev/null | grep .default )
THUNDERBIRD=$( ls $HOME/.thunderbird 2>/dev/null | grep .default )
while true
do
   echo -n "[F]irefox, [T]hunderbird, [B]oth or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 PROMPT2
   echo
   case $PROMPT2 in
      [fF]* ) CHOICE2="F"; break;;
      [tT]* ) CHOICE2="T"; break;;
      [bB]* ) CHOICE2="B"; break;;
      [eE]* ) exit;;
      * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
   esac
done
FRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER firefox > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   FRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "The Firefox browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT0
      echo
      case $PROMPT0 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE0="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE0="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE0 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER firefox )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      FRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
TRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER thunderbird > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   TRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo -n "The Thunderbird e-mail client is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT1
      echo
      case $PROMPT1 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE1="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE1="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER thunderbird )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      TRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
ABORT="N"
if [[ $FRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   if [[ $CHOICE2 == "F" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Please quit Firefox then re-run this script."
      echo
      ABORT="Y"
   fi
fi
if [[ $TRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   if [[ $CHOICE2 == "T" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Please quit Thunderbird then re-run this script."
      echo
      ABORT="Y"
   fi
fi
if [[ $ABORT == "N" ]]; then
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
      read -n1 PROMPT3
      echo
      case $PROMPT3 in
         [dD]* ) CHOICE3="D"; break;;
         [lL]* ) CHOICE3="L"; break;;
         [eE]* ) exit;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE3 == "D" ]]; then
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "F" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
            echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
         else
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox History..........."
            echo "==================================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/places.sqlite "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;"
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/places.sqlite "delete from moz_historyvisits;"
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox Cookies........"
            echo "================================"
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;"
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox Site Data........"
            echo "=================================="
            ls ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/storage/default/ | grep http
            find ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/storage/default -name "http*" -type d -exec rm -r "{}" \; -prune
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox Cache..........."
            echo "================================="
            NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            find ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries -type f -delete 2>/dev/null
            echo
         fi
      fi
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "T" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
            echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
         else
            echo "Deleting Thunderbird Cookies........"
            echo "===================================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.thunderbird/${THUNDERBIRD}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;"
         fi
      fi
   fi
   if [[ $CHOICE3 == "L" ]]; then
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "F" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
            echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
         else
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox History........."
            echo "================================"
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/places.sqlite "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | more
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox Cookies........"
            echo "==============================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | more
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox Site Data........"
            echo "================================="
            ls ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/storage/default/ | grep http | more
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox Cache..........."
            echo "================================="
            NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            echo
         fi
      fi
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "T" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
            echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
         else
            echo "Current Thunderbird Cookies......"
            echo "================================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.thunderbird/${THUNDERBIRD}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | more
         fi
      fi
   fi
fi
printf "\n"
read -rep $'\n Press ENTER to exit ' PROMPT4

Listed below is the Desktop Configuration file Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.desktop for KDE in Gentoo Linux that I created in the ~/Desktop/ directory. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/Mozilla.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be modified if the icon file were to be stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Mozilla.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Name=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

The equivalent Desktop Configuration file I created for Lubuntu 18.04 is very similar:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Mozilla.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Name=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-LXDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-LXDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Google Chrome

I created the following Bash script Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh for the Google Chrome browser in Gentoo Linux. Different scripts have to be used in Gentoo Linux and in Lubuntu 18.04 because the paths are different.

#!/bin/bash
#
# If Delete is selected, this script deletes the entire cache, the code cache,
# the Visited Links file and the Top Sites file.
#
echo
echo "WARNING:"
echo "The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo
while true
do
   echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 PROMPT1
   echo
   case $PROMPT1 in
      [dD]* ) CHOICE1="D"; break;;
      [lL]* ) CHOICE1="L"; break;;
      [eE]* ) exit;;
      * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
   esac
done
CRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER chrome > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   CRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "The Google Chrome browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT0
      echo
      case $PROMPT0 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE0="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE0="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE0 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER chrome )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      CRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
if [[ $CRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   echo
   echo "Please quit Google Chrome then re-run this script."
   echo
else
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "D" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Deleting URLs..........."
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls; delete from urls;"
      echo
      echo "Deleting Cookies........"
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies; delete from cookies;"
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Chrome Cache......."
         echo "====================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache
      fi
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Code\ Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Code Cache......"
         echo "========================="
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Code\ Cache
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Visited\ Links ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Visited Links......"
         echo "============================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Visited\ Links
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Top\ Sites ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Top Sites......"
         echo "========================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Top\ Sites
      fi
   fi
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "L" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Current URLs..........."
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls;" | more
      echo
      echo "Current Cookies........"
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies;" | more
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Current Chrome Cache............."
         echo "================================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
      fi
   fi
fi
printf "\n"
read -rep $'\n Press ENTER to exit ' PROMPT2

And below is the Desktop Configuration file Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.desktop for Gentoo Linux. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be adjusted if the icon file were stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Comment=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
GenericName=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Name=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=

Below is the version of the script Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh for Lubuntu 18.04:

#!/bin/bash
#
# If Delete is selected, this script deletes the entire cache, the code cache,
# the Visited Links file and the Top Sites file.
#
echo
echo "WARNING:"
echo "The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo
while true
do
   echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 PROMPT1
   echo
   case $PROMPT1 in
      [dD]* ) CHOICE1="D"; break;;
      [lL]* ) CHOICE1="L"; break;;
      [eE]* ) exit;;
      * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
   esac
done
CRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER chrome > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   CRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "The Google Chrome browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT0
      echo
      case $PROMPT0 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE0="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE0="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE0 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER chrome )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      CRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
if [[ $CRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   echo
   echo "Please quit Google Chrome then re-run this script."
   echo
else
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "D" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Deleting URLs..........."
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls; delete from urls;"
      echo
      echo "Deleting Cookies........"
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies; delete from cookies;"
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Chrome Cache......."
         echo "====================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache
      fi
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Code\ Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Code Cache......"
         echo "========================="
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Code\ Cache
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Visited\ Links ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Visited Links......"
         echo "============================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Visited\ Links
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Top\ Sites ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Top Sites......"
         echo "========================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Top\ Sites
      fi
   fi
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "L" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Current URLs..........."
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls;" | more
      echo
      echo "Current Cookies........"
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies;" | more
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Current Chrome Cache............."
         echo "================================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
      fi
   fi
fi
printf "\n"
read -rep $'\n Press ENTER to exit ' PROMPT2

And below is the Desktop Configuration file Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.desktop for Lubuntu 18.04. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be adjusted if the icon file were stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Comment=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
GenericName=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Name=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-LXDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-LXDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Below are a few examples of the output when I launch the scripts.

Here is the output of the script that deals with Firefox and/or Thunderbird when I only list the current situation:


WARNING:
The Firefox Browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
The Thunderbird e-mail client must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[F]irefox, [T]hunderbird, [B]oth or [E]xit: b 
 
The Firefox browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: y 
The Thunderbird e-mail client is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: y 
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: l 
 
Current Firefox History.........
================================
2020-03-19 17:27:24|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:27:20|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:27:30|https://www.theguardian.com/uk
2020-03-19 17:27:38|http://www.jb.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:27:38|https://www.jb.com.br/
 
Current Firefox Cookies........
===============================
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:22|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:23|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:30|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:39|.denakop.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:46|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:46|.www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
 
Current Firefox Site Data........
=================================
https+++www.google.com
https+++www.theguardian.com
https+++www.youtube.com
 
Current Firefox Cache...........
=================================
Files: 383 Size: 15M
 
Current Thunderbird Cookies......
=================================


 Press ENTER to exit

Here is the output of the script that deals with Firefox and/or Thunderbird when I delete only the Firefox data:

 
WARNING:
The Firefox Browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
The Thunderbird e-mail client must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[F]irefox, [T]hunderbird, [B]oth or [E]xit: f 
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: d 
 
Deleting Firefox History...........
===================================
2020-03-19 17:27:24|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:27:20|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:27:30|https://www.theguardian.com/uk
2020-03-19 17:27:38|http://www.jb.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:27:38|https://www.jb.com.br/
 
Deleting Firefox Cookies........
================================
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:22|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:23|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:30|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:39|.denakop.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:46|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:46|.www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
 
Deleting Firefox Site Data........
==================================
https+++www.google.com
https+++www.theguardian.com
https+++www.youtube.com
 
Deleting Firefox Cache...........
=================================
Files: 383 Size: 15M
 


 Press ENTER to exit

Here is the output of the script that deals with Google Chrome when I just list the current situation:


WARNING:
The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: l 
 
Current URLs...........
=======================
2020-03-19 17:30:41|https://duckduckgo.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:44|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:49|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:30:57|http://www.folha.uol.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:30:57|https://www.folha.uol.com.br/
 
Current Cookies........
=======================
2020-03-19 17:30:49|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.bt.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:45|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:46|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:31:08|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.dna.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:30:49|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:08|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.navdmp.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|ivccf.ivcbrasil.org.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.prg.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:22|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:20|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.uol.com.br
 
Current Chrome Cache.............
=================================
Files: 317 Size: 8.6M


 Press ENTER to exit

Here is the output of the script that deals with Google Chrome when I delete the browser data:


WARNING:
The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: d 
 
Deleting URLs...........
========================
2020-03-19 17:30:41|https://duckduckgo.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:44|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:49|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:30:57|http://www.folha.uol.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:30:57|https://www.folha.uol.com.br/
 
Deleting Cookies........
========================
2020-03-19 17:30:49|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.bt.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:45|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:46|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:31:08|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.dna.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:30:49|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:08|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.navdmp.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|ivccf.ivcbrasil.org.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.prg.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:22|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:20|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.uol.com.br
 
Deleting Chrome Cache.......
=====================
Files: 317 Size: 8.6M
 
Deleting Code Cache......
=========================
 
Deleting Visited Links......
============================
 
Deleting Top Sites......
========================


 Press ENTER to exit

Update March 23, 2020: For those of you who would prefer a single script that can delete the browsing history, cookies and cache files of Google Chrome and/or Firefox and/or Thunderbird, I have now created the script clear_browser_data.sh shown below with appropriate Desktop Configuration files for Gentoo Linux and Lubuntu 18.04. In addition I have now added the ability to list and delete the history and cache files of Thunderbird, as I have checked that deleting those is not detremental to Thunderbird. Furthermore, this new script finds the directories itself rather than having them partially hard-coded in the script, so I am using the same script in both Gentoo and Lubuntu 18.04. That said, I have not tested the script with other versions of Chrome, Firefox and Thunderbird, nor with other Linux distributions, so do not select [D]elete until you have checked that the directories evaluated by the script match the directories in your installation.

#!/bin/bash
#
########################################################################
#
# Bash script to enable the user to list and/or delete browser data of:
# Google Chrome browser
# Mozilla Firefox browser
# Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail client
#
########################################################################
#
# Check for existence of the applications' directories
FIREFOX=$( ls $HOME/.mozilla/firefox 2>/dev/null | grep profiles.ini )
THUNDERBIRD=$( ls $HOME/.thunderbird  2>/dev/null | grep profiles.ini )
CHROME=$( ls -d $HOME/.config/google-chrome 2>/dev/null )
if [ -z "$CHROME" ]; then
   echo
   echo "Chrome directory does not exist"
else
   # Chrome directory locations
   #
   CLOCALST=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome -type f -name "Local State" )
   CCURPROF=$( cat "$CLOCALST" | awk -F "," '{for (I=1;I<=NF;I++) if ($I~/"info_cache"/) {print $(I)};}' | awk -F "info_cache" '{print $2}' | awk -F '"' '{print $3}' )   
   CHISTORY=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "History" )
   CCOOKIES=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "Cookies" )
   CVISITED=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "Visited Links" )
   CTOPSITS=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "Top Sites" )
   CCACHEDF=$( find $HOME/.cache/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type d -name "Cache" )
   CCODECAC=$( find $HOME/.cache/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -maxdepth 2 -type d -name "Code Cache" )
   echo; echo "Chrome is using profile: $CCURPROF"
   
fi
if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
   echo
   echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
else
   # Firefox file locations. First get the current Profile Name
   # The profiles are listed in 'profiles.ini'.
   # If profiles.ini does not contain a line 'Locked=1' then the current profile
   # is followed by the line 'Default=1'. If profiles.ini does contain 'Locked=1'
   # then the current profile is followed by the line 'Locked=1'
   #
   FPROFILE=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/ -type f -name "profiles.ini" )
   if grep -q "Locked=1$" "$FPROFILE"; then
      FCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Locked=1$" "$FPROFILE" | grep -v Locked )
   else
      FCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Default=1$" "$FPROFILE" | grep -v Default )
   fi
   FCURPROF=$( echo "$FCURPROF" | cut -d"=" -f2 )
   FHISTORY=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type f -name "places.sqlite" )
   FCOOKIES=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type f -name "cookies.sqlite" )
   FSITEDAT=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type d -name "default" )
   FCACHEDF=$( find $HOME/.cache/mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type d -name "entries" )
   echo; echo "Firefox is using profile: $FCURPROF"
fi
if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
   echo
   echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
else
   # Thunderbird file locations. First get the current Profile Name
   # The profiles are listed in 'profiles.ini'.
   # If profiles.ini does not contain the line 'Locked=1' then the current profile
   # is followed by the line 'Default=1'. If profiles.ini does contain 'Locked=1'
   # then the current profile is followed by the line 'Locked=1'
   #
   TPROFILE=$( find $HOME/.thunderbird/ -type f -name "profiles.ini" )
   if grep -q "Locked=1$" "$TPROFILE"; then
      TCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Locked=1$" "$TPROFILE" | grep -v Locked )
   else
      TCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Default=1$" "$TPROFILE" | grep -v Default )
   fi
   TCURPROF=$( echo "$TCURPROF" | cut -d"=" -f2 )
   THISTORY=$( find $HOME/.thunderbird/"$TCURPROF" -type f -name "places.sqlite" )
   TCOOKIES=$( find $HOME/.thunderbird/"$TCURPROF" -type f -name "cookies.sqlite" )
   TCACHEDF=$( find $HOME/.cache/thunderbird/"$TCURPROF" -type d -name "entries" )
   echo; echo "Thunderbird is using profile: $TCURPROF"
fi
#
MENU=""
while [[ $MENU != "E" ]] && [[ $MENU != "e" ]]; do
   echo
   echo -n "[C]hrome, [F]irefox, T[hunderbird or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 MENU
   echo
   case $MENU in
      [Cc] ) ;;
      [Ff] ) ;;
      [Tt] ) ;;
      [Ee] ) ;;
      * ) echo; echo " Enter 'C/c', 'F/f', 'T/t' or 'E/e'"
   esac
   #########
   # Chrome
   #########
   while [[ $MENU == "C" ]] || [[ $MENU == "c" ]]; do
      pgrep -u $USER chrome > /dev/null
      if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
         echo
         echo -n "Chrome Browser is open, do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
         read -n1 YN
         echo
         if [[ $YN == "Y" ]] || [[ $YN == "y" ]]; then
            CPID=$( pgrep -u $USER chrome )
            CPID=$( echo $CPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
            kill -1 $CPID
         else
            echo
            echo " Cannot list or delete browser URLs if the browser is open"
            break
         fi
      fi
      if [ -z "$CHROME" ]; then
         echo
         echo "Chrome directory does not exist"
         break
      else
         CPROMPT=""
         echo
         echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
         read -n1 CPROMPT
         echo
         case $CPROMPT in
            [Dd] ) echo; echo " Chrome is using profile: $CCURPROF";;
            [Ll] ) echo; echo " Chrome is using profile: $CCURPROF";;
            [Ee] ) ;;
            * ) echo; echo " Enter 'D/d', 'L/l' or 'E/e'";;
         esac
         if [[ $CPROMPT == "E" ]] || [[ $CPROMPT == "e" ]]; then MENU=""; fi
         if [[ $CPROMPT == "D" ]] || [[ $CPROMPT == "d" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Deleting Chrome URLs............."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CHISTORY" "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls; delete from urls;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            echo
            echo " Deleting Chrome Cookies.........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CCOOKIES" "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies; delete from cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            if [[ -d "$CCACHEDF" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Chrome Cache............"
               echo " ================================="
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               rm -r "$CCACHEDF"
            fi
            if [[ -d "$CCODECAC" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Chrome Code Cache......."
               echo " ================================="
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCODECAC" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCODECAC" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               rm -r "$CCODECAC"
            fi
            if [[ -f "$CVISITED" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Visited Links..........."
               echo " ================================="
               rm "$CVISITED"
            fi
            if [[ -f "$CTOPSITS" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Chrome Top Sites........"
               echo " ================================="
               rm "$CTOPSITS"
            fi
         fi
         if [[ $CPROMPT == "L" ]] || [[ $CPROMPT == "l" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Current Chrome URLs.............."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CHISTORY" "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Chrome Cookies..........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CCOOKIES" "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /' |more
            if [[ -d "$CCACHEDF" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Current Chrome Cache............."
               echo " ================================="
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            fi
            if [[ -d "$CCODECAC" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Current Chrome Code Cache............."
               echo " ======================================"
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCODECAC" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCODECAC" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            fi
         fi
         CPROMPT=""
      fi
   done
   ##########
   # Firefox
   ##########
   while [[ $MENU == "F" ]] || [[ $MENU == "f" ]]; do
      pgrep -u $USER firefox > /dev/null
      if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
         echo
         echo -n "Firefox Browser is open, do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
         read -n1 YN
         echo
         if [[ $YN == "Y" ]] || [[ $YN == "y" ]]; then
            FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER firefox )
            FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
            kill -1 $FPID
         else
            echo
            echo " Cannot list or delete browser URLs if the browser is open"
            break
         fi
      fi
      if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
         echo
         echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
         break
      else
         FPROMPT=""
         echo
         echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
         read -n1 FPROMPT
         echo
         case $FPROMPT in
            [Dd] ) echo; echo " Firefox is using profile: $FCURPROF";;
            [Ll] ) echo; echo " Firefox is using profile: $FCURPROF";;
            [Ee] ) ;;
            * ) echo; echo " Enter 'D/d', 'L/l' or 'E/e'";;
         esac
         if [[ $FPROMPT == "E" ]] || [[ $FPROMPT == "e" ]]; then MENU=""; fi
         if [[ $FPROMPT == "D" ]] || [[ $FPROMPT == "d" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox History........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FHISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            sqlite3 "$FHISTORY" "delete from moz_historyvisits;"
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox Cookies........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox Site Data......."
            echo " ================================="
            ls "$FSITEDAT" | grep http | sed 's/^/ /'
            find "$FSITEDAT" -name "http*" -type d -exec rm -r "{}" \; -prune
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox Cache..........."
            echo " ================================="
            if [[ $( ls -A "$FCACHEDF" ) ]]; then # Directory not empty
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$FCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$FCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               find "$FCACHEDF" -type f -delete
            fi
         fi
         if [[ $FPROMPT == "L" ]] || [[ $FPROMPT == "l" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox History.........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FHISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox Cookies.........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox Site Data........"
            echo " ================================="
            ls "$FSITEDAT" | grep http | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox Cache..........."
            echo " ================================"
            NUM=$( ls -1 "$FCACHEDF" | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh "$FCACHEDF" )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         fi
         FPROMPT=""
      fi
   done
   ##############
   # Thunderbird
   ##############
   while [[ $MENU == "T" ]] || [[ $MENU == "t" ]]; do
      pgrep -u $USER thunderbird > /dev/null
      if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
         echo
         echo -n "Thunderbird e-mail client is open, do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
         read -n1 YN
         echo
         if [[ $YN == "Y" ]] || [[ $YN == "y" ]]; then
            TPID=$( pgrep -u $USER thunderbird )
            TPID=$( echo $TPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
            kill -1 $TPID
         else
            echo
            echo " Cannot list or delete Thunderbird URLs if the e-mail client is open"
            break
         fi
      fi
      if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
         echo
         echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
         break
      else
         TPROMPT=""
         echo
         echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
         read -n1 TPROMPT
         echo
         case $TPROMPT in
            [Dd] ) echo; echo " Thunderbird is using profile: $TCURPROF";;
            [Ll] ) echo; echo " Thunderbird is using profile: $TCURPROF";;
            [Ee] ) ;;
            * ) echo; echo " Enter 'D/d', 'L/l' or 'E/e'";;
         esac
         if [[ $TPROMPT == "E" ]] || [[ $TPROMPT == "e" ]]; then MENU=""; fi
         if [[ $TPROMPT == "D" ]] || [[ $TPROMPT == "d" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Deleting Thunderbird History........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$THISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            sqlite3 "$THISTORY" "delete from moz_historyvisits;"
            echo
            echo " Deleting Thunderbird Cookies........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$TCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            echo
            echo " Deleting Thunderbird Cache..........."
            echo " ====================================="
            if [[ $( ls -A "$TCACHEDF" ) ]]; then # Directory not empty
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$TCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$TCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               find "$TCACHEDF" -type f -delete
            fi
         fi
         if [[ $TPROMPT == "L" ]] || [[ $TPROMPT == "l" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Current Thunderbird History.........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$THISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Thunderbird Cookies.........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$TCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Thunderbird Cache..........."
            echo " ===================================="
            NUM=$( ls -1 "$TCACHEDF" | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh "$TCACHEDF"  )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         fi
         TPROMPT=""
      fi
   done
done
echo

Listed below is the Desktop Configuration file clear_browser_data.desktop for KDE in Gentoo Linux that I created in the ~/Desktop/ directory. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/broom.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be modified if the icon file were to be stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/clear_browser_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear browser caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear browser caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/broom.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=clear_browser_data
Name=clear_browser_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Listed below is the Desktop Configuration file clear_browser_data.desktop for LXDE in Lubuntu 18.04 that I created in the ~/Desktop/ directory. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/broom.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be modified if the icon file were to be stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/clear_browser_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear browser caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear browser caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/broom.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=clear_browser_data
Name=clear_browser_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-LXDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-LXDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Update April 5, 2020: I have modified Lines 24, 37 (a comment), 40 and 55 in the above script. The original Line 24 did not select the Chrome profile name correctly in another installation, the original Line 40 did not select the Firefox profile name correctly in another installation, and the search string for the Thunderbird profile was not tight enough in the original Line 55. The above script now works in three different installations.

Update April 25, 2020: Arrgghh! I installed Thunderbird in Lubuntu 18.04 and discovered that clear_browser_data.sh did not find the Thunderbird cached files to delete. Unlike Thunderbird in Gentoo Linux on my main laptop, the file profiles.ini for Thunderbird (but not Firefox) in my Lubuntu 18.04 installation contains a line ‘Locked=1‘, and the actual profile used by Thunderbird in Lubuntu 18.04 is the profile specified in the line before ‘Locked=1‘, not the profile specified in the line before ‘Default=1‘. Someone I know uses Ubuntu 16.04 and he tells me Firefox in his installation is like this too. So, for reasons I don’t know, profiles.ini contains ‘Locked=1‘ in some Firefox or Thunderbird installations but not in others. Anyway, I have now modified the script to cater for both cases. It checks if the profiles.ini files for Firefox and Thunderbird contain ‘Locked=1‘ and, if they do, finds the currently-used profile from the line before ‘Locked=1‘ instead of the line before ‘Default=1‘. The line numbers mentioned in my previous update will be different now.

My system upgrade procedure for Gentoo Linux

Gentoo Linux is a so-called ‘rolling-release’ distribution, and each Gentoo Linux user has their own preferred sequence of steps for keeping their installation up-to-date. Below is the general procedure I use for system maintenance of my Gentoo installations, which I perform approximately weekly.

1. Update the ebuilds on the machine (see Gentoo Wiki – Project:Portage/Sync)

root # emaint sync -a

If I were using the deprecated Portage sync method I would instead have used the following commands:

root # emerge --sync # Update the ebuilds from the main Portage tree
root # layman -S # Update the ebuilds from 3rd-party overlays

2. Upgrade the Portage package manager if the console output from Step 1 included a message telling me to upgrade portage

root # emerge -1v portage

3. As I use the eix and the mlocate utilities, update their data files

root # eix-update && updatedb

4. Check if there are any News items I have not read yet

root # eselect news list

5. Read new News items and make necessary changes, if any

root # eselect news read <n>

6. Perform a dry run for the upgrade of any packages in the World file that have new versions

root # emerge -uvpDN --with-bdeps=y @world

7. If no problems were flagged in Step 6, go to Step 9

8. Sort out any problem(s) flagged in Step 6 then go back to Step 6

9. Launch the upgrade of those packages in the World file that have new versions

root # emerge -uvDN --with-bdeps=y --keep-going @world

My decision on whether or not to include the option ‘--keep-going‘ will depend on the precise circumstances.

10. If Step 9 ran to completion successfully, go to Step 14

11. If Step 9 did not run to completion successfully and it appears the package that failed to merge will not cause further problems, go to Step 12, otherwise fix the problem(s)* and go back to Step 9

*Sometimes I find that one or more packages do not merge successfully during Step 9 but do merge successfully simply by repeating Step 9.

12. Resume the upgrade process

root # emerge --resume --skipfirst

13. If Step 12 did not run to completion successfully and it appears the package that failed to merge will not cause further problems, go back to Step 12, otherwise fix the problem(s) and go back to Step 9

14. Upgrade any packages that are still built against old versions of libraries if the console output from Step 9 or Step 12 includes a message telling me to do that

root # emerge @preserved-rebuild

15. If any problems remain, fix them and go back to Step 14

16. Scan libraries and binaries for missing shared library dependencies and re-merge any broken binaries and shared libraries

root # revdep-rebuild -i

Actually, I cannot recall the last time ‘revdep-rebuild‘ was needed, as Portage has improved so much over the years.

17. Remove outdated and unneeded packages

root # emerge --ask --depclean

18. Merge any configuration files

root # etc-update

I always check the differences between the listed existing and new configuration files before going ahead, and may edit the new configuration file if I deem it necessary.

19. As I use the mlocate utility I make sure its index file is bang up to date

root # updatedb

20. Optionally, I clear out any old source-code and binary packages

root # eclean-dist --deep

21. If I remember to do it, I check if there are any installed obsolete packages and then remove them

root # eix-test-obsolete

22. I make sure no temporary work files have been left around by any failed merges

root # rm -rf /usr/tmp/portage/*

Actually, I created a script in directory /etc/local.d/ to do this automatically when HDD free space gets low (see my blog post ‘Automatically clearing the /usr/tmp/portage directory in Gentoo Linux‘).

23. I wait for at least 24 hours (usually about a week) and then go to Step 1

Notes

Actually, I have added the option ‘--with-bdeps=y‘ to EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPS in the file /etc/portage/make.conf so I do not need to type that option every time.

One of my laptops has an older Core i7 CPU and I initially added ‘--jobs=8 --load-average=8‘ to EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS in order to merge packages in parallel, which speeds up upgrading. However, I found this slowed interactive use of the machine and therefore I changed the options to ‘--jobs=6 --load-average=6‘ which works a bit better on that machine.

In order to prevent the number of log files increasing indefinitely, I added ‘clean-logs‘ to FEATURES in the file /etc/portage/make.conf so that log files older than seven days are deleted automatically.

Replacing the KDE Plasma widget ‘Thermal Monitor’ with ‘Kargos’ in Gentoo Linux

The KDE Plasma widget Thermal Monitor has not been working correctly in my Gentoo Linux installations for quite some time. I notice Thermal Monitor’s repository has not been updated for a couple of years, despite several new versions of KDE Plasma having been released. Perhaps that is the reason.

On my laptop running the Stable Branch of Gentoo Linux, Thermal Monitor displays the GPU and HDD temperatures automatically but CPU temperatures were only displayed if I right-clicked on the widget and selected ‘Reload Temperature Sources’. I managed to get the widget to display the CPU temperatures automatically by editing the file ~/.local/share/plasma/plasmoids/org.kde.thermalMonitor/contents/ui/main.qml and commenting out a line as shown in the file excerpt below:

[...]
        onSourceAdded: {

            if (source.indexOf(lmSensorsStart) === 0 || source.indexOf(acpiStart) === 0) {
/*
 *                systemmonitorAvailableSources.push(source)
 */
                var staIndex = systemmonitorSourcesToAdd.indexOf(source)
                if (staIndex > -1) {
                    addToSourcesOfDatasource(systemmonitorDS, source)
                    systemmonitorSourcesToAdd.splice(staIndex, 1)
                }

            }

        }
[...]

The above modification is suggested in a comment to Issue #53 in the widget’s repository.

However, the above-mentioned edit does not fix Thermal Monitor on my laptop running the Testing Branch of Gentoo Linux, and Thermal Monitor no longer displays the GPU temperature either. Actually, the CPU’s four core temperatures and the GPU temperature are no longer listed in the Thermal Monitor configuration window, only a single CPU temperature. Not surprisingly, none of the suggested changes to the file ~/.local/share/plasma/plasmoids/org.kde.thermalMonitor/contents/ui/main.qml that I found in Web searches made a difference. However, while researching the problem I came across a Manjaro Forums post by user bogdancovaciu about the Kargos Plasma widget, a KDE Plasma port of GNOME Argos and OSX BitBar. Kargos enables you to create a Plasma widget that runs your own script, which can be written in any language, providing its output adheres to a specified format. I also found a repository named k-argos-plugins containing further example scripts for Kargos. As none of the solutions suggested for Thermal Monitor in that Manjaro thread worked for me, I decided to try the Kargos widget instead. It works a treat.

kargos widget on KDE Plasma Panel

kargos widget on KDE Plasma Panel of my Compal NBLB2 laptop

Below I explain what I did to install and configure the Kargos widget on my KDE Panel in Gentoo Linux (see screenshot). The packages lm-sensors and hddtemp were already installed in my case, but if they had not been, I would have needed to install and configure them, so I have included those steps below.

1. Install and configure lm-sensors

root # emerge lm-sensors
root # rc-update add lm_sensors default
root # sensors-detect

In my case sensors-detect created the file /etc/modules-load.d/lm_sensors.conf containing only the following:

# Generated by sensors-detect on Sun Oct 27 03:07:08 2019
coretemp

2. Start lm-sensors now, rather than rebooting

root # /etc/init.d/lm_sensors start

3. I wanted to use the nc command in my shell script for Kargos, so I installed its package

root # emerge netcat

4. Install and configure hddtemp

root # emerge hddtemp
root # rc-update add hddtemp default

Specify in the config file /etc/conf.d/hddtemp which drives to check:

# Copyright 1999-2012 Gentoo Foundation
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

# the hddtemp executable
HDDTEMP_EXEC=/usr/sbin/hddtemp

# various options to pass to the daemon
HDDTEMP_OPTS="--listen=127.0.0.1"

# a list of drives to check
HDDTEMP_DRIVES="/dev/sda"

5. Start hddtemp now, rather than rebooting

root # /etc/init.d/hddtemp start

6. Install Kargos

On the KDE Plasma Desktop, click on the ‘Desktop’ menu icon (the three horizontal lines in the top right corner of the Desktop) and select: ‘Unlock Widgets’ > ‘Add Widgets…’ > ‘Get New Widgets…’ > ‘Download New Plasma Widgets’. Search for, and install, ‘kargos’ widget.

7. Create the Bash script ~/temperatures.3s.sh containing the following:

#!/bin/bash
temp=$(sensors | grep -oP 'Core.*?\+\K[0-9.]+')
temp0=$(sensors | grep 'Core 0' | cut -c '16-17')
temp1=$(sensors | grep 'Core 1' | cut -c '16-17')
temp2=$(sensors | grep 'Core 2' | cut -c '16-17')
temp3=$(sensors | grep 'Core 3' | cut -c '16-17')
hdd_temp=$(nc localhost 7634 | cut -c '33-34')
gpu_temp=$(sensors | grep -A 2 'radeon' | grep 'temp1' | cut -c '16-17')
echo "<br><font size='1'>CPU1&nbsp;&nbsp;CPU2&nbsp;&nbsp;CPU3&nbsp;&nbsp;CPU4&nbsp;&nbsp;GPU&nbsp;&nbsp;HDD</font><br>${temp0%%.*}°&nbsp;&nbsp;${temp1%%.*}°&nbsp;&nbsp;${temp2%%.*}°&nbsp;&nbsp;${temp3%%.*}°&nbsp;${gpu_temp}°&nbsp;${hdd_temp}°| font=Hack-Regular size=10"
# Uncomment the lines below if you want to be able to click on the kargos widget and display a pop-up TOP
#echo "---"
#TOP_OUTPUT=$(top -b -n 1 | head -n 20 | awk 1 ORS="\\\\n")
#echo "$TOP_OUTPUT | font=monospace iconName=htop"

The script above is specifically for the temperature sensors in my Clevo NBLB2 laptop. To find out which temperatures are available, and which characters to extract, use the following command:

root # sensors

Don’t forget to make the script executable:

user $ chmod +x ~/temperatures.3s.sh

Note that the ‘.3s‘ in the script name is optional but, if included, will override the kargos configuration (see further on) and run the script every 3 seconds. I could have specified another frequency, such as ‘.5s‘ or whatever.

8. Add the kargos widget to the KDE Panel.

9. Right-click on the kargos widget on the KDE Panel and select ‘Configure kargos…’.

10. Configure the kargos widget

In the first box in the configuration window, enter the full path of the script:

/home/fitzcarraldo/temperatures.3s.sh

In the second box leave ‘Interval in seconds’ as ‘1‘. This is overridden anyway if the script filename includes the interval.

In the third box leave ‘Rotation delay in seconds’ as ‘6‘.

On the KDE Plasma Desktop, click on the Desktop menu icon (three horizontal lines) and select: ‘Lock Widgets’.

11. Depending on the font configuration for the KDE Desktop, it may be necessary to edit the Bash script ~/temperatures.3s.sh to change the font name or size, the number of non-breaking spaces between the names displayed on the top line, and the number of non-breaking spaces between the temperature values displayed on the bottom line.

How to enable a Windows application in WINE to access a Samba share on a NAS (continued)

In a 2016 post ‘How to enable a Windows application in WINE to access a Samba share on a NAS‘ I explained how to mount in Linux a networked SMB shared folder so that a Windows application running via WINE could access the folder as Drive Y: in order to open and save files in it. In that blog post I also listed a couple of Bash scripts to facilitate the mounting and unmounting of the SMB share for the WINEPREFIX used for the Windows application (~/.wine-pdfxve6 in the example I gave for PDF-XChange Editor, Version 6). However, as I have several Windows applications running via WINE on my machines, and I have used a different WINEPREFIX for each of them, I wanted to be able to mount the SMB share for whichever of those applications I happen to be using at the time. Therefore I modified the original Bash scripts as shown below. The Desktop Configuration files (.desktop files) to launch the scripts are essentially the same as in my earlier blog post; I have just removed the references to the specific Windows application. The four modified files are listed below. Obviously change the username, SMB share name and SMB server name to suit your own situation.

1. Bash script ~/mount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share.sh

#!/bin/bash
mount_share () {
    echo
    echo "Enter your Linux account password below..."
    echo
    sudo ln -s /media/bsfnas1/brianfolder ~/$PREFIX/dosdevices/y:
    sudo mount.cifs //bsfnas1/brianfolder/ -o user=brianfolder,pass=enricocaruso,uid=$(id -u),gid=$(id -g) ~/$PREFIX/dosdevices/y:
}
echo
echo "This will mount the Samba share folder brianfolder on the bsfnas1 machine."
echo
echo
echo "== Select which WINEPREFIX you wish to use =="
echo
ls ~/.wine-* | grep .wine | awk -F'/' '{print NR " " substr($4, 1, length($4)-1)}'
NUMPREFIXES=$(ls ~/.wine-* | grep .wine | wc -l)
echo
read -p "Enter number (q to abort) and press ENTER: " CHOICE
if [ "$CHOICE" != "q" ] && [ "$CHOICE" -gt 0 ] && [ "$CHOICE" -le $NUMPREFIXES ]; then
    PREFIX=$(ls ~/.wine-* | grep .wine | awk -F'/' '{print NR " " substr($4, 1, length($4)-1)}' | grep "$CHOICE " | awk -F' ' '{print $2}')
    echo
    if [ ! -e ~/$PREFIX/dosdevices/y: ]; then
        mount_share
    else
        echo -n "~/$PREFIX/dosdevices/y: already exists. Is it OK to proceed anyway (y/n)? "
        read ANSWER
        if [ $ANSWER = "y" ]; then
            rm ~/$PREFIX/dosdevices/y:
            mount_share
        fi
    fi
    echo
fi
if grep -q "/media/bsfnas1/brianfolder" /proc/mounts; then
    echo "Samba share //bsfnas1/brianfolder is mounted for WINEPREFIX ~/$PREFIX ."
else
    echo "Samba share //bsfnas1/brianfolder is not mounted."
fi
echo
echo "You may now close this window."
read ANSWER
exit

2. Bash script ~/umount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share.sh

#!/bin/bash
echo
echo "This will unmount the Samba share folder brianfolder on the bsfnas1 machine."
echo
echo "Enter your Linux account password below..."
echo
sudo umount ~/.wine-*/dosdevices/y: 2>/dev/null
echo
if grep -q "/media/bsfnas1/brianfolder" /proc/mounts; then
  echo "Samba share //bsfnas1/brianfolder is mounted."
else
  echo "Samba share //bsfnas1/brianfolder is not mounted."
fi
echo
echo "You may now close this window."
exit

3. Desktop Configuration file ~/Desktop/mount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share.desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Mount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
Comment=Mount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
Exec=sh /home/fitzcarraldo/mount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Mount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
GenericName=Mount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
Icon=media-mount
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=mount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share
Name=mount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share
Path=
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

4. Desktop Configuration file ~/Desktop/umount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share.desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Unmount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
Comment=Unmount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
Exec=sh /home/fitzcarraldo/umount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Unmount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
GenericName=Unmount bsfnas1 brianfolder share for current WINEPREFIX
Icon=media-eject
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=umount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share
Name=umount_bsfnas1_brianfolder_share
Path=
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Now when I double-click on the icon to mount the SMB share for a Windows application running via WINE, a terminal window pops up displaying the WINEPREFIXs currently installed on my machine:


This will mount the Samba share folder brianfolder on the bsfnas1 machine.


== Select which WINEPREFIX you wish to use ==

1 .wine-3dimviewer
2 .wine-myphoneexplorer
3 .wine-nbtscan
4 .wine-pdfxve6
5 .wine-PortableApps
6 .wine-radiant
7 .wine-symmetry
8 .wine-visio
9 .wine-xnviewmp

Enter number (q to abort) and press ENTER: 

Let’s say I want to use the Windows application XnViewMP. I would enter ‘9’ and press ‘Enter’. The rest of the interaction should be obvious:


This will mount the Samba share folder brianfolder on the bsfnas1 machine.


== Select which WINEPREFIX you wish to use ==

1 .wine-3dimviewer
2 .wine-myphoneexplorer
3 .wine-nbtscan
4 .wine-pdfxve6
5 .wine-PortableApps
6 .wine-radiant
7 .wine-symmetry
8 .wine-visio
9 .wine-xnviewmp

Enter number (q to abort) and press ENTER: 9

~/.wine-xnviewmp/dosdevices/y: already exists. Is it OK to proceed anyway (y/n)? y

Enter your Linux account password below...

[sudo] password for fitzcarraldo: 

Samba share //bsfnas1/brianfolder is mounted for WINEPREFIX ~/.wine-xnviewmp .

You may now close this window.

Henceforth the Windows application XnViewMP will be able to access the Y: drive which is actually the SMB share //bsfnas1/brianfolder.

Once I have finished using the application, I just double-click on the the icon to unmount the SMB share, and a terminal window pops up displaying the following:


This will unmount the Samba share folder brianfolder on the bsfnas1 machine.

Enter your Linux account password below...

[sudo] password for fitzcarraldo: 

Samba share //bsfnas1/brianfolder is not mounted.

You may now close this window.

Once I have entered my Linux password for the local machine, the script will unmount the SMB share and the terminal window will close automatically if you have configured the Desktop Configuration file by right-clicking on the icon and unticking ‘Do not close when command exits’ in KDE, ‘Keep terminal window open after command execution’ in LXDE, or similar in other desktop environments.

Note: If you use Microsoft Office via WINE, you also might be interested in a comment on my earlier blog post about a Microsoft Office problem in saving files to a remote SMB share.

Creating a RAID of USB pendrives in Linux

USB hub and USB pendrives used as RAID10 with my laptop

USB hub and pendrives used as RAID10 with my laptop.

If you’re not familiar with the RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) concept and the different types of array, the article ‘RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10 Explained with Diagrams‘ gives a quick summary (and links to another article ‘RAID 2, RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 6 Explained with Diagram‘). Another helpful article is ‘RAID Levels Explained‘.

A few years ago I came across a YouTube video by a Mac user, titled ‘Use a bunch of USB Flash drives in a RAID array‘. Purely out of interest he had experimented with creating RAIDs using USB pendrives (also known as ‘USB flash drives’ or ‘USB memory sticks’). The creation of a RAID using USB pendrives for his Apple Macs was very easy, and, since then, I had wanted to try this using one of my laptops running Linux, just to satisfy my curiosity. I have previously created software RAIDs in a Linux server using internal 3.5-inch HDDs, for the root, home and swap partitions, and for file storage partitions for a Cloud server and NAS. However, I had never created a RAID using external USB drives. This week I happened to have a spare four-port USB 3.0 hub and four old 4GB USB 2.0 pendrives, so I finally got the chance to create a RAID with USB pendrives (see photo). I decided to use my main laptop, which has Gentoo Linux with OpenRC, elogind, eudev and KDE installed. That installation does not have an initramfs so I did not need to rebuild an initramfs to assemble the RAID. Anyway, early assembly of a RAID by an initramfs would only be needed if the RAID were being used to hold the directories required by the OS (the root partition, for example). As my RAID would be pluggable external storage, I wanted to mount it manually rather than adding it to /etc/fstab to be mounted automatically at boot. As I had not used a RAID on this laptop before, I had not enabled the RAID drivers in the kernel configuration, so I needed to do that and rebuild the kernel. I opted to make the RAID drivers kernel modules rather than built into the kernel, so that I could load only the relevant module for whichever type of RAID I wished to create.

I had to decide which filesystem to use in the RAID. I have always used ext4 in my RAIDs using HDDs. However, F2FS is an interesting filesystem developed by Samsung for devices using flash memory, such as SD cards, USB pendrives and SSDs. So I decided to format the pendrives to use F2FS, and create an F2FS RAID. As I had not used F2FS previously on this laptop, I had not enabled the F2FS driver in the kernel configuration, so I enabled the F2FS driver in the kernel at the same time as I enabled the RAID drivers. As with the RAID drivers, I opted to make the F2FS driver a kernel module rather than built into the kernel, so that I could load it and unload it whenever I wanted.

Not only did it turn out to be easy to create a RAID using USB pendrives, I found that the Linux RAID module gets loaded automatically when I connect the USB hub. Furthermore the RAID is recognised by KDE and listed under ‘Places’ in the Dolphin file manager’s windows, which I can click on to mount and unmount the RAID. So I did not even need to configure the OS to load the RAID module at boot (the OS does not load the module automatically at boot if the hub is not connected).

DigitalOcean produced a good tutorial on creating RAIDs in Ubuntu: ‘How To Create RAID Arrays with mdadm on Ubuntu 16.04‘. The procedure is essentially the same in Gentoo Linux, the only differences being the path of the mdadm.conf file and the method of updating an initramfs (which I did not need to do anyway in this particular installation).

As I had four spare USB pendrives and a four-port hub, I decided to create a RAID10 array. Below is a summary of the steps I took.

1. I rebuilt the kernel in order to build the RAID and F2FS modules. The relevant kernel configuration parameters I set are shown below:

root # grep RAID /usr/src/linux/.config | grep -v "#"
CONFIG_MD_RAID0=m
CONFIG_MD_RAID1=m
CONFIG_MD_RAID10=m
CONFIG_MD_RAID456=m
CONFIG_ASYNC_RAID6_RECOV=m
CONFIG_RAID6_PQ=m
root # grep F2FS /usr/src/linux/.config | grep -v "#"
CONFIG_F2FS_FS=m
CONFIG_F2FS_STAT_FS=y
CONFIG_F2FS_FS_XATTR=y
CONFIG_F2FS_FS_POSIX_ACL=y
root # uname -a
Linux clevow230ss 4.19.72-gentoo #2 SMP Tue Oct 15 01:36:57 BST 2019 x86_64 Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4810MQ CPU @ 2.80GHz GenuineIntel GNU/Linux

2. I installed the mdadm tool:

root # eix -I mdadm
[I] sys-fs/mdadm
     Available versions:  4.1^t {static}
     Installed versions:  4.1^t(01:52:17 15/10/19)(-static)
     Homepage:            https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/utils/mdadm/mdadm.git/
     Description:         Tool for running RAID systems - replacement for the raidtools

3. I installed the F2FS tools:

root # eix -I f2fs
[I] sys-fs/f2fs-tools
     Available versions:  1.10.0(0/4) 1.11.0-r1(0/5) 1.12.0-r1(0/6) ~1.13.0(0/6) {selinux}
     Installed versions:  1.12.0-r1(0/6)(02:05:17 15/10/19)(-selinux)
     Homepage:            https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/jaegeuk/f2fs-tools.git/about/
     Description:         Tools for Flash-Friendly File System (F2FS)

4. I rebooted the laptop.

5. The f2fs module was not loaded automatically, therefore I loaded it manually and edited /etc/conf.d/modules to add the module name so that it would be loaded automatically in future:

root # modprobe f2fs
root # lsmod | grep f2fs
f2fs                  466944  0
root # nano /etc/conf.d/modules
root # grep ^modules /etc/conf.d/modules
modules="fuse bnep rfcomm hidp uvcvideo cifs mmc_block snd-seq-midi iptable_raw xt_CT uinput f2fs"

6. I plugged the four USB pendrives into the USB hub, and connected the hub to the laptop.

7. I launched GParted, deleted the existing partition on each pendrive (three had been formatted as FAT32, one as exFAT), reformatted them individually as F2FS and gave them each a label (USBPD01 to USBPD04). I could have done all that from the command line but it is easier using GParted, and I like an easy life.

Note that the mdadm USE flag in Gentoo Linux needed to be set when GParted was merged, so GParted would need to be re-merged with USE="mdadm" if that is not the case. Furthermore, GParted will only include F2FS in the list of available filesystems if either the F2FS module is loaded or the F2FS driver has been built into the kernel.

8. I ascertained the names of the USB pendrives:

root # lsblk -o NAME,SIZE,FSTYPE,TYPE,MOUNTPOINT
NAME     SIZE FSTYPE TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda    698.7G        disk
├─sda1   128M ext2   part
├─sda2    16G swap   part [SWAP]
├─sda5   128G ext4   part /
├─sda6   256G ext4   part /home
└─sda7 298.5G ntfs   part /media/NTFS
sdb      3.8G        disk
└─sdb1   3.8G f2fs   part
sdc      3.8G        disk
└─sdc1   3.8G f2fs   part
sdd      3.8G        disk
└─sdd1   3.8G f2fs   part
sde      3.8G        disk
└─sde1   3.8G f2fs   part

As you can see above, the four USB pendrives are sdb to sde.

9. I loaded the raid10 module:

root # modprobe raid10
root # lsmod | grep raid
raid10                 57344  1

10. I created the RAID10 array:

root # mdadm --create --verbose /dev/md0 --level=10 --raid-devices=4 /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd /dev/sde
mdadm: layout defaults to n2
mdadm: layout defaults to n2
mdadm: chunk size defaults to 512K
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdb
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdb but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdc
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdc but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdd
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdd but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sde
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sde but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: size set to 3913728K
Continue creating array? y
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.

It takes a while for the RAID to be created, so I checked progress periodically as follows:

root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      [>....................]  resync =  2.8% (222272/7827456) finish=23.8min speed=5308K/sec
      
unused devices: <none>
root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      [========>............]  resync = 44.0% (3449856/7827456) finish=12.9min speed=5637K/sec
      
unused devices: <none>
root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      [==============>......]  resync = 74.0% (5797760/7827456) finish=5.9min speed=5698K/sec
      
unused devices: <none>
root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      
unused devices: <none>

11. I formatted the RAID:

root # sudo mkfs.f2fs -f /dev/md0

        F2FS-tools: mkfs.f2fs Ver: 1.12.0 (2018-11-12)

Info: Disable heap-based policy
Info: Debug level = 0
Info: Trim is enabled
Info: Segments per section = 1
Info: Sections per zone = 1
Info: sector size = 512
Info: total sectors = 15654912 (7644 MB)
Info: zone aligned segment0 blkaddr: 512
Info: format version with
  "Linux version 4.19.72-gentoo (root@clevow230ss) (gcc version 8.3.0 (Gentoo 8.3.0-r1 p1.1)) #2 SMP Tue Oct 15 01:36:57 BST 2019"
Info: [/dev/md0] Discarding device
Info: This device doesn't support BLKSECDISCARD
Info: This device doesn't support BLKDISCARD
Info: Overprovision ratio = 2.300%
Info: Overprovision segments = 179 (GC reserved = 94)
Info: format successful

The option ‘-f‘ forces mkfs to overwrite any existing filesystem. (I believe the same option is ‘-F‘ in Ubuntu, rather than ‘-f‘.)

12. I created a mount point so I could mount the RAID from the command line if I wanted:

root # mkdir -p /mnt/md0

13. I mounted the RAID from the command line and checked its size. In the case of RAID10 I would expect the size to be double the size of one of the formatted USB pendrives, i.e. approximtely 2 x 3.8GB = 7.6GB):

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # df -h -x devtmpfs -x tmpfs
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/root       126G   36G   84G  31% /
/dev/sda6       252G  137G  103G  57% /home
/dev/sda7       299G  257G   43G  86% /media/NTFS
/dev/md0        7.5G  419M  7.1G   6% /mnt/md0
root # blkid | grep -v sda
/dev/md0: UUID="d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272" TYPE="f2fs"
/dev/sdb: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="45a488a0-5126-0b95-0c28-eb1f743f77c7" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdc: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="ef7de228-cf4d-c6bf-c74a-462a0e27f8bd" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdd: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="b5dd5c41-3ab2-fa38-bd28-0b965883775c" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sde: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="16149e7e-5a96-ece6-65ba-25721bcee49f" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"

So /dev/md0 looked correct.

14. I checked that nothing was already configured in mdadm.conf and added the array’s details to it:

root # grep -v "#" /etc/mdadm.conf
root # mdadm --detail --scan | sudo tee -a /etc/mdadm.conf
ARRAY /dev/md0 metadata=1.2 name=clevow230ss:0 UUID=d1288120:a1614809:3e89bb5f:967df69b
root # grep -v "#" /etc/mdadm.conf
ARRAY /dev/md0 metadata=1.2 name=clevow230ss:0 UUID=d1288120:a1614809:3e89bb5f:967df69b

15. As the RAID will have only a partition for file storage, and as the RAID array will not always be connected to the laptop, it does not need to be assembled automatically early during boot, so there is no need to add mdadm.conf to an initramfs (which this laptop does not have anyway) and no need to specify /dev/md0 in /etc/fstab to be mounted at boot.

16. I left the USB hub connected to the laptop and rebooted.

17. I checked that the modules were loaded at boot:

root # lsmod | grep raid
raid10                 57344  1
root # lsmod | grep f2fs
f2fs                  466944  0

18. I checked that the RAID had been assembled correctly at boot:

root # blkid | grep -v sda
/dev/sdb: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="45a488a0-5126-0b95-0c28-eb1f743f77c7" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdc: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="ef7de228-cf4d-c6bf-c74a-462a0e27f8bd" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdd: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="b5dd5c41-3ab2-fa38-bd28-0b965883775c" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/md0: UUID="d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272" TYPE="f2fs"
/dev/sde: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="16149e7e-5a96-ece6-65ba-25721bcee49f" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"

19. I rebooted a few times with and without the USB hub connected. The module raid10 only gets loaded if the USB hub is connected. If I reboot without the hub connected, raid10 is no longer loaded automatically at boot. If I plug in the hub after the laptop has booted, raid10 gets loaded and the RAID array is recognised by the OS.

20. I mounted the RAID from the command line and copied a file to it as root user:

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/md0
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:40 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 ..
root # cp ./Paper_sheet_sizes.png /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/md0
total 268
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root   4096 Oct 15 08:07 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root   4096 Oct 15 07:42 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 265760 Oct 15 08:07 Paper_sheet_sizes.png
root # umount /dev/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/md0
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 ..

However, /mnt/md0/ is owned by the root user, so user fitzcarraldo cannot copy files into it. Therefore I changed the ownership:

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/
total 28
drwxr-xr-x  7 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root root 4096 Oct  6 08:31 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root root    0 Apr  9  2015 .keep
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Apr 19  2015 cdrom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Jan 16  2017 floppy
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Oct 15 08:07 md0
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Apr 17  2015 pendrive
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Mar 18  2016 usbstick
root # chown fitzcarraldo:fitzcarraldo /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/
total 28
drwxr-xr-x  7 root         root         4096 Oct 15 07:42 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root         root         4096 Oct  6 08:31 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root         root            0 Apr  9  2015 .keep
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Apr 19  2015 cdrom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Jan 16  2017 floppy
drwxr-xr-x  2 fitzcarraldo fitzcarraldo 4096 Oct 15 08:07 md0
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Apr 17  2015 pendrive
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Mar 18  2016 usbstick
root # umount /dev/md0

21. ‘Places’ in Dolphin shows /mnt/md0 as ‘7.5 GiB Hard Drive’.

22. I can still mount the RAID from the command line:

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # df -h /dev/md0
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/md0        7.5G  420M  7.1G   6% /mnt/md0
root # umount /dev/md0

23. If I want to use the RAID in KDE I must use Dolphin to mount it, not mount it from the command line. To do this I click on the RAID ‘7.5 GiB Hard Drive’ listed under ‘Places’, and a window pop-ups prompting me to enter the root user’s password.

If I mount /dev/md0 via Dolphin instead of via the command line, KDE mounts it on a different directory:

root # df -h /run/media/fitzcarraldo/d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272/
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/md0        7.5G  420M  7.1G   6% /run/media/fitzcarraldo/d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272

If I want to unmount it, I right-click on the RAID in ‘Places’ and select ‘Unmount’ in the right-click menu. Once it has been unmounted, I can unplug the hub from the laptop. If I plug the hub back into the laptop, the RAID is detected and can be mounted as usual.

So, it works! A USB hub and pendrives are a handy way to:

  • experiment with creating the various types of RAID;
  • compare the capacity of the RAID with the capacity of the USB pendrives used;
  • measure the time to write and read a large file to/from the RAID and compare those times with the time to write and read the same file to/from a single USB pendrive of the same model.

Firewall zones (profiles) in Linux, and how to switch them automatically if you use UFW

Firstly, a note on terminology: UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall) and its two GUI front-ends Gufw and UFW Frontends use the term ‘application profile’ to refer to a pre-configured set of rules specified in a file. Files containing UFW application profiles are placed in the directory /etc/ufw/applications.d/. An application profile for SMB, for example, enables the root user to use the UFW command ‘ufw allow Samba‘ (‘ufw allow CIFS‘ in Gentoo Linux) rather than having to enter UFW commands specifying the precise ports and network protocols that SMB uses. However, this blog post is not about UFW’s application profiles; it is about what Gufw calls ‘profiles’ and firewalld calls ‘zones’.

In essence a profile/zone is a collection of firewall policies and rules. Both Gufw and firewalld include the concept of a ‘zone’, although Gufw uses the term ‘profile’ rather than ‘zone’. UFW Frontends does not have the concept of a ‘zone’; rules entered via UFW Frontends apply to any network to which you connect your laptop. The ability to define different zones for different networks is handy. For example, you can have certain policies and rules when your laptop is connected to your home network, and different policies and rules when your laptop is connected to the network in a café, hotel, airport or other public place.

An attractive feature of firewalld when used in conjunction with NetworkManager and KDE Plasma is that it is possible to use the desktop environment’s network management module (‘System Settings’ > ‘Connections’) to specify a particular firewalld zone for a particular network connection. For example, let’s say you used firewalld to specify certain policies and rules for a zone you named ‘office’, and you then specified in the System Settings – Connections GUI that a connection named ‘ACM’ should use the zone ‘office’. Thereafter, whenever you connect your laptop to the network named ‘ACM’, firewalld will use the policies and rules you previously configured for the zone ‘office’.

Unlike firewalld, Gufw does not have the ability to switch profiles automatically according to which network the laptop is connected. You have to select manually the profile you wish to use. You would launch Gufw prior to connecting to, for example, your office’s network, select the profile ‘Office’ (or whatever you have named it), then connect your laptop to that network.

I think many people would be satisfied with the functionality currently provided by Gufw. I could use the Gufw GUI to create Gufw profiles with names such as ‘Home’, ‘HomeDave’, ‘Public’, ‘HQoffice’, ‘USoffice’, ‘PestanaRio’ and so on, and specify the different policies and rules I want for each profile. At home I would launch Gufw on my laptop and select the Home profile then connect to my home network; in the office at work I would launch Gufw on my laptop and select the HQoffice profile then connect to the office network; at my friend Dave’s house I would launch Gufw on my laptop and select the HomeDave profile then connect to the house network; and so on. Nevertheless I do see the attraction of automated zone switching, as provided by firewalld in conjunction with NetworkManager and KDE. It would be handy if my laptop could switch automatically to the Home profile when my laptop connected to the network at my home with the name ‘BTHub5-8EUQ’, automatically switch to the HQoffice profile when my laptop connected to the network named ‘HQ-Office2’ in the office, and so on.

I use UFW on my two laptops running Gentoo Linux. The package ufw-frontends is also installed but normally I use UFW directly via the command line. However I wanted to learn about zones/profiles while using UFW, and I also wanted to see if I could automate the switching of zones without resorting to installing firewalld. NetworkManager has the ability to launch ‘hook’ scripts when certain things happen — when a network connection changes, for example — and this seemed to me to be a way of switching profiles automatically.

I had not used Gufw before, so I decided to install it. A package is available in many Linux distributions but there is no ebuild for Gufw in Gentoo’s main Portage tree and I could not find an up-to-date ebuild for it in any Portage overlays. Therefore I created the ebuild for net-firewall/gufw-19.10.0 shown below. It probably needs improving, but it does install a working Gufw in Gentoo Linux.

# Copyright 1999-2019 Gentoo Foundation
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
# $Header: $

EAPI=7
PYTHON_COMPAT=( python3_{5,6,7} )
DISTUTILS_IN_SOURCE_BUILD=1

inherit distutils-r1

MY_PN="gui-ufw"
MY_PV="$(ver_cut 1-2)"

DESCRIPTION="GUI frontend for managing ufw."
HOMEPAGE="https://gufw.org/"
SRC_URI="https://launchpad.net/${MY_PN}/trunk/${MY_PV}/+download/${MY_PN}-${PV}.tar.gz"

LICENSE="GPL-3"
SLOT="0"
KEYWORDS="~amd64"
IUSE=""

DEPEND="dev-python/python-distutils-extra"
RDEPEND="net-firewall/ufw
	dev-python/netifaces
	dev-python/pygobject:3
	net-libs/webkit-gtk[introspection]
	sys-auth/elogind
	sys-auth/polkit
	x11-libs/gtk+:3[introspection]
	x11-themes/gnome-icon-theme-symbolic
"
S=${WORKDIR}/${MY_PN}-${PV}

pkg_postinst() {
	sed '/dist-packages/d' -i /usr/bin/gufw-pkexec
	sed -E '/\/share\//d' -i /usr/bin/gufw-pkexec
	local PYTHONVERSION="$(python -c 'import sys; print("{}.{}".format(sys.version_info.major, sys.version_info.minor))')"
	sed -E "s|python3\.[0-9]|python${PYTHONVERSION}|g" -i /usr/bin/gufw-pkexec
	sed -E 's|\/lib\/|\/lib64\/|g' -i /usr/bin/gufw-pkexec
}

How To Set Up a Firewall with GUFW on Linux‘ is a good tutorial on Gufw.

As I had not used Gufw previously, I had to play around with it to understand better its functional design. I found that if I configure rules directly via UFW on the command line without using Gufw, Gufw does not allow me to edit those rules (but does allow me to delete them) and those rules exist whichever Gufw profile is selected in the Gufw GUI. Gufw profiles are stored in files named ‘/etc/gufw/*.profile‘ (e.g. /etc/gufw/Home.profile) and these files will not include UFW rules entered via the command line. On the other hand, UFW rules created via the Gufw GUI apply solely to the currently-selected Gufw profile, which is what I would have expected. In other words, I can create a different set of policies and rules in each Gufw profile. Therefore I believe Gufw profiles (as distinct from UFW application profiles) are basically analogous to firewalld’s zones. It also appears to me that Gufw maintains configuration files specifying policies and rules independently of UFW, which Gufw then applies to UFW. In other words, if you are a Gufw user you should not use UFW directly to configure policies and rules, otherwise Gufw’s configuration files will not include what you did directly using UFW. To reiterate, use only Gufw or only UFW, not both.

The current Gufw profile’s name is listed in the file /etc/gufw/gufw.cfg. For example, I currently have the Home profile selected in the Gufw GUI, and the file gufw.cfg contains the following:

[GufwConfiguration]
profile = Home
windowwidth = 542
windowheight = 530
confirmdetelerule = yes

If I examine the contents of the file /etc/gufw/Home.profle I see that it contains the UFW policies and rules I specified for the Gufw Home profile:

[fwBasic]
status = enabled
incoming = deny
outgoing = allow
routed = disabled

[Rule0]
ufw_rule = 137,138/udp ALLOW IN 192.168.1.0/24
description = Samba
command = /usr/sbin/ufw allow in proto udp from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 137,138
policy = allow
direction = in
protocol = 
from_ip = 192.168.1.0/24
from_port = 
to_ip = 
to_port = 137,138/udp
iface = 
routed = 
logging = 

[Rule1]
ufw_rule = 139,445/tcp ALLOW IN 192.168.1.0/24
description = Samba
command = /usr/sbin/ufw allow in proto tcp from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 139,445
policy = allow
direction = in
protocol = 
from_ip = 192.168.1.0/24
from_port = 
to_ip = 
to_port = 139,445/tcp
iface = 
routed = 
logging =

I also notice that the other Gufw profiles can differ. For example, my Office.profile file contains the following:

[fwBasic]
status = enabled
incoming = deny
outgoing = allow
routed = allow

The profile name listed in gufw.cfg gets changed when the user changes the profile using the Gufw GUI. It appears to me that only at the point in time when the user selects a certain Gufw profile in the Gufw GUI does Gufw parse the applicable *.profile file and issue commands to UFW to implement the policies and rules specified in the *.profile file.

Initially I tried to automate the process of changing the Gufw profile by doing the following:

  1. I created a NetworkManager Dispatcher hook script to:

    1. detect when the laptop connects to a network;

    2. determine whether the network is at my home, at my workplace or in a public place (café, airport or wherever) by looking at the connection name;

    3. edit gufw.cfg to change the name of the Gufw profile according to the network connected.
  2. I configured KDE to launch Gufw automatically at login, hoping that would implement the Gufw profile specified in gufw.cfg.

When I connected the laptop to various networks, Gufw did indeed show the name of the profile selected by the NetworkManager Dispatcher hook script, but the associated Gufw profile’s rules had not been applied. They were only applied if I clicked on the ‘Profile’ pull-down menu in Gufw, selected a different Gufw profile, then re-selected the desired Gufw profile. Therefore driving Gufw from a NetworkManager Dispatcher hook script is not possible. This is a pity, as Gufw is an easy way to manage UFW from a GUI; it allows the user to create, delete and edit zones (Gufw profiles) and to select them manually. What Gufw doesn’t do is enable the user to associate those zones with connection names, nor trigger specific zone automatically based on the selected network connection. firewalld, on the other hand, does enable the user to do both those things.

As my attempt at automating the switching of zones in Gufw had failed, I decided to create a NetworkManager Dispatcher hook script to switch zones automatically by using UFW commands. Initially I though about creating a bespoke UFW application profile for each zone and allowing/denying those in the script, but it is actually easier to use the fundamental UFW commands in the script, especially as UFW commands are relatively easy to understand. Also, this approach means everything is in a single file, which facilitates configuration. I can simply edit the script in order to: a) add or delete a zone; b) change a zone’s name; c) change policies and rules for a zone; d) add or delete a connection; e) change the name of a connection; f) change the zone a connection uses. Granted, editing a script is not as user-friendly as using the firewalld GUI to configure a zone and then using KDE Plasma’s system settings module Connections to specify that zone for a specific connection, but my script is not particularly difficult to understand and edit. And by using such a script I can continue to use UFW rather than installing firewalld and having to learn how to use it.

My NetworkManager Dispatcher hook script /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/20_ufw-zones is listed below. In the main body of the script I define the zone I wish to use for each connection, and in the function select_zone I define the policies and rules I want each zone to use.

#!/bin/bash
INTERFACE=$1
STATUS=$2
WIRED=enp4s0f1
WIFI=wlp3s0

CT_helper_rule() {
    echo "# The following is needed to enable Samba commands to" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo "# work properly for broadcast NetBIOS name resolution" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo "#"  >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo "# raw table rules" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo "*raw" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo ":OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo "-F OUTPUT" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo "-A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
    echo "COMMIT" >> /etc/ufw/before.rules
}
 
select_zone() {
    ufw --force reset
    ufw --force enable
    ZONE=$1
    case "$ZONE" in
    'Home')
        ufw default deny incoming
        ufw default allow outgoing
        #
        # Rules for SMB
        ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 137,138 proto udp
        ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 139,445 proto tcp
        CT_helper_rule
        #
        # Rules for KDEConnect
        ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 1714:1764 proto udp
        ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 1714:1764 proto tcp
    ;;
    'Office')
        ufw default deny incoming
        ufw default allow outgoing
    ;;
    'Public')
        ufw default reject incoming
        ufw default allow outgoing
    ;;
    'JohnsHouse')
        ufw default deny incoming
        ufw default allow outgoing
        #
        # Rules for SMB
        ufw allow from 192.168.42.0/24 to any port 137,138 proto udp
        ufw allow from 192.168.42.0/24 to any port 139,445 proto tcp
        CT_helper_rule
        #
        # Rules for KDEConnect
        ufw allow from 192.168.42.0/24 to any port 1714:1764 proto udp
        ufw allow from 192.168.42.0/24 to any port 1714:1764 proto tcp
    ;;
    esac
    ufw --force reload
    rm /etc/ufw/*.rules.20* # Delete backups of *.rules files ufw makes every time it is reset
    echo -n `date +"[%F %T %Z]"` >> /var/log/ufw-zones.log
    echo " Zone $ZONE selected for connection $ACTIVE on interface $INTERFACE." >> /var/log/ufw-zones.log
}
 
# Check if either the wired or wireless interface is up
if [ "$INTERFACE" = "$WIRED" -o "$INTERFACE" = "$WIFI" ] && [ "$STATUS" = "up" ]; then
 
    # Check if a single connection is active
    if [ `nmcli c | grep -v "\-\-" | grep -v "NAME.*UUID.*TYPE.*DEVICE" | wc -l` -eq 1 ]; then
 
        # Ascertain the name of the active connection
        ACTIVE=`nmcli c | grep -v "\-\-" | grep -v "NAME.*UUID.*TYPE.*DEVICE" | awk -F' ' '{print $1}'`
 
        case "$ACTIVE" in
 
        'eth0')
            ZONE="Home"
        ;;
        'POR1-wired')
            ZONE="Office"
        ;;
        'BTHub5-8EUQ')
            ZONE="Home"
        ;;
        'BTHub5-8EUQ-5GHz')
            ZONE="Home"
        ;;
        'John1')
            ZONE="JohnsHouse"
        ;;
        'GRAND MERCURE')
            ZONE="Public"
        ;;
        *)
            # If connection name is not in above list
            ZONE="Public"
        ;;

        esac

        select_zone $ZONE
        exit $?

    fi
fi

The log file that the script uses contains a chronological record of the connections made and the zones selected:

$ cat /var/log/ufw-zones.log 
[2019-09-30 20:13:52 BST] Zone Home selected for connection eth0 on interface enp4s0f1.
[2019-10-01 22:59:18 BST] Zone Home selected for connection BTHub5-8EUQ-5GHz on interface wlp3s0.
[2019-10-02 17:59:23 EDT] Zone Public selected for connection loganwifi on interface wlp3s0.
[2019-10-03 10:12:46 EDT] Zone Office selected for connection POR1-wired on interface enp4s0f1.

Paul Gideon Dann’s patchset for Poppler to enable Okular (Qt5) to use Cairo rather than Splash to render PDF files

If you view the same PDF file in Okular (KDE) and Evince (GNOME), you may notice that fonts and lines are rendered better in Evince. Both applications use Poppler to render text and graphics in PDF files, but Poppler uses a different rendering backend in the two applications. For Evince Poppler uses the Cairo library, whereas for Okular Poppler uses Splash, a backend inherited from Poppler’s predecessor Xpdf (still in development). Unfortunately for KDE users, Cairo often does a better job than Splash. However, independent software engineer Paul Gideon Dann came to the rescue by producing the patchset poppler-cairo-backend to modify Poppler in order to make it use the Cairo library instead of Splash when Poppler is used by Okular. To quote the README file for Paul’s patchset:

Purpose of this Patchset

Currently, the default backend for the Qt5 wrapper (used by Okular) is Splash. Unfortunately, Splash does not support subpixel rendering of fonts, so those of us using KDE are stuck with somewhat ugly-looking fonts. This patchset adds support for the Cairo backend to the Qt5 wrapper. It also forces subpixel rendering in the Cairo backend. The upshot of this is that we get beautiful fonts in Okular.

The README focuses on fonts, but in fact the rendering of lines in graphics in PDF files can also be improved by the application of the patchset.

Apparently the Poppler maintainer feels that the introduction of a dependency on Cairo to the Qt5 wrapper (even an optional dependency) in Poppler would be controversial, and he is not willing to merge the patchset. For Okular users who already have Cairo installed (e.g. for Firefox, Inkscape, Scribus and so on), and who are noticing inadequate rendering of some PDF files, Paul’s patchset is worth trying.

In Gentoo Linux, which is a source code-based distribution, it is very easy to apply the patchset. For example, I did the following to apply the patchset for Poppler 0.80.0 in a ~amd64 (Testing Branch) installation:

1. Created a package-specific and version-specific directory to hold the patchset:

root # mkdir -p /etc/portage/patches/app-text/poppler-0.80.0

2. Downloaded the patchset for Poppler 0.80.0 from the following Web page:

https://github.com/giddie/poppler-cairo-backend/tree/76e607bcf010d6d9b8df5cb0f851ef9c91d4caf2

3. Copied the patchset to the directory created in Step 1:

root # cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/*.patch /etc/portage/patches/app-text/poppler-0.80.0/
root # ls -1 /etc/portage/patches/app-text/poppler-0.80.0
0001-Cairo-backend-added-to-Qt5-wrapper.patch
0002-Setting-default-Qt5-backend-to-Cairo.patch
0003-Apply-subpixel-rendering-in-Cairo-Backend.patch

4. Checked first that the patchset could be applied successfully before actually using it:

root # cd /usr/portage/app-text/poppler
root # ebuild poppler-0.80.0.ebuild clean prepare
 * poppler-0.80.0.tar.xz BLAKE2B SHA512 size ;-) ...                                     [ ok ]
 * checking ebuild checksums ;-) ...                                                     [ ok ]
 * checking auxfile checksums ;-) ...                                                    [ ok ]
 * checking miscfile checksums ;-) ...                                                   [ ok ]
>>> Unpacking source...
>>> Unpacking poppler-0.80.0.tar.xz to /var/tmp/portage/app-text/poppler-0.80.0/work
>>> Source unpacked in /var/tmp/portage/app-text/poppler-0.80.0/work
>>> Preparing source in /var/tmp/portage/app-text/poppler-0.80.0/work/poppler-0.80.0 ...
 * Applying poppler-0.60.1-qt5-dependencies.patch ...                                    [ ok ]
 * Applying poppler-0.28.1-fix-multilib-configuration.patch ...                          [ ok ]
 * Applying poppler-0.78.0-respect-cflags.patch ...                                      [ ok ]
 * Applying poppler-0.61.0-respect-cflags.patch ...                                      [ ok ]
 * Applying poppler-0.57.0-disable-internal-jpx.patch ...                                [ ok ]
 * Applying 0001-Cairo-backend-added-to-Qt5-wrapper.patch ...                            [ ok ]
 * Applying 0002-Setting-default-Qt5-backend-to-Cairo.patch ...                          [ ok ]
 * Applying 0003-Apply-subpixel-rendering-in-Cairo-Backend.patch ...                     [ ok ]
 * User patches applied.
>>> Source prepared.

5. Re-merged Poppler to apply the patchset to the Poppler source code and rebuild the patched package:

root # emerge -1v poppler

These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild   R    ] app-text/poppler-0.80.0:0/90::gentoo  USE="cairo cjk cxx introspection jpeg jpeg2k lcms png qt5 tiff utils -curl -debug -doc -nss" 0 KiB

Total: 1 package (1 reinstall), Size of downloads: 0 KiB

>>> Verifying ebuild manifests
>>> Emerging (1 of 1) app-text/poppler-0.80.0::gentoo
>>> Installing (1 of 1) app-text/poppler-0.80.0::gentoo
>>> Jobs: 1 of 1 complete                           Load avg: 1.06, 1.11, 0.95
>>> Auto-cleaning packages...

>>> No outdated packages were found on your system.

 * GNU info directory index is up-to-date.

6. Re-merged Okular so that it uses the patched Poppler dependency:

root # emerge -1v okular

These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild   R    ] kde-apps/okular-19.08.1:5::gentoo  USE="chm crypt djvu image-backend pdf postscript tiff -debug -epub -handbook -markdown -mobi -mobile -plucker -share -speech -test" 0 KiB

Total: 1 package (1 reinstall), Size of downloads: 0 KiB

>>> Verifying ebuild manifests
>>> Emerging (1 of 1) kde-apps/okular-19.08.1::gentoo
>>> Installing (1 of 1) kde-apps/okular-19.08.1::gentoo
>>> Jobs: 1 of 1 complete                           Load avg: 1.17, 1.13, 1.04
>>> Auto-cleaning packages...

>>> No outdated packages were found on your system.

 * GNU info directory index is up-to-date.

My thanks go to Paul for taking the time to produce the patchset.