How to patch kde-plasma/plasma-firewall-5.21.2 for UFW in Gentoo Linux with OpenRC

Unfortunately plasma-firewall-5.21.2, a new Plasma frontend for firewalld and UFW, has been written only for Linux installations with systemd. However, I use OpenRC and syslog-ng in Gentoo Linux and wanted to try to get plasma-firewall to work on my laptop which uses UFW. I therefore set about patching plasma-firewall-5.21.2. I did not touch the firewalld part of plasma-firewall, as I do not use firewalld (and the plasma-firewall code for firewalld is more complicated). Below is what I did.

root # wget https://invent.kde.org/plasma/plasma-firewall/-/archive/Plasma/5.21/plasma-firewall-Plasma-5.21.tar.gz
root # tar -xzf plasma-firewall-Plasma-5.21.tar.gz
root # cp -pr plasma-firewall-Plasma-5.21 a
root # cp -pr plasma-firewall-Plasma-5.21 b
root # nano b/kcm/backends/ufw/ufwclient.cpp # Apply changes shown in Part 1 below.
root # nano b/kcm/backends/ufw/helper/helper.cpp # Apply changes shown in Part 2 below.
root # nano /usr/bin/print_ufw_messages # Create Bash script shown in Part 2 below.
root # chmod 755 /usr/bin/print_ufw_messages
root # nano b/kcm/backends/ufw/ufwlogmodel.cpp # Apply changes shown in Part 3 below.
root # diff -ruN a b > plasma-firewall-5.21.2-ufw.patch
root # mkdir -p /etc/portage/patches/kde-plasma/plasma-firewall-5.21.2
root # cp plasma-firewall-5.21.2-ufw.patch /etc/portage/patches/kde-plasma/plasma-firewall-5.21.2/
root # emerge -1v plasma-firewall
root # nano /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf # Apply changes shown in Part 4 below.

You should now be able to use plasma-firewall for UFW in KDE Plasma’s ‘System Settings’ > ‘Firewall’ in the Network section, although I have not tried all the functions. Additionally, I believe there may be some outstanding bugs in the original 5.21.2 version of the Plasma module when using it with systemd.

Part 1

In /kcm/backends/ufw/ufwclient.cpp change:

bool UfwClient::isCurrentlyLoaded() const
{
QProcess process;
const QString name = "systemctl";
const QStringList args = {"status", "ufw"};

process.start(name, args);
process.waitForFinished();

// systemctl returns 0 for status if the app is loaded, and 3 otherwise.
qDebug() << "Ufw is loaded?" << (process.exitCode() == EXIT_SUCCESS);

return process.exitCode() == EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

to:

bool UfwClient::isCurrentlyLoaded() const
{
QProcess process;
const QString name = "rc-service";
const QStringList args = {"--exists", "ufw"};

process.start(name, args);
process.waitForFinished();

// "rc-service --exists" returns 0 if the app is loaded, and -1 otherwise.
qDebug() << "Ufw is loaded?" << (process.exitCode() == EXIT_SUCCESS);

return process.exitCode() == EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

Part 2

In /kcm/backends/ufw/helper/helper.cpp change:

QStringList getLogFromSystemd(const QString &lastLine)
{
QString program = "journalctl";
QStringList arguments {"-xb","-n", "100","-g", "UFW"};

QProcess myProcess;
myProcess.start(program, arguments);
myProcess.waitForFinished();

auto resultString = QString(myProcess.readAllStandardOutput());
auto resultList = resultString.split("\n");

// Example Line from Systemd:
// Dec 06 17:42:45 tomatoland kernel: [UFW BLOCK] IN=wlan0 OUT= MAC= SRC=192.168.50.181 DST=224.0.0.252 LEN=56 TOS=0x00
//     PREC=0x00 TTL=255 ID=52151 PROTO=UDP SPT=5355 DPT=5355 LEN=36
// We need to remove everything up to the space after ']'.

QStringList result;
for(const QString& line : resultList) {
if (!lastLine.isEmpty() && line == lastLine) {
result.clear();
continue;
}
result.append(line);
}
return result;
}

to:

QStringList getLogFromSystemd(const QString &lastLine)
{
QString program = "print_ufw_messages";
QStringList arguments {"UFW", "100"};

QProcess myProcess;
myProcess.start(program, arguments);
myProcess.waitForFinished();

auto resultString = QString(myProcess.readAllStandardOutput());
auto resultList = resultString.split("\n");

// Example line from /var/log/messages populated by sylog-ng:
// Mar  6 00:10:19 localhost kernel: [UFW BLOCK] IN=wlan0 OUT= MAC=00:12:5b:8a:83:6d:b7:2a:da:59:d4:10:09:00 SRC=192.168.1.27
//      DST=192.168.1.139 LEN=52 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=41659 DF PROTO=TCP SPT=445 DPT=52140 WINDOW=260 RES=0x00 ACK URGP=0
// We need to remove everything up to the space after ']'.

QStringList result;
for(const QString& line : resultList) {
if (!lastLine.isEmpty() && line == lastLine) {
result.clear();
continue;
}
result.append(line);
}
return result;
}

where the program print_ufw_messages is a user-created Bash script /usr/bin/print_ufw_messages (-rwxr-xr-x root.root) containing:

#!/bin/bash
awk '{if (/localhost syslog-ng/ && /syslog-ng starting up/ && !/COMMAND/) {chunk=""} else {chunk=chunk $0 RS}} END {printf "%s", chunk}' /var/log/messages | grep "$1" | head -n "$2" | grep -v print_ufw_messages

Part 3

During my investigations into how to modify the plasma-firewall-5.21.2 source code, I discovered a bug in the source code. In /kcm/backends/ufw/ufwlogmodel.cpp change:

for (const QString& key : {"IN", "SRC", "DST", "PROTO", "STP", "DPT"}) {

to:

for (const QString& key : {"IN", "SRC", "DST", "PROTO", "SPT", "DPT"}) {

i.e. “STP” needs to be changed to “SPT“.

Part 4

I am not sure if this makes a difference to plasma-firewall (which was coded assuming systemd-journald is installed), but the default date format for messages in /var/log/messages printed by syslog-ng has only one digit in the day of the month when it is less than the 10th day of the month. For example:

Mar  9 03:09:39 clevow230ss syslog-ng[23735]:  syslog-ng starting up; version='3.30.1'

However, systemd-journalctl always outputs two-digit days of the month, and I think (but am not certain) the following date format might be needed in order for the existing code in /kcm/backends/ufw/ufwlogmodel.cpp to parse the syslog-ng output correctly:

Mar 09 03:09:39 clevow230ss syslog-ng[23735]:  syslog-ng starting up; version='3.30.1'

Therefore edit /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf and add a template:

template template_date_format {
template("${MONTH_ABBREV} ${DAY} ${HOUR}:${MIN}:${SEC} ${HOST} ${MSGHDR}${MSG}\n");
template_escape(no);
};

and change the line:

destination messages { file("/var/log/messages"); };

to:

destination messages { file("/var/log/messages" template(template_date_format)); };

Then restart syslog-ng:

root # rc-service syslog-ng restart

From now on the day of the month is always two digits (01, 02,…31) in /var/log/messages.

Removing qtwebengine from a Gentoo Linux installation

At the beginning of March I updated the world set in Gentoo Testing (~amd64) running the KDE suite (Plasma, Frameworks and Applications) on my secondary laptop, an eleven-year-old Compal NBLB2. It has a first-generation Core i7 CPU and the maximum amount of RAM that can be installed in that model (8 GB).

root # uname -a
Linux meshedgedx 5.0.11-gentoo #1 SMP Fri Jun 7 15:33:06 BST 2019 x86_64 Intel(R) Core(TM) i7 CPU Q 720 @ 1.60GHz GenuineIntel GNU/Linux

Gentoo Linux being a source-based distribution, updates to the largest packages take hours to build on older machines. Actually, some packages can take hours to build on newer machines too. On this older laptop I therefore merge the www-client/firefox-bin binary package instead of the www-client/firefox source-code package, and have installed Microsoft Office 2007 running in WINE instead of trying to merge the app-office/libreoffice source-code package (app-office/libreoffice-bin cannot be merged in this Testing installation because of incompatibility with the versions of installed dependencies, so it would only be a viable alternative binary package in a Stable installation).

Possibly the worst source-code package to build is dev-qt/qtwebengine. Nowadays it takes a ridiculous amount of time to build on this laptop, even with the jumbo-build USE flag set and MAKEOPTS="-j4" or even MAKEOPTS="-j1". The latest merge on the laptop took more than 14 hours:

root # genlop -t qtwebengine | tail -n 3
     Fri Mar  5 02:02:07 2021 >>> dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2_p20210224
       merge time: 14 hours, 14 minutes and 7 seconds.


That is actually quite fast for that laptop; qtwebengine has sometimes taken two days to merge in the past.

What a waste of time and electricity, not to mention the unnecessary wear on the laptop (fan bearing; prolonged heat on components; etc.).

This one package is such a hassle to merge that it had me wondering if I should switch from Gentoo Linux to a binary distribution. Even on my six-year-old Compal W230SS laptop with a fourth-generation Core i7 CPU and 16 GB of RAM, qtwebengine takes circa five hours to merge. After several years putting up with this scourge of source-based Linux distributions on my secondary laptop, I had finally had enough and decided to excise the package, which did not look like an easy task with the full KDE suite installed. This is how I did it…

1. First I made sure the installation was up-to-date (see my earlier post ‘My system upgrade procedure for Gentoo Linux‘ for the steps I normally use to update all packages to their latest versions).

2. I ascertained which packages depended on qtwebengine:

root # equery depends qtwebengine
 * These packages depend on qtwebengine:
kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.2 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-apps/kalgebra-20.12.2 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5[widgets])
kde-apps/kdenlive-20.12.2 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-apps/kimagemapeditor-20.12.2 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5[widgets])
kde-apps/ktp-text-ui-20.12.2 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5[widgets])
kde-apps/marble-20.12.2 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5[widgets])
kde-apps/parley-20.12.2 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5[widgets])
kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons-5.21.1 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-plasma/libksysguard-5.21.1 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
net-libs/signon-ui-0.15_p20171022-r1 (dev-qt/qtwebengine:5)
net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.2 (rss ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
                         (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
www-client/falkon-3.1.0-r1 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.12.3:5[widgets])

3. I disabled the USE flag ‘webengine‘ globally:

root # nano /etc/portage/make.conf # Add -webengine to the list of USE flags

4. I merged the world set in order to incorporate the USE flag change:

root # emerge -uvDN @world

These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild   R    ] kde-apps/marble-20.12.2:5/20.12::gentoo  USE="dbus geolocation kde nls pbf phonon -aprs -debug -designer -gps -handbook -shapefile -test -webengine*" 0 KiB
[ebuild   R    ] kde-apps/kdeedu-meta-20.12.2:5::gentoo  USE="-webengine*" 0 KiB
[ebuild   R    ] kde-apps/kdecore-meta-20.12.2:5::gentoo  USE="share thumbnail -handbook -webengine*" 0 KiB
[ebuild   R    ] net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.2:5::gentoo  USE="bwscheduler downloadorder infowidget ipfilter kross logviewer magnetgenerator mediaplayer rss scanfolder shutdown stats upnp zeroconf -debug -handbook -test -webengine*" 0 KiB
[ebuild   R    ] kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.2:5::gentoo  USE="bittorrent -dropbox -webengine*" 0 KiB
[ebuild   R    ] kde-apps/kdeutils-meta-20.12.2:5::gentoo  USE="cups rar -7zip -floppy -gpg -lrz -webengine*" 0 KiB

Total: 6 packages (6 reinstalls), Size of downloads: 0 KiB

>>> Verifying ebuild manifests
>>> Emerging (1 of 6) kde-apps/marble-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Emerging (2 of 6) kde-apps/kdecore-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Emerging (3 of 6) net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Emerging (4 of 6) kde-apps/kdeutils-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Installing (2 of 6) kde-apps/kdecore-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Installing (4 of 6) kde-apps/kdeutils-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Installing (3 of 6) net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Emerging (5 of 6) kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Installing (5 of 6) kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Installing (1 of 6) kde-apps/marble-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Emerging (6 of 6) kde-apps/kdeedu-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Installing (6 of 6) kde-apps/kdeedu-meta-20.12.2::gentoo
>>> Jobs: 6 of 6 complete                           Load avg: 1.93, 3.62, 3.86
>>> Auto-cleaning packages...

>>> No outdated packages were found on your system.

 * GNU info directory index is up-to-date.
 * After world updates, it is important to remove obsolete packages with
 * emerge --depclean. Refer to `man emerge` for more information.

5. I uninstalled packages that were no longer required by any other packages and also not required by me (I do not use the Falkon browser, Telepathy and KAlgebra, to give a few examples, and so did not mind various specific packages being removed):

root # emerge --ask --depclean

 * Always study the list of packages to be cleaned for any obvious
 * mistakes. Packages that are part of the world set will always
 * be kept.  They can be manually added to this set with
 * `emerge --noreplace `.  Packages that are listed in
 * package.provided (see portage(5)) will be removed by
 * depclean, even if they are part of the world set.
 * 
 * As a safety measure, depclean will not remove any packages
 * unless *all* required dependencies have been resolved.  As a
 * consequence of this, it often becomes necessary to run 
 * `emerge --update --newuse --deep @world` prior to depclean.

Calculating dependencies... done!
>>> Calculating removal order...

>>> These are the packages that would be unmerged:                                                                                                                                                                                                

 kde-apps/parley
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 www-client/falkon
    selected: 3.1.0-r1 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/kimagemapeditor
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/plasma-telepathy-meta
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/kalgebra
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-kded-module
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-desktop-applets
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-accounts-kcm
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-send-file
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-approver
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-auth-handler
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-contact-runner
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-text-ui
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/signon-kwallet-extension
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-im/telepathy-connection-managers
    selected: 2-r2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-filetransfer-handler
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-contact-list
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-irc/telepathy-idle
    selected: 0.2.0-r3 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-voip/telepathy-salut
    selected: 0.8.1-r3 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-voip/telepathy-gabble
    selected: 0.18.4-r2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/ktp-common-internals
    selected: 20.12.2 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/telepathy-accounts-signon
    selected: 2.1 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/libnice
    selected: 0.1.15 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/telepathy-logger-qt
    selected: 17.09.0 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-im/telepathy-logger
    selected: 0.8.2-r1 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/gupnp-igd
    selected: 0.2.5-r10 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/libsignon-glib
    selected: 2.1 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/telepathy-qt
    selected: 0.9.8 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/gupnp
    selected: 1.2.4 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/gssdp
    selected: 1.2.3 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/libsoup
    selected: 2.70.0 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/libpsl
    selected: 0.21.1 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/glib-networking
    selected: 2.66.0 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-im/telepathy-mission-control
    selected: 5.16.5 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/telepathy-glib
    selected: 0.24.1-r1 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

All selected packages: =kde-apps/ktp-desktop-applets-20.12.2 =kde-apps/ktp-contact-runner-20.12.2 =kde-apps/ktp-contact-list-20.12.2 =net-libs/telepathy-accounts-signon-2.1 =net-libs/telepathy-glib-0.24.1-r1 =net-voip/telepathy-salut-0.8.1-r3 =kde-apps/ktp-text-ui-20.12.2 =net-libs/libsignon-glib-2.1 =net-im/telepathy-connection-managers-2-r2 =kde-apps/ktp-accounts-kcm-20.12.2 =kde-apps/kimagemapeditor-20.12.2 =kde-apps/ktp-common-internals-20.12.2 =kde-apps/parley-20.12.2 =net-libs/libnice-0.1.15 =net-libs/libsoup-2.70.0 =kde-apps/ktp-auth-handler-20.12.2 =net-libs/gssdp-1.2.3 =net-irc/telepathy-idle-0.2.0-r3 =net-libs/libpsl-0.21.1 =kde-apps/kalgebra-20.12.2 =net-libs/gupnp-igd-0.2.5-r10 =kde-apps/ktp-filetransfer-handler-20.12.2 =kde-apps/ktp-send-file-20.12.2 =net-libs/gupnp-1.2.4 =kde-apps/ktp-kded-module-20.12.2 =net-im/telepathy-mission-control-5.16.5 =kde-apps/plasma-telepathy-meta-20.12.2 =net-voip/telepathy-gabble-0.18.4-r2 =net-im/telepathy-logger-0.8.2-r1 =kde-apps/signon-kwallet-extension-20.12.2 =net-libs/telepathy-logger-qt-17.09.0 =net-libs/telepathy-qt-0.9.8 =net-libs/glib-networking-2.66.0 =kde-apps/ktp-approver-20.12.2 =www-client/falkon-3.1.0-r1

>>> 'Selected' packages are slated for removal.
>>> 'Protected' and 'omitted' packages will not be removed.

Would you like to unmerge these packages? [Yes/No] Yes 
>>> Waiting 5 seconds before starting...
>>> (Control-C to abort)...
>>> Unmerging in: 5 4 3 2 1
>>> Unmerging (1 of 35) kde-apps/parley-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (2 of 35) www-client/falkon-3.1.0-r1...
>>> Unmerging (3 of 35) kde-apps/kimagemapeditor-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (4 of 35) kde-apps/plasma-telepathy-meta-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (5 of 35) kde-apps/kalgebra-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (6 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-kded-module-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (7 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-desktop-applets-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (8 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-accounts-kcm-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (9 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-send-file-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (10 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-approver-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (11 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-auth-handler-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (12 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-contact-runner-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (13 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-text-ui-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (14 of 35) kde-apps/signon-kwallet-extension-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (15 of 35) net-im/telepathy-connection-managers-2-r2...
>>> Unmerging (16 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-filetransfer-handler-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (17 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-contact-list-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (18 of 35) net-irc/telepathy-idle-0.2.0-r3...
>>> Unmerging (19 of 35) net-voip/telepathy-salut-0.8.1-r3...
>>> Unmerging (20 of 35) net-voip/telepathy-gabble-0.18.4-r2...
>>> Unmerging (21 of 35) kde-apps/ktp-common-internals-20.12.2...
>>> Unmerging (22 of 35) net-libs/telepathy-accounts-signon-2.1...
>>> Unmerging (23 of 35) net-libs/libnice-0.1.15...
>>> Unmerging (24 of 35) net-libs/telepathy-logger-qt-17.09.0...
>>> Unmerging (25 of 35) net-im/telepathy-logger-0.8.2-r1...
>>> Unmerging (26 of 35) net-libs/gupnp-igd-0.2.5-r10...
>>> Unmerging (27 of 35) net-libs/libsignon-glib-2.1...
>>> Unmerging (28 of 35) net-libs/telepathy-qt-0.9.8...
>>> Unmerging (29 of 35) net-libs/gupnp-1.2.4...
>>> Unmerging (30 of 35) net-libs/gssdp-1.2.3...
>>> Unmerging (31 of 35) net-libs/libsoup-2.70.0...
>>> Unmerging (32 of 35) net-libs/libpsl-0.21.1...
>>> Unmerging (33 of 35) net-libs/glib-networking-2.66.0...
>>> Unmerging (34 of 35) net-im/telepathy-mission-control-5.16.5...
>>> Unmerging (35 of 35) net-libs/telepathy-glib-0.24.1-r1...
Packages installed:   1651
Packages in world:    329
Packages in system:   43
Required packages:    1651
Number removed:       35

 * GNU info directory index is up-to-date.

Notice that the package qtwebengine had not been removed, so something still depended on it.

6. I checked if there were any packages still installed with a dependency on qtwebengine:

root # equery depends qtwebengine
 * These packages depend on qtwebengine:
kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.2 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-apps/kdenlive-20.12.2 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-apps/marble-20.12.2 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5[widgets])
kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons-5.21.1 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-plasma/libksysguard-5.21.1 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
net-libs/signon-ui-0.15_p20171022-r1 (dev-qt/qtwebengine:5)
net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.2 (rss ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
                         (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)

As can be seen from the above output, the only remaining installed packages that ‘hard-depended’ on the ‘webengine‘ USE flag were kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.2 and net-libs/signon-ui-0.15_p20171022-r1.

Additionally, the package net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.2 still depended on qtwebengine because the rss USE flag was enabled. So I added the line ‘net-p2p/ktorrent -rss‘ to the file /etc/portage/package.use/package.use and re-merged net-p2p/ktorrent. Actually, I re-merged the following packages just in case they needed to be rebuilt, although in retrospect I believe that was unnecessary:

     Fri Mar  5 05:37:26 2021 >>> kde-apps/kdecore-meta-20.12.2
     Fri Mar  5 05:37:55 2021 >>> kde-apps/kdeutils-meta-20.12.2
     Fri Mar  5 05:45:49 2021 >>> net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.2
     Fri Mar  5 05:46:49 2021 >>> kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.2
     Fri Mar  5 05:57:41 2021 >>> kde-apps/marble-20.12.2
     Fri Mar  5 05:58:15 2021 >>> kde-apps/kdeedu-meta-20.12.2

7. By now another day had dawned, so I checked if new versions of the ebuilds for any KDE packages had been uploaded to the Portage repositories:

root # emaint sync -a
root # eix-update && updatedb

8. I rebooted the laptop and checked which packages still depended on qtwebengine. It turned out that only the two packages with a hard-dependency on qtwebengine were still preventing me from removing it:

root # equery depends qtwebengine
 * These packages depend on qtwebengine:
kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.2 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
net-libs/signon-ui-0.15_p20171022-r1 (dev-qt/qtwebengine:5)

9. I checked if any packages depended on those two packages:

root # equery depends kaccounts-providers
 * These packages depend on kaccounts-providers:
kde-misc/kio-gdrive-20.12.2 (>=kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.2:5)
# equery depends kio-gdrive
 * These packages depend on kio-gdrive:
kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.2 (>=kde-misc/kio-gdrive-20.12.2:5)
root # equery depends signon-ui
 * These packages depend on signon-ui:
kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.2 (net-libs/signon-ui)

So kdenetwork-meta hard-depends on kio-gdrive, which does not make much sense, really, given that not all KDE users have a Google Drive account and those users therefore do not need the kio-gdrive package to be installed.

10. The contents of the kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3 ebuild look like this:

root # cat /usr/portage/kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3.ebuild
# Copyright 1999-2021 Gentoo Authors
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

EAPI=7

DESCRIPTION="kdenetwork - merge this to pull in all kdenetwork-derived packages"
HOMEPAGE="https://kde.org/"

LICENSE="metapackage"
SLOT="5"
KEYWORDS="~amd64 ~arm64 ~ppc64 ~x86"
IUSE="+bittorrent dropbox +webengine"

RDEPEND="
        >=kde-apps/kdenetwork-filesharing-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=kde-apps/kget-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=kde-apps/kopete-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=kde-apps/krdc-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=kde-apps/krfb-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=kde-apps/zeroconf-ioslave-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=kde-misc/kdeconnect-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=kde-misc/kio-gdrive-${PV}:${SLOT}
        >=net-irc/konversation-${PV}:${SLOT}
        bittorrent? (
                >=net-libs/libktorrent-${PV}:${SLOT}
                >=net-p2p/ktorrent-${PV}:${SLOT}
        )
        dropbox? ( >=kde-apps/dolphin-plugins-dropbox-${PV}:${SLOT} )
"

so I created an ebuild for kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3 in my local overlay with the dependency on kio-gdrive removed:

root # mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta
root # cd /usr/local/portage/kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta
root # cp /usr/portage/kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3.ebuild .
root # nano kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3.ebuild # Delete the line containing ">=kde-misc/kio-gdrive-${PV}:${SLOT}"
root # ebuild kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3.ebuild manifest
>>> Creating Manifest for /usr/local/portage/kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta
root # # eix-update && updatedb

11. I re-merged the world set in order to update all KDE packages that now had a newer ebuild version:

root # emerge -uvDN @world

12. I rechecked the three packages that had depended on qtwebengine:

root # equery depends signon-ui
 * These packages depend on signon-ui:
kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.3 (net-libs/signon-ui)
root # equery depends kaccounts-providers
 * These packages depend on kaccounts-providers:
kde-misc/kio-gdrive-20.12.3 (kaccounts ? >=kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.08.3:5)
root # equery depends kio-gdrive
 * These packages depend on kio-gdrive:
root #

As can be seen above, my modified ebuild for kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3 had indeed removed the impediment to uninstalling kio-gdrive and therefore the impediment to uninstalling kaccount-providers and signon-ui.

13. I merged my modified version of kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3:

Up to this point kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3 had been merged from the main Portage tree:

root # eix -I kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta
[I] kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta
     Available versions:  (5) 20.08.3-r1 (~)20.12.3 (~)20.12.3[1]
       {+bittorrent dropbox +webengine}
     Installed versions:  20.12.3(5)(15:23:08 05/03/21)(bittorrent -dropbox -webengine)
     Homepage:            https://kde.org/
     Description:         kdenetwork - merge this to pull in all kdenetwork-derived packages

[1] "local_overlay" /usr/local/portage

I then merged the version from my local overlay:

root # emerge -1v kdenetwork-meta::local_overlay

These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild   R    ] kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3:5::local_overlay [20.12.3:5::gentoo] USE="bittorrent -dropbox -webengine" 0 KiB

Total: 1 package (1 reinstall), Size of downloads: 0 KiB

>>> Verifying ebuild manifests
>>> Emerging (1 of 1) kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3::local_overlay
>>> Installing (1 of 1) kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta-20.12.3::local_overlay
>>> Jobs: 1 of 1 complete                           Load avg: 1.76, 0.88, 0.61
>>> Auto-cleaning packages...

>>> No outdated packages were found on your system.

 * GNU info directory index is up-to-date.
root # eix -I kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta
[I] kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta
     Available versions:  (5) 20.08.3-r1 (~)20.12.3 (~)20.12.3[1]
       {+bittorrent dropbox +webengine}
     Installed versions:  20.12.3(5)[1](16:40:43 05/03/21)(bittorrent -dropbox -webengine)
     Homepage:            https://kde.org/
     Description:         kdenetwork - merge this to pull in all kdenetwork-derived packages

[1] "local_overlay" /usr/local/portage

14. I checked which packages still depended on qtwebengine:

root # equery depends qtwebengine
 * These packages depend on qtwebengine:
kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.3 (>=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-apps/kdenlive-20.12.3 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-apps/marble-20.12.3 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5[widgets])
kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons-5.21.2 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
kde-plasma/libksysguard-5.21.2 (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
net-libs/signon-ui-0.15_p20171022-r1 (dev-qt/qtwebengine:5)
net-p2p/ktorrent-20.12.3 (rss ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)
                         (webengine ? >=dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2:5)

Eureka! kdenetwork-meta no longer depends on qtwebengine.

15. I was then able to remove qtwebengine and the remaining packages that hard-depend on it:

root # emerge --ask --depclean qtwebengine kaccounts-providers signon-ui kio-gdrive

Calculating dependencies... done!
>>> Calculating removal order...

>>> These are the packages that would be unmerged:                                                                                                                                                                                                

 kde-misc/kio-gdrive
    selected: 20.12.3 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 kde-apps/kaccounts-providers
    selected: 20.12.3 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 net-libs/signon-ui
    selected: 0.15_p20171022-r1 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

 dev-qt/qtwebengine
    selected: 5.15.2_p20210224 
   protected: none 
     omitted: none 

All selected packages: =dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2_p20210224 =kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.3 =kde-misc/kio-gdrive-20.12.3 =net-libs/signon-ui-0.15_p20171022-r1

>>> 'Selected' packages are slated for removal.
>>> 'Protected' and 'omitted' packages will not be removed.

Would you like to unmerge these packages? [Yes/No] Yes
>>> Waiting 5 seconds before starting...
>>> (Control-C to abort)...
>>> Unmerging in: 5 4 3 2 1
>>> Unmerging (1 of 4) kde-misc/kio-gdrive-20.12.3...
>>> Unmerging (2 of 4) kde-apps/kaccounts-providers-20.12.3...
>>> Unmerging (3 of 4) net-libs/signon-ui-0.15_p20171022-r1...
>>> Unmerging (4 of 4) dev-qt/qtwebengine-5.15.2_p20210224...
Packages installed:   1648
Packages in world:    329
Packages in system:   43
Required packages:    1648
Number removed:       4

 * GNU info directory index is up-to-date.

\o/ \o/ \o/ \o/ No more qtwebengine in Gentoo Linux Testing (~amd64) running KDE.

Of course this was only possible because I do not need the specific packages that had been uninstalled during this entire procedure. Other people may not be in the same position.

16. I added the following lines to the file /etc/portage/package.mask/package.mask so that the packages are not pulled in automatically when merging the world set in future:

dev-qt/qtwebengine
kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta::gentoo
kde-misc/kio-gdrive
kde-apps/kaccounts-providers
net-libs/signon-ui

17. In future I will have to modify new versions of the kdenetwork-meta ebuild and add them to my local overlay. Furthermore, if other packages become dependent on qtwebengine in future and I do not require them, I will have to repeat the above steps in order to remove them (if viable). I just hope I can keep the qtwebengine package from ever being installed again.

Using NetworkManager in Gentoo Linux

My current two laptops running Gentoo Linux (both with OpenRC, elogind, eudev and wpa_supplicant) use NetworkManager rather than Netifrc. (Actually, my desktop machines also use NetworkManager even though they are always connected to the same network.) NetworkManager has worked with wired and wireless networking on these laptops without any issues for over five years now. This post summarises how it is installed and configured.

I installed the package with the following USE flags enabled:

bluetooth dhclient elogind introspection modemmanager ncurses nss policykit ppp wext wifi

and the following USE flags disabled:

audit connection-sharing dhcpcd gnutls iwd json ofono ovs resolvconf selinux systemd teamd test vala

The precise status can be seen in the output of the eix command on my main laptop that uses Gentoo Stable:

root # eix -I net-misc/networkmanager
[I] net-misc/networkmanager
     Available versions:  [M]~1.22.10-r12^t 1.26.4^t ~1.26.6^t ~1.28.0-r1^t {audit bluetooth +concheck connection-sharing debug (+)dhclient dhcpcd elogind examples (+)gnutls gtk-doc (+)introspection iwd json libpsl lto (+)modemmanager ncurses (+)nss ofono ovs (+)policykit (+)ppp resolvconf selinux syslog systemd teamd test +tools vala (+)wext +wifi ABI_MIPS="n32 n64 o32" ABI_S390="32 64" ABI_X86="32 64 x32" KERNEL="linux"}
     Installed versions:  1.26.4^t(00:33:18 02/01/21)(bluetooth dhclient elogind introspection modemmanager ncurses nss policykit ppp wext wifi -audit -connection-sharing -dhcpcd -gnutls -iwd -json -ofono -ovs -resolvconf -selinux -systemd -teamd -test -vala ABI_MIPS="-n32 -n64 -o32" ABI_S390="-32 -64" ABI_X86="64 -32 -x32" KERNEL="linux")
     Homepage:            https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/NetworkManager
     Description:         A set of co-operative tools that make networking simple and straightforward

I use network file systems, so I also configured the netmount service to run, and specified that NetworkManager is the network manager:

root # grep -v "^#\|^$" /etc/conf.d/netmount
rc_need="NetworkManager"

The network-related services that I configured to be started at boot are as follows:

root # rc-update show -v | grep -i net
       NetworkManager |      default
                local |      default nonetwork
           net-online |
         net.enp4s0f1 |
               net.lo |
             netmount |      default

(It is correct that net-online, net.enp4s0f1 and net.lo are not in any runlevel.)

Neither dhcpd nor dhcpcd services must be started at boot, as they would interfere with NetworkManager:

root # rc-update show -v | grep -i dhcp
               dhcpcd |   
                dhcpd |

By the way, if the output of the command ‘rc-update show -v‘ incudes non-existent physical interfaces not shown in the output of the ‘ifconfig‘ or ‘ip a‘ commands, you can delete the corresponding symlinks. For example, the only physical interfaces listed by the ifconfig command on my older laptop running Gentoo Linux Testing (~amd64) are eth0 and wlan0, but the ‘rc-update show -v‘ command originally showed many other interfaces, so I deleted them as follows:

root # cd /etc/init.d/
root # rm net.aol
root # rm net.ra*
root # rm net.ath*
root # rm net.eth[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
root # rm net.ppp*
root # rm net.wlan[1,2,3]

The installation on that laptop is left with the correct symlinks:

root # ls -la /etc/init.d/net.*
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root     6 Mar 30  2010 /etc/init.d/net.eth0 -> net.lo
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 19861 Feb 15 01:05 /etc/init.d/net.lo
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root     6 Mar 30  2010 /etc/init.d/net.wlan0 -> net.lo

Anyway, coming back to my main laptop, all the services running in Gentoo Linux on it are shown below, for information:

root # rc-status
Runlevel: default
 dbus                                                       [  started  ]
 NetworkManager                                             [  started  ]
 netmount                                                   [  started  ]
 syslog-ng                                                  [  started  ]
 cupsd                                                      [  started  ]
 samba                                                      [  started  ]
 cronie                                                     [  started  ]
 clamd                                                      [  started  ]
 bluetooth                                                  [  started  ]
 xdm                                                        [  started  ]
 wsdd                                                       [  started  ]
 cups-browsed                                               [  started  ]
 sshd                                                       [  started  ]
 local                                                      [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: hotplugged
Dynamic Runlevel: needed/wanted
 xdm-setup                                                  [  started  ]
 avahi-daemon                                               [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: manual

I specified the laptop’s hostname in /etc/hosts, /etc/conf.d/hostname, /etc/hostname and /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf:

root # grep -v "^#\|^$" /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1       clevow230ss     localhost
::1             clevow230ss     localhost
root # cat /etc/conf.d/hostname
# Set to the hostname of this machine
hostname="clevow230ss"
root # cat /etc/hostname
clevow230ss
root # grep -v "^#\|^$" /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf
send host-name "clevow230ss";
supersede host-name "clevow230ss";

The purpose of the ‘supersede‘ statement in dhclient.conf is explained in man dhclient.conf(5):

supersede [ option declaration ] ;

If for some option the client should always use a locally-configured value or values rather than whatever is supplied by the server, these values can be defined in the supersede statement.

In other words, I do not want the hostname to be specified by a dhcp server (as this has caused problems for me in the past when connected to some networks).

I edited the configuration file /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf to contain the following:

[main]
plugins=keyfile
rc-manager=none
dhcp=dhclient
no-auto-default=*

[keyfile]
hostname=clevow230ss

In earlier days it was necessary to specify the hostname in /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf but that is no longer required. According to NetworkManager.conf(5) man page: ‘This key is deprecated and has no effect since the hostname is now stored in /etc/hostname or other system configuration files according to build options.’ I just left it in the file because it does no harm.

NetworkManager’s configuration files for your wired and wireless connections are normally created and edited by using the GUI network configuration tool (a.k.a. ‘front end’) in the Desktop Environment, such as plasma-nm and nm-applet, but can also be created/edited manually. For example, the NetworkManager file for my home Wi-Fi connection contains the following:

root # cat /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/BT-5DF82T.nmconnection
[connection]
id=BT-5DF82T
uuid=3190e9d6-961f-38ab-fb90-1d323e6f35d2
type=wifi
autoconnect=false
permissions=

[wifi]
mac-address-blacklist=
mode=infrastructure
ssid=BT-5DF82T

[wifi-security]
key-mgmt=wpa-psk
psk-flags=1

[ipv4]
dns-search=
method=auto

[ipv6]
addr-gen-mode=stable-privacy
dns-search=
method=auto

NetworkManager generates the UUID automatically, but it could be generated manually (I have never bothered to do that):

The UUID values in the config files must be unique. You can use uuidgen command line tool to generate such values. Alternatively, you can leave out UUID entirely. In that case NetworkManager will generate a UUID based on the file name.

iwd (iNet Wireless Daemon)

Note that NetworkManager can be used with iwd instead of wpa_supplicant, although I have never bothered to try iwd, as NetworkManager with wpa_supplicant works fine on my laptops. If you want to try iwd instead of wpa_supplicant, NetworkManager will have to be installed with the iwd and introspection USE flags enabled, and you may have to make sure iwd is running before NetworkManager — see the following for further details:

Work-around in Linux to switch between single-sided and double-sided printing

I use Gentoo Linux on my laptop, and have drivers installed for quite a few printer manufacturers and models, as I work in multiple offices and they have a wide range of printers and MFPs. To date I have had no trouble printing single-sided (‘simplex’) and double-sided (‘duplex’) documents on the printers that support duplex printing. However, one of the offices I have been working in recently has a Konica Minolta bizhub C368, a floor-standing MFP, and the printer in this MFP did not enable me to switch between single-sided and double-sided printing even though Windows users in the same office could. This article explains how I managed to switch between the two printing modes.

A Linux driver for the bizhub C368 can be downloaded from the Konica Minolta Download Centre. I downloaded the tarball KMbeuUXv1_22_multi_language.tar.gz, extracted the contents to the directory ~/KMbeuUXv1_22_multi_language/ and followed the instructions in ‘BEU Linux CUPS Driver Guide.pdf‘:

user $ cd ~/KMbeuUXv1_22_multi_language
user $ su
root # ./install.pl
root # rc-service cupsd restart

I then used the CUPS Administration page in a browser window to set up the printer.

As I wanted the printer to be the default printer while I was working in that office, I edited the system-wide and user-specific lpoptions files to contain the printer name I had specified to CUPS when setting up the printer:

user $ cat ~/.cups/lpoptions
Default Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368
root # cat /etc/cups/lpoptions
Default Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368

I was then able to print from all the usual applications, except that the applications could only select single-sided printing, even though the printer supports double-sided printing and Windows users in the office could print double-sided. I could not find a setting for this in the CUPS Manager’s ‘Set Default Options’ page for the printer, so I edited the PPD file to change the relevant default option:

root # nano /etc/cups/ppd/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd

I changed the default printing option from:

*DefaultKMDuplex: 1Sided

to:

*DefaultKMDuplex: 2Sided

Then I could print double-sided pages, but selecting ‘single-sided’ in applications would still print double-sided. Now, I don’t know if there is a proper fix for this, but I could not find out how to do it. Therefore I opted for a work-around which is fine for my purposes. Here is what I did…

I created the shell script ~/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.sh containing the following:

#!/bin/bash
echo
echo "Konica Minolta bizhub C368 printer"
echo
echo "Select single-sided or double-sided printing as the default"
echo
# Get the password entry over and done with now
echo "Enter your user account password."
sudo ls > /dev/null
echo
CHOICE=""
while [[ $CHOICE != "X" && $CHOICE != "x" ]]; do
    if [[ $CHOICE != "X" && $CHOICE != "x" ]]; then
        echo
        echo -n "[1]-sided, [2]-sided or e[X]it : "
        read -n1 CHOICE
        echo
    else
        break
    fi
    case $CHOICE in
        [1] ) sudo cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd.single-sided /etc/cups/ppd/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd
              echo "Single-sided printing has been selected"
        ;;
        [2] ) sudo cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd.double-sided /etc/cups/ppd/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd
              echo "Double-sided printing has been selected"
        ;;
        [Xx] ) echo; exit;;
        * ) echo; echo " Enter '1', '2' or 'X/x'"
    esac
done

I created the Desktop Configuration File ~/Desktop/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.desktop containing the following:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Select single-sided or double-sided printing for Konica Minolta bizhub C368
Comment=Select single-sided or double-sided printing for Konica Minolta bizhub C368
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=konsole -e sh /home/fitzcarraldo/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Select printing sides for KM bizhub C368
GenericName=Select printing sides for KM bizhub C368
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/konica-minolta.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368
Name=Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368
Path=
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-DCOP-ServiceType=
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=

I downloaded a Konica Minolta logo from the Web and used it for the icon for the Desktop Configuration File.

And finally I copied the PPD file to two files and edited them:

~/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd.single-sided

which includes *DefaultKMDuplex: 1Sided

~/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd.double-sided

which includes *DefaultKMDuplex: 2Sided

Now, if I want to switch between single-sided and double-sided printing I just double-click on the icon on my Desktop and a terminal window pops-up allowing me to select the new default:

Konica Minolta bizhub C368 printer

Select single-sided or double-sided printing as the default

Enter your user account password.
Password:

[1]-sided, [2]-sided or e[X]it :

Migrating to libglvnd in Gentoo Linux on a laptop with NVIDIA Optimus

In a 2015 post I described how I configured my Gentoo Linux installation to switch between the closed-source NVIDIA driver and the open-source Intel driver on a Clevo W230SS laptop that has NVIDIA Optimus hardware (NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU plus Intel HD 4600 IGP). I did not want to use Bumblebee, preferring to use only the NVIDIA driver or only the Intel driver, switching between them by running a Bash script then logging out of KDE Plasma and back in again. Basically, the scheme a) swapped the xorg.conf file depending on which driver I wanted to use, and b) used the eselect opengl command to select the applicable OpenGL library. The latest versions of the files in my scheme are listed below if you’re interested (I use LightDM instead of KDM these days, as KDM is no more), otherwise just skip to the section after, titled ‘Migrating to libglvnd’.

Previous scheme using eselect opengl

~/Desktop/Select_NVIDIA_GPU.desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Run a script to configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU when you restart X Windows
Comment=Run a script to configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU when you restart X Windows
Exec=konsole -e sh /home/fitzcarraldo/nvidia.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU
GenericName=Configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/nvidia_icon.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=NVIDIA GPU
Name=NVIDIA GPU
Path=
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

~/nvidia.sh

#!/bin/bash
echo
echo "Your installation is currently configured to use the following graphics processor:"
echo
GPU=`eselect opengl list | grep \* | awk '{ print $2 }'`
if [ "$GPU" = "nvidia" ]; then
  echo "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M"
  echo
  echo "You do not need to do anything. Please close this window."
elif [ "$GPU" = "xorg-x11" ]; then
  echo "Intel HD 4600 Integrated Graphics Processor"
  echo
  echo "This script will configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU all the time."
  echo
  echo "Enter your own password."
  echo
  sudo eselect opengl set nvidia
# See separate configuration of LightDM for NVIDIA GPU and Intel HD Graphics.
  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf.nvidia /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  echo
  echo "Now you should logout to restart X Windows."
fi
echo
echo -n "Press ENTER to end: "
read ACKNOWLEDGE

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.nvidia

Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier     "Layout0"
    Screen      1  "nvidia" 0 0
    Inactive       "intel"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
    Identifier     "Monitor0"
    Option         "DPMS"
    Option         "DPI" "96 x 96"
EndSection

Section "Device"
    Identifier     "nvidia"
    Driver         "nvidia"
    BusID          "PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection

Section "Device"
    Identifier     "intel"
    Driver         "modesetting"
    BusID          "PCI:0:2:0"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "nvidia"
    Device         "nvidia"
    Monitor        "Monitor0"
    DefaultDepth    24
    Option         "UseDisplayDevice" "none"
    SubSection     "Display"
        Depth       24
        Virtual     1920 1080
    EndSubSection
EndSection

Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "intel"
    Device         "intel"
    Monitor        "Monitor0"
EndSection

~/Desktop/Select_Intel_HD_Graphics.desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Run a script to configure your installation to use Intel Integrated Graphics when you restart X Windows
Comment=Run a script to configure your installation to use Intel Integrated Graphics when you restart X Windows
Exec=konsole -e sh /home/fitzcarraldo/intel.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Configure your installation to use Intel HD Graphics
GenericName=Configure your installation to use Intel HD Graphics
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/intel-hd-icon.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Intel HD Graphics
Name=Intel HD Graphics
Path=
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

~/intel.sh

#!/bin/bash
echo
echo "Your installation is currently configured to use the following graphics processor:"
echo
GPU=`eselect opengl list | grep \* | awk '{ print $2 }'`
if [ "$GPU" = "xorg-x11" ]; then
  echo "Intel HD 4600 Integrated Graphics Processor"
  echo
  echo "You do not need to do anything. Please close this window."
elif [ "$GPU" = "nvidia" ]; then
  echo "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M"
  echo
  echo "This script will configure your installation to use the"
  echo "Intel HD 4600 Integrated Graphics Controller all the time."
  echo
  echo "Enter your own password."
  echo
  sudo eselect opengl set xorg-x11
# See separate configuration of LightDM for Intel HD Graphics and NVIDIA GPU.
  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf.intel /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  echo
  echo "Now you should logout to restart X Windows."
fi
echo
echo -n "Press ENTER to end: "
read ACKNOWLEDGE

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.intel

Section "Device" 
   Identifier  "Intel Graphics" 
   Driver      "intel" 
   Option      "AccelMethod" "sna" 
   Option      "TearFree" "true" 
EndSection

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-opengl.conf

Section "Files"
        ModulePath "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
        ModulePath "/usr/lib64/xorg/modules"
EndSection

/etc/X11/Sessions/plasma (used by LightDM)

#!/bin/bash
#
# Make sure the following is in /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf
# display-setup-script=/etc/X11/Sessions/plasma
#
GPU=`eselect opengl list | grep \* | awk '{ print $2 }'`
if [ "$GPU" = "nvidia" ]; then
    xrandr --setprovideroutputsource modesetting NVIDIA-0
    xrandr --auto
fi

Migrating to libglvnd

Well, the above scheme worked fine… until the recent decision by the Gentoo Linux developers to drop the app-eselect/eselect-opengl ebuild and switch the x11-base/xorg-server, media-libs/mesa and x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers to using the libglvnd library:

This package is masked and could be removed soon!
The mask comment indicates that this package is scheduled for removal from our package repository.
Please review the mask information below for more details.

Replaced by media-libs/libglvnd. Masked for removal in 30 days. Bug #728286

Affected packages	app-eselect/eselect-opengl

Author/Date		Matt Turner  (2020-08-11 00:00:00 +0000 UTC)

Without the eselect opengl command, my scripts were scuppered. So I decided to bite the bullet and switch to using libglvnd. It turned out not to be difficult, and I took the following steps to migrate:

  1. Deleted the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  2. Created the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/01-nvidia-offload.conf containing the following:
    Section "ServerLayout"
        Identifier "layout"
        Option "AllowNVIDIAGPUScreens"
    EndSection
    
  3. Performed the usual ‘emerge -uvDN @world‘ to update and upgrade the relevant packages, which automatically unmerged app-eselect/eselect-opengl

If I had run into trouble with the installed app-eselect/eselect-opengl blocking the upgrade, I could have worked around that by doing the following:

root # emerge -C eselect-opengl
root # emerge -1v nvidia-drivers mesa xorg-server xorg-drivers

I removed all references to the libglvnd USE flag from /etc/portage/make.conf, and the only place libglvnd is declared explicitly now is in the file /etc/portage/package.use/world because I have a multilib installation:

root # grep libglvnd /etc/portage/package.*/*
/etc/portage/package.use/world:>=media-libs/libglvnd-1.3.1 abi_x86_32

The status of the applicable packages in my installation is now as follows:

root # eix -I nvidia-drivers
[I] x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers
     Available versions:  [M]340.108-r1(0/340)^mtd ~390.132-r4(0/390)^mtd 390.138-r1(0/390)^mtd 435.21-r6(0/435)^mtd 440.100-r2(0/440)^mtd 450.57-r1(0/450)^mtd {+X compat (+)driver gtk3 +kms +libglvnd multilib static-libs +tools uvm wayland ABI_MIPS="n32 n64 o32" ABI_RISCV="lp64 lp64d" ABI_S390="32 64" ABI_X86="32 64 x32" KERNEL="FreeBSD linux"}
     Installed versions:  450.57-r1(0/450)^mtd(22:04:56 14/08/20)(X driver kms libglvnd multilib tools wayland -compat -gtk3 -static-libs -uvm ABI_MIPS="-n32 -n64 -o32" ABI_RISCV="-lp64 -lp64d" ABI_S390="-32 -64" ABI_X86="32 64 -x32" KERNEL="linux -FreeBSD")
     Homepage:            https://www.nvidia.com/Download/Find.aspx
     Description:         NVIDIA Accelerated Graphics Driver

root # eix -I mesa
[I] media-libs/mesa
     Available versions:  20.0.8^t ~20.1.4^t ~20.1.5^t ~20.2.0_rc1^t ~20.2.0_rc2^t **9999*l^t {+X +classic d3d9 debug +dri3 +egl +gallium +gbm gles1 +gles2 +libglvnd +llvm lm-sensors opencl osmesa selinux test unwind vaapi valgrind vdpau vulkan vulkan-overlay wayland xa xvmc zink +zstd ABI_MIPS="n32 n64 o32" ABI_RISCV="lp64 lp64d" ABI_S390="32 64" ABI_X86="32 64 x32" KERNEL="linux" VIDEO_CARDS="freedreno i915 i965 intel iris lima nouveau panfrost r100 r200 r300 r600 radeon radeonsi v3d vc4 virgl vivante vmware"}
     Installed versions:  20.0.8^t(22:03:42 14/08/20)(X classic dri3 egl gallium gbm gles2 libglvnd llvm wayland zstd -d3d9 -debug -gles1 -lm-sensors -opencl -osmesa -selinux -test -unwind -vaapi -valgrind -vdpau -vulkan -vulkan-overlay -xa -xvmc ABI_MIPS="-n32 -n64 -o32" ABI_RISCV="-lp64 -lp64d" ABI_S390="-32 -64" ABI_X86="32 64 -x32" KERNEL="linux" VIDEO_CARDS="i965 intel -freedreno -i915 -iris -lima -nouveau -panfrost -r100 -r200 -r300 -r600 -radeon -radeonsi -vc4 -virgl -vivante -vmware")
     Homepage:            https://www.mesa3d.org/ https://mesa.freedesktop.org/
     Description:         OpenGL-like graphic library for Linux

[I] x11-apps/mesa-progs
     Available versions:  8.4.0 **9999*l {egl gles2}
     Installed versions:  8.4.0(13:53:51 02/05/19)(-egl -gles2)
     Homepage:            https://www.mesa3d.org/ https://mesa.freedesktop.org/ https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/mesa/demos
     Description:         Mesa's OpenGL utility and demo programs (glxgears and glxinfo)

Found 2 matches
root # eix -I xorg-server
[I] x11-base/xorg-server
     Available versions:  1.20.8-r1(0/1.20.8) **9999(0/9999)*l {debug dmx doc +elogind ipv6 kdrive +libglvnd libressl minimal selinux static-libs suid systemd +udev unwind wayland xcsecurity xephyr xnest xorg xvfb}
     Installed versions:  1.20.8-r1(0/1.20.8)(22:07:21 14/08/20)(elogind ipv6 libglvnd udev wayland xorg -debug -dmx -doc -kdrive -libressl -minimal -selinux -static-libs -suid -systemd -unwind -xcsecurity -xephyr -xnest -xvfb)
     Homepage:            https://www.x.org/wiki/ https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/xorg/xserver/xorg-server
     Description:         X.Org X servers

root # eix -I xorg-drivers
[I] x11-base/xorg-drivers
     Available versions:  1.20-r2 **9999*l {INPUT_DEVICES="elographics evdev joystick libinput synaptics vmmouse void wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="amdgpu ast dummy fbdev freedreno geode glint i915 i965 intel mga nouveau nv nvidia omap qxl r128 radeon radeonsi siliconmotion tegra vc4 vesa via virtualbox vmware"}
     Installed versions:  1.20-r2(22:05:41 14/08/20)(INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics -elographics -joystick -libinput -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="i965 intel nvidia -amdgpu -ast -dummy -fbdev -freedreno -geode -glint -i915 -mga -nouveau -nv -omap -qxl -r128 -radeon -radeonsi -siliconmotion -tegra -vc4 -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware")
     Homepage:            https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/No_homepage
     Description:         Meta package containing deps on all xorg drivers

I can now delete the line display-setup-script=/etc/X11/Sessions/plasma in /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf, and delete the script /etc/X11/Sessions/plasma, as the script no longer works and the xrandr commands in it are no longer necessary in any case. The files and scripts Select_NVIDIA_GPU.desktop, nvidia.sh, xorg.conf.nvidia, Select_Intel_HD_Graphics.desktop, intel.sh and xorg.conf.intel are also redundant now and can be deleted.

After rebooting, the LightDM login screen appears as usual and I can login to the Desktop Environment. I can connect an external monitor to the laptop via either VGA cable or HDMI cable and both methods work, and I can switch between the laptop monitor and the external monitor using KDE Plasma’s ‘System Settings’ > ‘Display Configuration’, so everything appears to be working correctly.

The command xrandr --listproviders (add ‘--verbose‘ to provide more information) lists both the NVIDIA and Intel video devices, so I assume everything is working correctly:

user $ xrandr --listproviders
Providers: number : 2
Provider 0: id: 0x47 cap: 0xb, Source Output, Sink Output, Sink Offload crtcs: 4 outputs: 4 associated providers: 0 name:Intel
Provider 1: id: 0x203 cap: 0x0 crtcs: 0 outputs: 0 associated providers: 0 name:NVIDIA-G0

It appears that the default is to use the Intel IGP:

user $ glxinfo | grep -E 'OpenGL (vendor|renderer)'
OpenGL vendor string: Intel Open Source Technology Center
OpenGL renderer string: Mesa DRI Intel(R) HD Graphics 4600 (HSW GT2)
user $ __NV_PRIME_RENDER_OFFLOAD_PROVIDER=Intel __GLX_VENDOR_LIBRARY_NAME=mesa glxinfo  | grep -E 'OpenGL (vendor|renderer)'
OpenGL vendor string: Intel Open Source Technology Center
OpenGL renderer string: Mesa DRI Intel(R) HD Graphics 4600 (HSW GT2)

unless I use environment variables explicitly to specify that the NVIDIA GPU be used for a specific application:

user $ __NV_PRIME_RENDER_OFFLOAD_PROVIDER=NVIDIA-G0 __GLX_VENDOR_LIBRARY_NAME=nvidia glxinfo  | grep -E 'OpenGL (vendor|renderer)'
OpenGL vendor string: NVIDIA Corporation
OpenGL renderer string: GeForce GTX 860M/PCIe/SSE2

Performance seems reasonable:

user $ __NV_PRIME_RENDER_OFFLOAD_PROVIDER=NVIDIA-G0 __GLX_VENDOR_LIBRARY_NAME=nvidia __GL_SYNC_TO_VBLANK=0 glxgears
27197 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5439.292 FPS
27332 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5466.274 FPS
27857 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5571.184 FPS
27553 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5510.447 FPS
27128 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5425.556 FPS
^C

To run a program such as LibreCAD using the NVIDIA GPU I can do the following:

user $ __NV_PRIME_RENDER_OFFLOAD_PROVIDER=NVIDIA-G0 __GLX_VENDOR_LIBRARY_NAME=nvidia librecad

I need to play around more to understand how to use nvidia-drivers and libglvnd with the NVIDIA Optimus hardware in this laptop, but at least I have managed to migrate from app-eselect/eselect-opengl to media-libs/libglvnd before the former is dropped from the Portage tree in the near future.

Reconfiguring the time zone, locales and keymaps in Sabayon Linux

This is an example of how to reconfigure the time zone, locales and keymaps in a Sabayon Linux installation from the command line. Sabayon Linux uses systemd, therefore much of this example should also be applicable in other Linux distributions that use systemd, and will certainly be applicable in Gentoo Linux installations that use systemd rather than OpenRC.

You can check the currently selected keymaps (console and X Windows) and locale using the ‘localectl status‘ command. For example:

user $ localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: uk
      X11 Layout: gb
       X11 Model: pc105

Let’s say I had previously configured my installation to use only the en_GB and en_US locales but I now want to add Swiss Italian. The steps would be as shown below. I will assume the system being configured is in Switzerland and therefore I will also reconfigure the time zone accordingly, but that is not essential.

Check if the desired time zone exists:

root # timedatectl list-timezones | grep Zurich
Europe/Zurich

Set the desired time zone:

root # timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Zurich

Check if the Swiss Italian locale (it_CH) has already been added:

root # localectl list-locales
C.utf8
en_GB
en_GB.iso88591
en_GB.utf8
en_US
en_US.iso88591
en_US.utf8

If the desired locale is not present, add it:

root # nano /etc/locale.gen
root # grep -v "^#\|^$" /etc/locale.gen
C.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_GB ISO-8859-1
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_US ISO-8859-1
it_CH.UTF-8 UTF-8
it_CH ISO-8859-1

Generate the locales:

root # locale-gen
 * Generating 7 locales (this might take a while) with 1 jobs
 *  (1/7) Generating C.UTF-8 ...                                          [ ok ]
 *  (2/7) Generating en_GB.ISO-8859-1 ...                                 [ ok ]
 *  (3/7) Generating en_GB.UTF-8 ...                                      [ ok ]
 *  (4/7) Generating en_US.ISO-8859-1 ...                                 [ ok ]
 *  (5/7) Generating en_US.UTF-8 ...                                      [ ok ]
 *  (6/7) Generating it_CH.ISO-8859-1 ...                                 [ ok ]
 *  (7/7) Generating it_CH.UTF-8 ...                                      [ ok ]
 * Generation complete
 * Adding locales to archive ...                                          [ ok ]

Check the locales have been added:

root # localectl list-locales
C.utf8
en_GB
en_GB.iso88591
en_GB.utf8
en_US
en_US.iso88591
en_US.utf8
it_CH
it_CH.iso88591
it_CH.utf8

Set the desired locale:

root # localectl set-locale LANG=it_CH.UTF-8

Check which Italian console keymaps are available:

root # localectl list-keymaps | grep it
it
it-ibm
it2
mac-it

But let’s say I want to use a Swiss German keymap (sg) for the console instead of an Italian keymap. Check if a console keymap for Swiss German exists:

root # localectl list-keymaps | grep sg
sg
sg-latin1
sg-latin1-lk450

By the way, Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives store console keymaps differently to some distributions, and the command ‘localectl list-keymaps‘ in Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives will return an error message (the command ‘localectl set-keymap’ will still work though):

user $ localectl list-keymaps
Failed to read list of keymaps: No such file or directory

Set the console keymap to Swiss German:

root # localectl set-keymap sg

Let’s say I want to use a Swiss keymap in X Windows. Check if it exists:

root # localectl list-x11-keymap-layouts | grep sg
root # localectl list-x11-keymap-layouts | grep ch
ch

Set the X Windows keymap to Swiss:

root # localectl set-x11-keymap ch

Update the environment variables and profile:

root # env-update && source /etc/profile
>>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...

Edit /etc/default/grub and change (or add, if none exists) the console keymap entry in GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT to be vconsole.keymap=sg, and also rd.vconsole.keymap=sg (‘rd‘ stands for ‘RAM disk’) because Sabayon Linux uses an initramfs:

root # nano /etc/default/grub

Regenerate grub.cfg:

root # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Generazione file di configurazione GRUB...
Trovato sfondo: /boot/grub/default-splash.png
Trovata immagine linux: /boot/kernel-genkernel-x86_64-5.4.0-sabayon
Trovata immagine initrd: /boot/initramfs-genkernel-x86_64-5.4.0-sabayon
fatto

Reboot to check if everything is working:

root # systemctl reboot

Check that the list of locales is as expected:

root # eselect locale list
Available targets for the LANG variable:
  [1]   C
  [2]   C.utf8
  [3]   en_GB
  [4]   en_GB.iso88591
  [5]   en_GB.utf8
  [6]   en_US
  [7]   en_US.iso88591
  [8]   en_US.utf8
  [9]   it_CH
  [10]  it_CH.iso88591
  [11]  it_CH.utf8
  [12]  POSIX
  [13]  it_CH.UTF-8 *
  [ ]   (free form)

Check if the current configuration is as expected:

root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch

If the Desktop Environment is KDE, check the file ~/.config/plasma-localerc to see if the LANG variable is set to the locale just configured.

root # cat /home/fitzcarraldo/.config/plasma-localerc
[Formats]
LANG=en_GB.UTF-8

If it is not, delete the file:

root # rm /home/fitzcarraldo/.config/plasma-localerc

then logout, login again and re-check the file:

root # cat /home/fitzcarraldo/.config/plasma-localerc
[Formats]
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8

The system should now be ready for use with the new time zone, locale and keymaps.

user $ date
gio 2 lug 2020, 15:55:21, CEST
user $ localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch

Using a mixture of locale variables

It is not mandatory for all the locale variables to be for the same locale. For example, suppose I want to use the currency and number formats of one of the other locales I added. That is not so outlandish: I could be a Swiss national whose mother tongue is Swiss Italian, working in the Swiss branch of a British company and I want the currency format and number format on my work computer to be British, but everything else to be Swiss. To achieve this I can additionally do the following:

root # localectl set-locale LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
root # localectl set-locale LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
root # env-update && source /etc/profile

Check that the main locale and keymaps remain as they were but that the two locale variables have been changed to the British locale:

root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
                  LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
                  LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch
root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_TIME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=

You can see above that only $LC_NUMERIC and $LC_MONETARY have changed, as I wanted. As I did not change the time zone, the command I used earlier to set the time zone to Europe/Zurich is still in force:

root # date
gio 2 lug 2020, 16:12:18, CEST

By the way, if you try to change one of the variables from en_GB.UTF-8 back to it_CH.UTF-8, the change does not show in the output of the locale command. For example, let’s say you want to change LC_NUMERIC back to it_CH.UTF-8:

root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
                  LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
                  LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch
root # localectl set-locale LC_NUMERIC=it_CH.UTF-8
root # cat /etc/locale.conf   
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
root # cat /etc/env.d/02locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
                  LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sg
      X11 Layout: ch
root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8  <-- Notice it didn't change
LC_TIME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=
root # env-update && source /etc/profile
>>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8 <-- Notice it still didn't change
LC_TIME="en_GB.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=

This is one of the reasons I’m not keen on the layer of abstraction added by systemd. The way to get LC_NUMERIC back to it_CH.UTF-8 is to change all the locale variables to en_GB.UTF-8 then back to it_CH.UTF-8:

root # localectl set-locale LANG=en_GB.UTF-8
root # env-update && source /etc/profile
root # localectl set-locale LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
root # env-update && source /etc/profile
root # reboot

After rebooting, the change will have been applied:

root # locale
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NUMERIC="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TIME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MONETARY="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MESSAGES="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_PAPER="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_NAME="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ADDRESS="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_TELEPHONE="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="it_CH.UTF-8"
LC_ALL=
root # localectl status
   System Locale: LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
       VC Keymap: sh
      X11 Layout: ch

Notice that everything has changed back to it_CH.UTF-8, including $LC_MONETARY, so you’d have to repeat the command ‘localectl set-locale LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8‘ if you wanted that to still be the British format.

If you use KDE, also check the contents of the file ~/.config/plasma-localerc to make sure it contains the correct locale:

user $ cat ~/.config/plasma-localerc
[Formats]
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8

Optionally you could edit that file to add desired settings. For example:

[Formats]
LANG=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_CTYPE=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_NUMERIC=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_TIME=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_COLLATE=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MONETARY=en_GB.UTF-8
LC_MESSAGES=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_PAPER=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_NAME=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_ADDRESS=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_TELEPHONE=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_MEASUREMENT=it_CH.UTF-8
LC_IDENTIFICATION=it_CH.UTF-8
useDetailed=true

Alternatively, delete that file then logout and login again to make KDE Plasma pick up the values of the variables from the existing configuration. KDE Plasma will recreate the file.

Using WS-Discovery to enable Windows 10 to browse SMB shares in my home network of Linux computers

I have not used Windows 10 for more than two years now (see ‘Bye bye Windows 10, and good riddance‘ regarding my failed attempts to upgrade Windows 10 Version 1607 to 1703 and 1709). Nevertheless I am aware that, since Version 1709, Windows 10 no longer has SMBv1 and Computer Browser service installed by default. Computer Browser service used NetBIOS and SMBv1 to provide what Microsoft named ‘My Network Places‘ or ‘Network Neighborhood’. Thus Microsoft has dropped the concepts of network ‘workgroups’, ‘master browsers’, NetBIOS, NetBIOS broadcasts, WINS and so on. SMB has not been dropped, though; Versions 2 and 3 of the SMB protocol are now used, albeit using a different mechanism for device discovery.

Although they perform different jobs, Microsoft bundled the Computer Browser service software with the SMBv1 software. Microsoft could have provided them separately, but it made some sense to bundle them together in the early days of Windows networking. Thus, as SMBv1 is not installed by default in Windows 10 Version 1709 and later versions, neither is Computer Browser service. To put it another way, if you install SMBv1 in Windows 10 you automatically install Computer Browser service as well. None of that interested me since I stopped using Windows 10 after Version 1607. Since then my home network has comprised a server, desktop and laptops running various Linux distributions with Samba and using broadcast NetBIOS for name resolution. Of course I know that NetBIOS — especially broadcast NetBIOS for name resolution — is ancient networking technology, but it works well for my home networking needs. All my machines can browse each other’s SMB shares and create/copy/move/delete remote files and folders. The File Manager + app on my phone running Android 9 can also browse SMB shares on the Linux machines and create/copy/move/delete remote files and folders.

Two of my blog posts from 2016 and 2017 explain how I set up my home network for file sharing. One of the machines in the network had Windows 10 1607 installed, but that was replaced with Lubuntu in 2018.

SMBv1 is an inherently insecure protocol, so, after I dropped Windows, I reconfigured Samba on my Linux machines to use only SMBv3, which works fine. Subsequently I found that Android 9 on my Samsung Galaxy Note 8 phone apparently does not support SMBv3, only SMBv1 and SMBv2, so I reconfigured Samba on my Linux machines to allow SMBv2 as well as SMBv3. In other words, the Linux machines use SMBv3 with each other but SMBv2 with the phone (see my comments in the Comments section of my 2016 post ‘A correct method of configuring Samba for browsing SMB shares in a home network‘).

Anyway, I happen to have an evaluation copy of Windows 10 Enterprise Version 1709 installed in a VirtualBox VM (virtual machine) on one of my Linux laptops and, purely to satisfy my curiosity, I decided to try to get Windows 10 Version 1709 to browse and access SMB shares on the Linux machines in my home network, and vice versa, without having to dispense with broadcast NetBIOS name resolution for the Linux machines and without having to install SMBv1 (and Computer Browser service) in Windows 10.

When I first booted Windows 10 Enterprise 1709, SMB shares on my Linux machines were not displayed in File Explorer, and Windows 10 could not find them if I entered the UNC (Universal Naming Convention) address ‘\\hostname\foldername‘ or ‘\\IPaddress\foldername‘ (e.g. ‘\\AKHANATEN\anne‘ or ‘\\192.168.1.70\anne‘) in File Explorer’s address bar. My Web searches indicated that many people cannot see SMB shares in File Explorer either but can access a share by entering the UNC address in the File Explorer address bar. Apparently the advice from Microsoft these days is to use ‘Map a Network Drive…’ in File Explorer. Therefore, given that I wanted to be able to browse SMB shares in ‘File Explorer’ > ‘Network’, I clearly had some work to do. My goal for Windows 10 was twofold: to be able to view my remote SMB shares in Windows 10 File Explorer automatically and to be able to access (copy/move/delete/open) my remote SMB shares in Windows 10 File Explorer. Of course I also wanted to be able to browse and access SMB shares on the Windows 10 machine from the Linux machines.

Now, Windows 10 comes with Web Services Dynamic Discovery (WS-Discovery) installed. This enables SMB hosts running WS-Discovery software to be found by clients running WS-Discovery software. I believe Version 20.04 of the KDE Applications package kio-extras will support SMB host discovery using WS-Discovery, but that version is not available in the Stable Branch of Gentoo Linux installed on my main laptop, nor in Lubuntu 18.04 which is installed on my family’s desktop machine. So I thought I would have a look at what is currently available for those two distributions. I was particularly interested to see if I could find an implementation of WS-Discovery for Linux that would run in parallel with broadcast NetBIOS name resolution currently installed on the Linux machines in my home network, as broadcast NetBIOS name resolution works fine with SMBv2 and SMBv3 for Linux and Android devices in a home network (my Samsung Galaxy Note 8 phone can browse the SMB shares on any of the Linux machines in my home network).

Thanks are due to Steffen Christgau for creating a daemon that can be used in Linux installations to enable Windows 10 to discover SMB shares on Linux machines via WS-Discovery: wsdd – A Web Service Discovery host daemon. The README file for wsdd states:

wsdd implements a Web Service Discovery host daemon. This enables (Samba) hosts, like your local NAS device, to be found by Web Service Discovery Clients like Windows.

It also implements the client side of the discovery protocol which allows to search for Windows machines and other devices implementing WSD. This mode of operation is called discovery mode.

wsdd only depends on Python 3 and can be installed in many Linux distributions. If no wsdd package exists for a specific distribution, it can simply be run from the command line or from a Bash script. The following blog post by Ralph Mönchmeyer explains how to use wsdd (although not a complete solution for my specific case): Samba 4, shares, wsdd and Windows 10 – how to list Linux Samba servers in the Win 10 Explorer.

Below I list the steps I took to enable me to browse SMB shares in an evaluation copy of Windows 10 Enterprise Version 1709 running in a VM on one of my Linux laptops. I don’t have access to the latest version of Windows 10 (2004), but hopefully some or most of the following will still be applicable.

Step 1. Disable firewalls temporarily

I disabled the firewall in the Linux machine and in the Windows 10 machine so that the firewalls could be ruled out if there were any problems getting share browsing to work. Once all the steps were completed I re-enabled the firewalls.

Step 2. Specify the workgroup in Windows 10

Select ‘Control Panel’ > ‘System and Security’ > ‘System’ and, under ‘Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings’, if necessary click ‘Change settings’ to rename the workgroup. The default workgroup name was ‘WORKGROUP‘ so I renamed it to ‘HOME‘, my current network’s workgroup.

Step 3. Ensure the correct SMB protocol in Windows 10

SMBv1 (and Computer Browser service) are disabled by default in Windows 10 Version 1709 and later (see ‘SMBv1 is not installed by default in Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server version 1709 and later versions‘) but I nevertheless made sure that SMBv1 is disabled and that SMBv2 and SMBv3 are installed (see ‘How to detect, enable and disable SMBv1, SMBv2, and SMBv3 in Windows‘). I did the following in PowerShell (Run as administrator):

PS C:\WINDOWS\system32> Disable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName SMB1Protocol
PS C:\WINDOWS\system32> Set-SmbServerConfiguration -EnableSMB2Protocol $true

Step 4. Disable NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP in Windows 10

Select ‘Settings’ > ‘Network & Internet’ > ‘Ethernet’ > ‘Change adapter options’.

Right-click ‘Ethernet’, click ‘Properties’, select ‘Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)’ and click ‘Properties’. Click ‘Advanced’. Click on the WINS tab (even though my network does not use WINS), select ‘Disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP’ and click ‘OK’, ‘OK’ and ‘Close’.

Step 5. Configure ‘Function Discovery’ in Windows 10

See the article ‘SMBv1 is not installed by default in Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server version 1709 and later versions | Microsoft Docs‘, in particular the following:

Explorer Network Browsing

The Computer Browser service relies on the SMBv1 protocol to populate the Windows Explorer Network node (also known as “Network Neighborhood”). This legacy protocol is long deprecated, doesn’t route, and has limited security. Because the service cannot function without SMBv1, it is removed at the same time.

However, if you still have to use the Explorer Network in home and small business workgroup environments to locate Windows-based computers, you can follow these steps on your Windows-based computers that no longer use SMBv1:

  1. Start the “Function Discovery Provider Host” and “Function Discovery Resource Publication” services, and then set them to Automatic (Delayed Start).
  2. When you open Explorer Network, enable network discovery when you are prompted.

All Windows devices within that subnet that have these settings will now appear in Network for browsing. This uses the WS-DISCOVERY protocol. Contact your other vendors and manufacturers if their devices still don’t appear in this browse list after the Windows devices appear. It is possible they have this protocol disabled or that they support only SMBv1.

Press Windows Key+R, enter ‘services.msc‘ (without the quotes) and click ‘OK’.

Change the ‘Startup type’ of ‘Functions Discovery Provider Host’ to ‘Automatic (Delayed Start)’.

Change the ‘Startup type’ of ‘Function Discovery Resource Publication’ to ‘Automatic (Delayed Start)’.

Step 6. Configure the sharing options in Windows 10

Select ‘Settings’ > ‘Network & Internet’ > ‘Sharing options’ and configure the options as follows:

Private (current profile)
  1. Network discovery
    • ‘Turn on network discovery’ is selected.
    • ‘Turn on automatic setup of network connected devices.’ is ticked.
  2. File and printer sharing
    • ‘Turn on file and printer sharing’ is selected.
  3. HomeGroup connections
    • ‘Allow Windows to manage homegroup connections (recommended)’ is selected.
Guest or Public
  1. Network discovery
    • ‘Turn on network discovery’ is selected.
  2. File and printer sharing
    • ‘Turn on file and printer sharing’ is selected.
All Networks
  1. Public folder sharing
    • ‘Turn on sharing so anyone with network access can read and write files in the Public folders’ is selected.
  2. Media streaming
    • Nothing is selected.
  3. File sharing connections
    • ‘Use 128-bit encryption to help protect file sharing connections (recommended)’ is selected.
  4. Password protected sharing
    • ‘Turn off password protected sharing’ is selected.

Step 7. Install WS-Discovery daemon on the Linux machines

Gentoo Linux
In Gentoo I simply installed the package net-misc/wsdd from the guru overlay:

root # eix -I wsdd
[I] net-misc/wsdd [1]
     Available versions:  (~)0.5 (~)0.6 {samba PYTHON_TARGETS="python3_6 python3_7 python3_8"}
     Installed versions:  0.6(00:39:07 07/06/20)(-samba PYTHON_TARGETS="python3_7 -python3_6 -python3_8")
     Homepage:            https://github.com/christgau/wsdd
     Description:         A Web Service Discovery host daemon.

[1] "guru" /var/lib/layman/guru

and, as I use OpenRC in Gentoo, I configured /etc/conf.d/wsdd.conf as follows:

# /etc/conf.d/wsdd

# Override the default user/group under which wsdd runs.
# Must follow the user[:group] notation.
#WSDD_USER="daemon:daemon"

# Specify alternative log file location.
#WSDD_LOG_FILE="/var/log/wsdd.log"

# Disable automatic detection of the workgroup from samba configuration.
#WSDD_WORKGROUP="MYGROUP"
WSDD_WORKGROUP="HOME"

# Additional options for the daemon, e.g. to listen on interface eth0 only.
# Refer to wsdd(1) for details.
#WSDD_OPTS="-i eth0"
WSDD_OPTS="--shortlog --interface enp4s0f1 --interface wlp3s0 --hostname tutankhamun --discovery"

Specifying the interfaces and hostname are optional, but wsdd seemed to work better when I specified them explicitly. You can ascertain the interfaces by using the command ‘ip address‘ or the deprecated command ‘ifconfig‘.

I added the service to the default runlevel so that it is started automatically when I boot the machine, and then I started it:

root # rc-update add wsdd default
root # rc-service wsdd start

Lubuntu 18.04

In Lubuntu 18.04 (which uses systemd) wsdd can be installed either manually or from a package:

a) Manual installation

user $ wget https://github.com/christgau/wsdd/archive/master.zip
user $ unzip master.zip
user $ sudo cp wsdd-master/src/wsdd.py /usr/bin/wsdd
user $ sudo cp wsdd-master/etc/systemd/wsdd.service /etc/systemd/system/

Edit the systemd service file /etc/systemd/system/wsdd.service to add desired options to the ExecStart command and to change the group from ‘nobody‘ to ‘nogroup‘:

...
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wsdd --workgroup HOME --shortlog --interface eno1 --interface wlp2s0 --hostname thutmoseiii --discovery
...
User=nobody
Group=nogroup
...

You can check whether the user and group exist in your installation as follows:

user $ grep ^nobody /etc/passwd
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
user $ grep ^nobody /etc/group
user $ grep ^nogroup /etc/group
nogroup:x:65534:

Actually, I prefer to specify ‘daemon‘ for the user and group in the wsdd.service file (which is also what the Gentoo Linux ebuild uses and what the .deb package uses):

...
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wsdd --workgroup HOME --shortlog --interface eno1 --interface wlp2s0 --hostname thutmoseiii --discovery
...
User=daemon
Group=daemon
...

You can check that this user and group also exist:

user $ grep ^daemon /etc/passwd
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
user $ grep ^daemon /etc/group
daemon:x:1:

(I tried both nobody:nogroup and daemon:daemon, and there was no apparent difference in behaviour.)

Enable the service so that it starts automatically when the machine is booted, and also start it now:

user $ sudo systemctl enable wsdd
user $ sudo systemctl start wsdd

b) Installing from a package

Here is a link to a .deb package for wsdd Version 0.6.0:

https://pkg.ltec.ch/public/pool/main/w/wsdd/

The resulting installation differs slightly from the manual procedure; the package creates a configuration file /etc/wsdd.conf and you declare the wsdd options in that file instead:

# command line parameters for wsdd (consult man page)
WSDD_PARAMS=""

The package also installs a systemd service file /lib/systemd/system/wsdd.service containing the following:

[Unit]
Description=Web Services Dynamic Discovery host daemon
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=simple
EnvironmentFile=/etc/wsdd.conf
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wsdd $WSDD_PARAMS
User=daemon
Group=daemon

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

The package installs the Python 3 executable wsdd in the directory /usr/bin/. It’s a very straightforward package.

Step 8. Configure Samba to make Windows 10 prompt for username and password

When you click on a network share in Windows 10’s File Explorer, Windows 10 uses the Windows 10 username and password to try to access the SMB share on the remote machine (see ‘Samba share does not ask for credentials from Windows Client‘). This will obviously not work unless the usernames/passwords on both machines match. To make Windows 10 prompt the user to enter the remote username and password, edit the file /etc/samba/smb.conf on each Linux machine and comment out the line ‘map to guest = bad user‘ (see the smb.conf files listed in my 2016 article ‘A correct method of configuring Samba for browsing SMB shares in a home network‘).

Step 9. Enable guest access in Windows 10

If I enter a SMB share’s UNC address in File Explorer’s address bar, or if I double-click on the remote machine’s icon in File Explorer (after WS-Discovery has made the SMB share visible in File Explorer), Windows 10 displays the following error message:

Network Error

Windows cannot access \\hostname

Check the spelling of the name. Otherwise, there might be a problem with your network. To try to identify and resolve network problems, click Diagnose.

Error Code: 0x80070035
The network path was not found.

This has nothing to do with the fact that SMBv1 is disabled in Windows 10. It happens because Windows 10 1709 and onwards have guest logins disabled:

To enable guest logins I edited the Windows 10 Registry and changed the following key from zero to one:

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanWorkstation\Parameters]

“AllowInsecureGuestAuth”=dword:1

Step 10. Configure the Windows 10 firewall

Select ‘Windows Defender Security Center’ > ‘Firewall & network protection’.

Click ‘Allow an app through the firewall’.

If not already ticked, select ‘Private’ and ‘Public’ for ‘Network Discovery’ and for ‘File and Printer Sharing’.

Step 11. Configure the Linux firewall

This is where things get more complicated. According to the README for wsdd:

Firewall Setup

Both incoming and outgoing multicast traffic on port 3702 must be allowed. For IPv4, the multicast address is 239.255.255.250, for IPv6 the link local SSDP multicast address (ff02::c) is used.

Incoming TCP traffic (and related outgoing traffic) on port 5357 must be allowed.

My laptops and desktop use UFW, and below I explain how I configured UFW to satisfy the above requirements.

Firstly, as my firewall is configured to deny incoming traffic and allow outgoing traffic by default, I enabled UFW and added the following DNS rules to UFW’s main rules (the following two commands add rules for both IPv4 and IPv6):

user $ sudo ufw allow 53/tcp
user $ sudo ufw allow 53/udp

Note that, in order for the multicast rule I use to work, xt_pkttype must either have been built into the kernel or built as a kernel module and have been loaded:

user $ lsmod | grep pkttype
xt_pkttype             16384  2
x_tables               40960  17 ip6table_filter,xt_conntrack,iptable_filter,xt_LOG,xt_multiport,xt_tcpudp,xt_addrtype,ip6t_rt,ip6_tables,ipt_REJECT,xt_CT,xt_pkttype,iptable_raw,ip_tables,xt_limit,xt_hl,ip6t_REJECT

To load the module automatically at boot, in Gentoo Linux I added ‘xt_pkttype‘ to the list of modules in the file /etc/conf.d/modules, and in Lubuntu 18.04 I added ‘xt_pkttype‘ to the list of modules in the file /etc/modules-load.d/modules.conf.

Also note that my firewall had previously already been configured for NetBIOS and SMB by using the following commands:

user $ # Rules for SMB
user $ # IPv4:
user $ sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 137,138 proto udp
user $ sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.0/24 to any port 139,445 proto tcp
user $ # IPv6:
user $ # (NetBIOS is undefined for IPv6 but I believe SMB uses Port 445 in IPv6)
user $ sudo ufw allow from ff80::/10 to any port 445 proto tcp

IPv4

The end of the file /etc/ufw/before.rules previously looked like this:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 224.0.0.251 --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 239.255.255.250 --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT
# The following is needed to enable Samba commands to
# work properly for broadcast NetBIOS name resolution
#
# raw table rules
*raw
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-F OUTPUT
-A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
COMMIT

I inserted seven lines as shown below:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 224.0.0.251 --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -d 239.255.255.250 --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST WS-Discovery for service discovery (be sure the MULTICAST line above
# is uncommented)
-A ufw-before-input -m pkttype --pkt-type multicast -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p udp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --sport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 5357 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw-before-input -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --sport 5357 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT
# The following is needed to enable Samba commands to
# work properly for broadcast NetBIOS name resolution
#
# raw table rules
*raw
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-F OUTPUT
-A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
COMMIT

Actually the two IPv4 rules shown above for mDNS and UPnP that were already in the file /etc/ufw/before.rules have become redundant because the first of the five new rules I added encompasses them. It does no harm to leave those two rules in the file, though.

IPv6

The end of the file /etc/ufw/before6.rules previously looked like this:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::fb --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::f --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT

I inserted six lines as shown below:

...
# allow MULTICAST mDNS for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::fb --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST UPnP for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -d ff02::f --dport 1900 -j ACCEPT

# allow MULTICAST WS-Discovery for service discovery
-A ufw6-before-input -m pkttype --pkt-type multicast -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -s fe80::/10 --dport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p udp -s fe80::/10 --sport 3702 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p tcp -s fe80::/10 --dport 5357 -j ACCEPT
-A ufw6-before-input -p tcp -s fe80::/10 --sport 5357 -j ACCEPT

# don't delete the 'COMMIT' line or these rules won't be processed
COMMIT

Actually the two IPv6 rules shown above for mDNS and UPnP that were already in the file /etc/ufw/before6.rules have become redundant because the first of the five new rules I added encompasses them. It does no harm to leave those two rules in the file, though.

Because the Linux machines in my network still use broadcast NetBIOS for name resolution I left all the NetBIOS rules in UFW as they were, including the extra lines I previously added to /etc/ufw/before.rules (see the raw table rule at the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules listed above and my blog post ‘Prevent Linux firewalls interfering with Samba commands in a home network that uses broadcast NetBIOS name resolution‘).

Actually, as my laptops change firewall zones automatically (see my post ‘Firewall zones (profiles) in Linux, and how to switch them automatically if you use UFW‘), on my laptops I added the new rules to the zone for my home network specified in my NetworkManager Dispatcher hook script /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/20_ufw-zones.

After reloading UFW, the UFW status on my machines now looks like this (I’ve excluded rules unrelated to this topic):

user $ sudo ufw status verbose
Status: active
Logging: on (low)
Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed)
New profiles: skip

To                         Action      From
--                         ------      ----
137,138/udp                ALLOW IN    192.168.1.0/24
139,445/tcp                ALLOW IN    192.168.1.0/24
53/tcp                     ALLOW IN    Anywhere
53/udp                     ALLOW IN    Anywhere
445/tcp                    ALLOW IN    ff80::/10
53/tcp (v6)                ALLOW IN    Anywhere (v6)
53/udp (v6)                ALLOW IN    Anywhere (v6)

Note that UFW does not display rules declared in /etc/ufw/{before,before6}.rules

Step 12. Re-enable the Windows 10 firewall

Select ‘Settings’ > ‘Network & Internet’ > ‘Windows Firewall’.

Step 13. Check that wsdd is working as expected

To check that wsdd is actually detecting other machines running WS-Discovery, you can stop the daemon running and instead launch wsdd manually in a terminal window with verbose logging enabled.

For example, on my laptop running Gentoo Linux I did the following:

user $ sudo rc-service wsdd stop
user $ wsdd --workgroup HOME --verbose --interface enp4s0f1 --interface wlp3s0 --hostname tutankhamun --discovery

And on my family’s desktop running Lubuntu 18.04 I did the following:

user $ sudo systemctl stop wsdd
user $ wsdd --workgroup HOME --verbose --interface eno1 --interface wlp2s0 --hostname thutmoseiii --discovery

Check the output in the terminal window includes a discovered line for each machine running Windows 10 and for each Linux machine running wsdd. For example:

...
2020-06-16 00:31:09,331:wsdd INFO(pid 17574): discovered MSWIN10PC in Workgroup:HOME on 192.168.1.111%eno1
...
2020-06-16 00:31:10,013:wsdd INFO(pid 17574): discovered MSWIN10PC in Workgroup:HOME on [fe80::fc7e:7068:8c2c:e664]%eno1
...

After pressing Ctrl+C to stop wsdd running in the terminal, you can restart the daemon:

Gentoo Linux

user $ sudo rc-service wsdd start

Lubuntu 18.04

user $ sudo systemctl start wsdd

With wsdd running on the Linux machines they become visible in File Explorer on Windows 10 machines connected to the network. However, the converse is not necessarily true, as explained further on.

As I had previously configured Samba on my Linux machines to use broadcast NetBIOS to resolve names, Samba on the Linux machines fails to resolve the hostnames of the Windows 10 machines because Windows 10 no longer supports NetBIOS name resolution (neither broadcast nor WINS). I confirmed this by using the smbclient command in a terminal window:

user $ sudo smbclient //MSEDGEWIN10/TestSMBShare1 --debuglevel=10
...
added interface eno1 ip=192.168.1.111 bcast=192.168.1.255 netmask=255.255.255.0
Netbios name list:-
my_netbios_names[0]="THUTMOSEIII"
Client started (version 4.7.6-Ubuntu).
Opening cache file at /var/cache/samba/gencache.tdb
Opening cache file at /var/run/samba/gencache_notrans.tdb
sitename_fetch: No stored sitename for realm ''
internal_resolve_name: looking up MSEDGEWIN10#20 (sitename (null))
no entry for MSEDGEWIN10#20 found.
name_resolve_bcast: Attempting broadcast lookup for name MSEDGEWIN10
Connection to MSEDGEWIN10 failed (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL)

However, in Gentoo Linux (Stable Branch, KDE Plasma 5.18.5, KDE Applications 19.12.3) on my main laptop I can enter ‘smb://hostname/sharename‘ (e.g. smb://msedgewin10/Users/Public) in the Dolphin file manager’s address bar and browse the contents of the SMB share on the Window 10 machine. I assume this is because Avahi on the Linux machine performs name resolution anyway even though the broadcast NetBIOS lookup has failed. Although Lubuntu 18.04 also has the Avahi daemon running, it does not resolve the hostname when I enter ‘smb://hostname/sharename‘ in PCManFM’s address bar; I have to enter ‘smb://IPaddress/sharename‘ (e.g. smb://192.168.1.64/Users/Public) to be able to browse the contents of the Windows 10 shared folder.

Conclusion

wsdd running on Linux machines enables Windows 10 to view networked Linux machines in File Explorer and browse SMBv2 and SMBv3 shares residing on Linux machines. It does not guarantee I will be able to view Windows 10 machines in Linux file managers automatically, though. But I can access Windows 10 machines by entering ‘smb://IPaddress/sharename‘ in the Linux file manager’s address bar, or, depending on what has been installed in the Linux installation and how it has been configured, by entering ‘smb://hostname/sharename‘.

To access a Linux SMB shared folder (as declared in that machine’s smb.conf file) in Windows 10 File Explorer, either I double-click on the Linux machine’s icon in the Network view or I enter the UNC address (e.g. \\tutankhamun\Users\Public) in the address bar. I can then access the files and sub-folders.

To browse a Windows 10 SMB shared folder and files in KDE Dolphin in Gentoo Linux current Stable Branch on my main laptop, I enter the UNC address (e.g. smb://msedgewin10/Users/Public) or click on the location I previously bookmarked under ‘Places’ in the left pane of the Dolphin window. I can then access the files and sub-folders. To browse a Windows 10 SMB shared folder and files in LXDE PCManFM in Lubuntu 18.04, I enter the UNC address with an IP address instead of a hostname (e.g. smb://192.168.1.64/Users/Public). I can then access the files and sub-folders. I am going to have to do some more digging to try to find out why KDE Dolphin in Gentoo Linux on my main laptop (kio-extras installed from Gentoo ebuild kio-extras-19.12.3-r2) can access Windows 10 by hostname but PCManFM in Lubuntu 18.04 cannot.

To enable machines running Window 10 to browse SMB shares on my other Linux machines I would need to perform the same Linux-related steps in each of those installations. My server firewall uses IPTABLES directly, rather than UFW, so the syntax of the additional firewall rules would be different.

Addendum, 16 June 2020: I suspected the problem browsing the Windows 10 SMB shares from Lubuntu 18.04 is due to PCManFM, so I installed a different file manager: SpaceFM (Version 1.0.5 for GTK2) and its associated utility udevil (Version 0.4.4). SpaceFM allows me to enter UNC addresses such as ‘smb://mswin10pc/Users/Public‘ without any problems. So, problem solved in Lubuntu 18.04 now as well.

How to send a message to running X Windows sessions in a multi-user Linux system

The ‘wall‘ command can be used to broadcast a message from a TTY console to other logged-in TTY console users in a multi-user Linux system. The Linux command ‘notify-send‘ can be used to send a message (a.k.a. notification) within an X Windows session, and Desktop Environments such as KDE and GNOME use notify-send to display pop-up notifications to the user. However, apparently no program exists in Linux to broadcast a message to other running X Windows sessions; that sounds like the sort of thing systemd developers would implement. A few years ago Unix & Linux Stack Exchange user Andy posted a Bash script notify-send-all to do just that (see Show a notification across all running X displays). For example, if you wanted to send a message to all the users of a multi-seat, multi-user Linux system who are currently logged-in to Desktop Environments, you could enter the following command to run the script in your home directory:

$ sudo ./notify-send-all -t 50000 "Warning" "Don't forget the staff meeting at 15:00 today."

Below is a slightly modified version of Andy‘s script that works for me in Lubuntu 18.04:

#!/bin/bash
PATH=/usr/bin:/bin
who|grep -E "\(:[0-9](\.[0-9])*\)"|awk '{print $1$5}'|sort -u > /tmp/xusers
while read XUSER; do
    NAME=(${XUSER/(/ })
    DISPLAY=${NAME[1]/)/}
    DBUS_ADDRESS=unix:path=/run/user/$(id -u ${NAME[0]})/bus
    sudo -u ${NAME[0]} DISPLAY=${DISPLAY} \
                       DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=${DBUS_ADDRESS} \
                       PATH=${PATH} \
                       notify-send "$@"
done < /tmp/xusers

Here is my tidied-up version:

#!/bin/bash
who | awk '{print $1, $NF}' | tr -d "()" | sort -u |
while read XUSER DISPNUM; do
    sudo -u $XUSER DISPLAY=$DISPNUM \
                   DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=unix:path=/run/user/$(id -u $XUSER)/bus \
                   notify-send "$@"
done

In Gentoo Linux DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS needs to be found differently, and the following version of Andy‘s script works for me in that Linux distribution:

#!/bin/bash
PATH=/usr/bin:/bin
export $(dbus-launch)
who|grep -E "\(:[0-9](\.[0-9])*\)"|awk '{print $1$5}'|sort -u > /tmp/xusers
while read XUSER; do
    NAME=(${XUSER/(/ })
    DISPLAY=${NAME[1]/)/}
    sudo -u ${NAME[0]} DISPLAY=${DISPLAY} \
                       ${DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS} \
                       PATH=${PATH} \
                       notify-send "$@"
done < /tmp/xusers

And here is my tidied-up version:

#!/bin/bash
export $(dbus-launch)
who | awk '{print $1, $NF}' | tr -d "()" | sort -u |
while read XUSER DISPNUM; do
    sudo -u $XUSER DISPLAY=$DISPNUM \
                   $BUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS \
                   notify-send "$@"
done

notify-send-all will be of academic interest to users of single-user systems, but it’s nice to know such a thing is possible relatively easily in Linux.

Using Bash scripts in Linux to delete the history, cookies and cache files of Firefox, Google Chrome and Thunderbird

The browsing data stored by Firefox, Google Chrome and Thunderbird can be deleted using the respective application’s GUI. But you can also do that using a Bash script, which could be useful if you want to delete unnecessary/unwanted files before e.g. backing up your home directory, or if you want a quick and easy way to clear-out browsing data. In this post I list the scripts and Desktop Configuration files I have created in Gentoo Linux and in Lubuntu 18.04 to remove browsing data.

In the case of Thunderbird, I am not sure if it is safe to delete Thunderbird’s cache files so my script only deletes cookies. Anyway, that could be added later if it transpires there is no harm in deleting Thunderbird’s cache files.

I am using the following 64-bit versions of the two browsers and e-mail client:

  • Mozilla Firefox 74.0
  • Mozilla Thunderbird 68.5.0 in Gentoo Linux only
  • Google Chrome 80.0.3987.132 in Gentoo Linux
  • Google Chrome 67.0.3396.99 in Lubuntu 18.04

I have not tested my scripts with other versions of Firefox, Chrome and Thunderbird, nor in other installations, so please do check carefully the directory paths and commands in the script against the directory paths in your installation before selecting ‘[D]elete‘ in the running script.

In Lubuntu 18.04 I had to install sqlite3 first:

$ sudo apt install sqlite3

In Gentoo Linux it was already installed:

$ eix -I sqlite
[I] dev-db/sqlite
     Available versions:  (3) 3.29.0^t 3.30.1^t 3.31.1^t
       {debug doc icu +readline secure-delete static-libs tcl test tools ABI_MIPS="n32 n64 o32" ABI_RISCV="lp64 lp64d" ABI_S390="32 64" ABI_X86="32 64 x32"}
     Installed versions:  3.31.1(3)^t(19:53:28 13/03/20)(icu readline secure-delete -debug -doc -static-libs -tcl -test -tools ABI_MIPS="-n32 -n64 -o32" ABI_RISCV="-lp64 -lp64d" ABI_S390="-32 -64" ABI_X86="32 64 -x32")
     Homepage:            https://sqlite.org/
     Description:         SQL database engine

Firefox and Thunderbird

I created the Bash script Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.sh listed below. The user can select only Firefox or only Thunderbird, or both, and the script enables the user to choose whether to just view the current situation or to delete the data. The script checks if the applications are running and will not do anything if they are. In fact, the script offers the user the option to terminate the applications if they happen to be running. The script is still usable if either Firefox or Thunderbird are not installed. The same script can be used in Gentoo and in Lubuntu 18.04, and I believe it would also work in Ubuntu but have not tested it with that distribution.

#!/bin/bash
#
# If Delete is selected for Firefox, this script deletes the entire history, cookies, site data and cache.
# If Delete is selected for Thunderbird, this script deletes the cookies and leaves the cache intact.
#
echo
echo "WARNING:"
echo "The Firefox Browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo "The Thunderbird e-mail client must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo
FIREFOX=$( ls $HOME/.mozilla/firefox 2>/dev/null | grep .default )
THUNDERBIRD=$( ls $HOME/.thunderbird 2>/dev/null | grep .default )
while true
do
   echo -n "[F]irefox, [T]hunderbird, [B]oth or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 PROMPT2
   echo
   case $PROMPT2 in
      [fF]* ) CHOICE2="F"; break;;
      [tT]* ) CHOICE2="T"; break;;
      [bB]* ) CHOICE2="B"; break;;
      [eE]* ) exit;;
      * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
   esac
done
FRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER firefox > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   FRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "The Firefox browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT0
      echo
      case $PROMPT0 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE0="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE0="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE0 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER firefox )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      FRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
TRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER thunderbird > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   TRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo -n "The Thunderbird e-mail client is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT1
      echo
      case $PROMPT1 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE1="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE1="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER thunderbird )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      TRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
ABORT="N"
if [[ $FRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   if [[ $CHOICE2 == "F" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Please quit Firefox then re-run this script."
      echo
      ABORT="Y"
   fi
fi
if [[ $TRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   if [[ $CHOICE2 == "T" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Please quit Thunderbird then re-run this script."
      echo
      ABORT="Y"
   fi
fi
if [[ $ABORT == "N" ]]; then
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
      read -n1 PROMPT3
      echo
      case $PROMPT3 in
         [dD]* ) CHOICE3="D"; break;;
         [lL]* ) CHOICE3="L"; break;;
         [eE]* ) exit;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE3 == "D" ]]; then
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "F" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
            echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
         else
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox History..........."
            echo "==================================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/places.sqlite "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;"
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/places.sqlite "delete from moz_historyvisits;"
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox Cookies........"
            echo "================================"
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;"
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox Site Data........"
            echo "=================================="
            ls ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/storage/default/ | grep http
            find ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/storage/default -name "http*" -type d -exec rm -r "{}" \; -prune
            echo
            echo "Deleting Firefox Cache..........."
            echo "================================="
            NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            find ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries -type f -delete 2>/dev/null
            echo
         fi
      fi
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "T" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
            echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
         else
            echo "Deleting Thunderbird Cookies........"
            echo "===================================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.thunderbird/${THUNDERBIRD}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;"
         fi
      fi
   fi
   if [[ $CHOICE3 == "L" ]]; then
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "F" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
            echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
         else
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox History........."
            echo "================================"
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/places.sqlite "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | more
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox Cookies........"
            echo "==============================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | more
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox Site Data........"
            echo "================================="
            ls ${HOME}/.mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/storage/default/ | grep http | more
            echo
            echo "Current Firefox Cache..........."
            echo "================================="
            NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/mozilla/firefox/${FIREFOX}/cache2/entries )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            echo
         fi
      fi
      if [[ $CHOICE2 == "T" ]] || [[ $CHOICE2 == "B" ]]; then
         if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
            echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
         else
            echo "Current Thunderbird Cookies......"
            echo "================================="
            sqlite3 ${HOME}/.thunderbird/${THUNDERBIRD}/cookies.sqlite "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | more
         fi
      fi
   fi
fi
printf "\n"
read -rep $'\n Press ENTER to exit ' PROMPT4

Listed below is the Desktop Configuration file Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.desktop for KDE in Gentoo Linux that I created in the ~/Desktop/ directory. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/Mozilla.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be modified if the icon file were to be stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Mozilla.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Name=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

The equivalent Desktop Configuration file I created for Lubuntu 18.04 is very similar:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Mozilla.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Name=Firefox_or_Thunderbird_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-LXDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-LXDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Google Chrome

I created the following Bash script Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh for the Google Chrome browser in Gentoo Linux. Different scripts have to be used in Gentoo Linux and in Lubuntu 18.04 because the paths are different.

#!/bin/bash
#
# If Delete is selected, this script deletes the entire cache, the code cache,
# the Visited Links file and the Top Sites file.
#
echo
echo "WARNING:"
echo "The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo
while true
do
   echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 PROMPT1
   echo
   case $PROMPT1 in
      [dD]* ) CHOICE1="D"; break;;
      [lL]* ) CHOICE1="L"; break;;
      [eE]* ) exit;;
      * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
   esac
done
CRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER chrome > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   CRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "The Google Chrome browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT0
      echo
      case $PROMPT0 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE0="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE0="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE0 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER chrome )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      CRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
if [[ $CRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   echo
   echo "Please quit Google Chrome then re-run this script."
   echo
else
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "D" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Deleting URLs..........."
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls; delete from urls;"
      echo
      echo "Deleting Cookies........"
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies; delete from cookies;"
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Chrome Cache......."
         echo "====================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache
      fi
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Code\ Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Code Cache......"
         echo "========================="
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Code\ Cache
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Visited\ Links ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Visited Links......"
         echo "============================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Visited\ Links
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Top\ Sites ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Top Sites......"
         echo "========================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Top\ Sites
      fi
   fi
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "L" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Current URLs..........."
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls;" | more
      echo
      echo "Current Cookies........"
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies;" | more
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Current Chrome Cache............."
         echo "================================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Profile\ 2/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
      fi
   fi
fi
printf "\n"
read -rep $'\n Press ENTER to exit ' PROMPT2

And below is the Desktop Configuration file Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.desktop for Gentoo Linux. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be adjusted if the icon file were stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Comment=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
GenericName=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Name=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=

Below is the version of the script Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh for Lubuntu 18.04:

#!/bin/bash
#
# If Delete is selected, this script deletes the entire cache, the code cache,
# the Visited Links file and the Top Sites file.
#
echo
echo "WARNING:"
echo "The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files."
echo
while true
do
   echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 PROMPT1
   echo
   case $PROMPT1 in
      [dD]* ) CHOICE1="D"; break;;
      [lL]* ) CHOICE1="L"; break;;
      [eE]* ) exit;;
      * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
   esac
done
CRUNNING="N"
pgrep -u $USER chrome > /dev/null
if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
   CRUNNING="Y"
   while true
   do
      echo
      echo -n "The Google Chrome browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
      read -n1 PROMPT0
      echo
      case $PROMPT0 in
         [yY]* ) CHOICE0="Y"; break;;
         [nN]* ) CHOICE0="N"; break;;
         * )     echo "Invalid entry.";;
      esac
   done
   if [[ $CHOICE0 == "Y" ]]; then
      FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER chrome )
      FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
      kill -1 $FPID
      CRUNNING="N"
   fi
fi
if [[ $CRUNNING == "Y" ]]; then
   echo
   echo "Please quit Google Chrome then re-run this script."
   echo
else
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "D" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Deleting URLs..........."
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls; delete from urls;"
      echo
      echo "Deleting Cookies........"
      echo "========================"
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies; delete from cookies;"
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Chrome Cache......."
         echo "====================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache
      fi
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Code\ Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Code Cache......"
         echo "========================="
         rm -r ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Code\ Cache
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Visited\ Links ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Visited Links......"
         echo "============================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Visited\ Links
      fi
      if [[ -f ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Top\ Sites ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Deleting Top Sites......"
         echo "========================"
         rm ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Top\ Sites
      fi
   fi
   if [[ $CHOICE1 == "L" ]]; then
      echo
      echo "Current URLs..........."
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/History "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls;" | more
      echo
      echo "Current Cookies........"
      echo "======================="
      sqlite3 ${HOME}/.config/google-chrome/Default/Cookies "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies;" | more
      if [[ -d ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache ]]; then
         echo
         echo "Current Chrome Cache............."
         echo "================================="
         NUM=$( ls -1 ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache | wc -l )
         SIZ=$( du -sbh ${HOME}/.cache/google-chrome/Default/Cache )
         SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
         echo "Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
      fi
   fi
fi
printf "\n"
read -rep $'\n Press ENTER to exit ' PROMPT2

And below is the Desktop Configuration file Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.desktop for Lubuntu 18.04. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be adjusted if the icon file were stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Comment=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
GenericName=Clear Google Chrome cache and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/Google-Chrome.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Name=Google-Chrome_-_Clear_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-LXDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-LXDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Below are a few examples of the output when I launch the scripts.

Here is the output of the script that deals with Firefox and/or Thunderbird when I only list the current situation:


WARNING:
The Firefox Browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
The Thunderbird e-mail client must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[F]irefox, [T]hunderbird, [B]oth or [E]xit: b 
 
The Firefox browser is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: y 
The Thunderbird e-mail client is running. Do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: y 
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: l 
 
Current Firefox History.........
================================
2020-03-19 17:27:24|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:27:20|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:27:30|https://www.theguardian.com/uk
2020-03-19 17:27:38|http://www.jb.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:27:38|https://www.jb.com.br/
 
Current Firefox Cookies........
===============================
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:22|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:23|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:30|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:39|.denakop.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:46|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:46|.www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
 
Current Firefox Site Data........
=================================
https+++www.google.com
https+++www.theguardian.com
https+++www.youtube.com
 
Current Firefox Cache...........
=================================
Files: 383 Size: 15M
 
Current Thunderbird Cookies......
=================================


 Press ENTER to exit

Here is the output of the script that deals with Firefox and/or Thunderbird when I delete only the Firefox data:

 
WARNING:
The Firefox Browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
The Thunderbird e-mail client must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[F]irefox, [T]hunderbird, [B]oth or [E]xit: f 
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: d 
 
Deleting Firefox History...........
===================================
2020-03-19 17:27:24|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:27:20|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:27:30|https://www.theguardian.com/uk
2020-03-19 17:27:38|http://www.jb.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:27:38|https://www.jb.com.br/
 
Deleting Firefox Cookies........
================================
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:20|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:27:22|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:23|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:24|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:25|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:27:30|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:36|.theguardian.com
2020-03-19 17:27:39|.denakop.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:43|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.tt-10969-0.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:44|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:27:46|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:46|.www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
2020-03-19 17:27:43|www.jb.com.br
 
Deleting Firefox Site Data........
==================================
https+++www.google.com
https+++www.theguardian.com
https+++www.youtube.com
 
Deleting Firefox Cache...........
=================================
Files: 383 Size: 15M
 


 Press ENTER to exit

Here is the output of the script that deals with Google Chrome when I just list the current situation:


WARNING:
The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: l 
 
Current URLs...........
=======================
2020-03-19 17:30:41|https://duckduckgo.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:44|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:49|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:30:57|http://www.folha.uol.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:30:57|https://www.folha.uol.com.br/
 
Current Cookies........
=======================
2020-03-19 17:30:49|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.bt.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:45|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:46|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:31:08|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.dna.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:30:49|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:08|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.navdmp.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|ivccf.ivcbrasil.org.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.prg.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:22|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:20|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.uol.com.br
 
Current Chrome Cache.............
=================================
Files: 317 Size: 8.6M


 Press ENTER to exit

Here is the output of the script that deals with Google Chrome when I delete the browser data:


WARNING:
The Google Chrome browser must not be running if you are going to list or delete its data files.
 
[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: d 
 
Deleting URLs...........
========================
2020-03-19 17:30:41|https://duckduckgo.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:44|https://www.youtube.com/
2020-03-19 17:30:49|https://www.accuweather.com/en/gb/united-kingdom-weather
2020-03-19 17:30:57|http://www.folha.uol.com.br/
2020-03-19 17:30:57|https://www.folha.uol.com.br/
 
Deleting Cookies........
========================
2020-03-19 17:30:49|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.bt.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:45|accounts.google.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:46|.doubleclick.net
2020-03-19 17:31:08|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.google.com
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.dna.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.scorecardresearch.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:30:44|.youtube.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:10|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:50|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:01|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:11|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|paywall.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:30:49|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:08|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:06|player.mais.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:58|.navdmp.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:30:51|.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:06|ivccf.ivcbrasil.org.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:04|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-10162-1.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.tt-12340-4.seg.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:05|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:31:00|.t.tailtarget.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:30:57|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.rubiconproject.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:30:50|www.accuweather.com
2020-03-19 17:31:04|.prg.smartadserver.com
2020-03-19 17:31:22|www.folha.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:20|.uol.com.br
2020-03-19 17:31:10|.uol.com.br
 
Deleting Chrome Cache.......
=====================
Files: 317 Size: 8.6M
 
Deleting Code Cache......
=========================
 
Deleting Visited Links......
============================
 
Deleting Top Sites......
========================


 Press ENTER to exit

Update March 23, 2020: For those of you who would prefer a single script that can delete the browsing history, cookies and cache files of Google Chrome and/or Firefox and/or Thunderbird, I have now created the script clear_browser_data.sh shown below with appropriate Desktop Configuration files for Gentoo Linux and Lubuntu 18.04. In addition I have now added the ability to list and delete the history and cache files of Thunderbird, as I have checked that deleting those is not detremental to Thunderbird. Furthermore, this new script finds the directories itself rather than having them partially hard-coded in the script, so I am using the same script in both Gentoo and Lubuntu 18.04. That said, I have not tested the script with other versions of Chrome, Firefox and Thunderbird, nor with other Linux distributions, so do not select [D]elete until you have checked that the directories evaluated by the script match the directories in your installation.

#!/bin/bash
#
########################################################################
#
# Bash script to enable the user to list and/or delete browser data of:
# Google Chrome browser
# Mozilla Firefox browser
# Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail client
#
########################################################################
#
# Check for existence of the applications' directories
FIREFOX=$( ls $HOME/.mozilla/firefox 2>/dev/null | grep profiles.ini )
THUNDERBIRD=$( ls $HOME/.thunderbird  2>/dev/null | grep profiles.ini )
CHROME=$( ls -d $HOME/.config/google-chrome 2>/dev/null )
if [ -z "$CHROME" ]; then
   echo
   echo "Chrome directory does not exist"
else
   # Chrome directory locations
   #
   CLOCALST=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome -type f -name "Local State" )
   CCURPROF=$( cat "$CLOCALST" | awk -F "," '{for (I=1;I<=NF;I++) if ($I~/"info_cache"/) {print $(I)};}' | awk -F "info_cache" '{print $2}' | awk -F '"' '{print $3}' )   
   CHISTORY=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "History" )
   CCOOKIES=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "Cookies" )
   CVISITED=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "Visited Links" )
   CTOPSITS=$( find $HOME/.config/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type f -name "Top Sites" )
   CCACHEDF=$( find $HOME/.cache/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -type d -name "Cache" )
   CCODECAC=$( find $HOME/.cache/google-chrome/"$CCURPROF" -maxdepth 2 -type d -name "Code Cache" )
   echo; echo "Chrome is using profile: $CCURPROF"
   
fi
if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
   echo
   echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
else
   # Firefox file locations. First get the current Profile Name
   # The profiles are listed in 'profiles.ini'.
   # If profiles.ini does not contain a line 'Locked=1' then the current profile
   # is followed by the line 'Default=1'. If profiles.ini does contain 'Locked=1'
   # then the current profile is followed by the line 'Locked=1'
   #
   FPROFILE=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/ -type f -name "profiles.ini" )
   if grep -q "Locked=1$" "$FPROFILE"; then
      FCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Locked=1$" "$FPROFILE" | grep -v Locked )
   else
      FCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Default=1$" "$FPROFILE" | grep -v Default )
   fi
   FCURPROF=$( echo "$FCURPROF" | cut -d"=" -f2 )
   FHISTORY=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type f -name "places.sqlite" )
   FCOOKIES=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type f -name "cookies.sqlite" )
   FSITEDAT=$( find $HOME/.mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type d -name "default" )
   FCACHEDF=$( find $HOME/.cache/mozilla/firefox/"$FCURPROF" -type d -name "entries" )
   echo; echo "Firefox is using profile: $FCURPROF"
fi
if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
   echo
   echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
else
   # Thunderbird file locations. First get the current Profile Name
   # The profiles are listed in 'profiles.ini'.
   # If profiles.ini does not contain the line 'Locked=1' then the current profile
   # is followed by the line 'Default=1'. If profiles.ini does contain 'Locked=1'
   # then the current profile is followed by the line 'Locked=1'
   #
   TPROFILE=$( find $HOME/.thunderbird/ -type f -name "profiles.ini" )
   if grep -q "Locked=1$" "$TPROFILE"; then
      TCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Locked=1$" "$TPROFILE" | grep -v Locked )
   else
      TCURPROF=$( grep -B 1 "Default=1$" "$TPROFILE" | grep -v Default )
   fi
   TCURPROF=$( echo "$TCURPROF" | cut -d"=" -f2 )
   THISTORY=$( find $HOME/.thunderbird/"$TCURPROF" -type f -name "places.sqlite" )
   TCOOKIES=$( find $HOME/.thunderbird/"$TCURPROF" -type f -name "cookies.sqlite" )
   TCACHEDF=$( find $HOME/.cache/thunderbird/"$TCURPROF" -type d -name "entries" )
   echo; echo "Thunderbird is using profile: $TCURPROF"
fi
#
MENU=""
while [[ $MENU != "E" ]] && [[ $MENU != "e" ]]; do
   echo
   echo -n "[C]hrome, [F]irefox, T[hunderbird or [E]xit: "
   read -n1 MENU
   echo
   case $MENU in
      [Cc] ) ;;
      [Ff] ) ;;
      [Tt] ) ;;
      [Ee] ) ;;
      * ) echo; echo " Enter 'C/c', 'F/f', 'T/t' or 'E/e'"
   esac
   #########
   # Chrome
   #########
   while [[ $MENU == "C" ]] || [[ $MENU == "c" ]]; do
      pgrep -u $USER chrome > /dev/null
      if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
         echo
         echo -n "Chrome Browser is open, do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
         read -n1 YN
         echo
         if [[ $YN == "Y" ]] || [[ $YN == "y" ]]; then
            CPID=$( pgrep -u $USER chrome )
            CPID=$( echo $CPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
            kill -1 $CPID
         else
            echo
            echo " Cannot list or delete browser URLs if the browser is open"
            break
         fi
      fi
      if [ -z "$CHROME" ]; then
         echo
         echo "Chrome directory does not exist"
         break
      else
         CPROMPT=""
         echo
         echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
         read -n1 CPROMPT
         echo
         case $CPROMPT in
            [Dd] ) echo; echo " Chrome is using profile: $CCURPROF";;
            [Ll] ) echo; echo " Chrome is using profile: $CCURPROF";;
            [Ee] ) ;;
            * ) echo; echo " Enter 'D/d', 'L/l' or 'E/e'";;
         esac
         if [[ $CPROMPT == "E" ]] || [[ $CPROMPT == "e" ]]; then MENU=""; fi
         if [[ $CPROMPT == "D" ]] || [[ $CPROMPT == "d" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Deleting Chrome URLs............."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CHISTORY" "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls; delete from urls;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            echo
            echo " Deleting Chrome Cookies.........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CCOOKIES" "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies; delete from cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            if [[ -d "$CCACHEDF" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Chrome Cache............"
               echo " ================================="
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               rm -r "$CCACHEDF"
            fi
            if [[ -d "$CCODECAC" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Chrome Code Cache......."
               echo " ================================="
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCODECAC" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCODECAC" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               rm -r "$CCODECAC"
            fi
            if [[ -f "$CVISITED" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Visited Links..........."
               echo " ================================="
               rm "$CVISITED"
            fi
            if [[ -f "$CTOPSITS" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Deleting Chrome Top Sites........"
               echo " ================================="
               rm "$CTOPSITS"
            fi
         fi
         if [[ $CPROMPT == "L" ]] || [[ $CPROMPT == "l" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Current Chrome URLs.............."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CHISTORY" "select datetime(last_visit_time/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),url from urls;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Chrome Cookies..........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$CCOOKIES" "select datetime(creation_utc/1000000 + (strftime('%s', '1601-01-01')),'unixepoch'),host_key from cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /' |more
            if [[ -d "$CCACHEDF" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Current Chrome Cache............."
               echo " ================================="
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            fi
            if [[ -d "$CCODECAC" ]]; then
               echo
               echo " Current Chrome Code Cache............."
               echo " ======================================"
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$CCODECAC" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$CCODECAC" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
            fi
         fi
         CPROMPT=""
      fi
   done
   ##########
   # Firefox
   ##########
   while [[ $MENU == "F" ]] || [[ $MENU == "f" ]]; do
      pgrep -u $USER firefox > /dev/null
      if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
         echo
         echo -n "Firefox Browser is open, do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
         read -n1 YN
         echo
         if [[ $YN == "Y" ]] || [[ $YN == "y" ]]; then
            FPID=$( pgrep -u $USER firefox )
            FPID=$( echo $FPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
            kill -1 $FPID
         else
            echo
            echo " Cannot list or delete browser URLs if the browser is open"
            break
         fi
      fi
      if [ -z "$FIREFOX" ]; then
         echo
         echo "Firefox directory does not exist"
         break
      else
         FPROMPT=""
         echo
         echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
         read -n1 FPROMPT
         echo
         case $FPROMPT in
            [Dd] ) echo; echo " Firefox is using profile: $FCURPROF";;
            [Ll] ) echo; echo " Firefox is using profile: $FCURPROF";;
            [Ee] ) ;;
            * ) echo; echo " Enter 'D/d', 'L/l' or 'E/e'";;
         esac
         if [[ $FPROMPT == "E" ]] || [[ $FPROMPT == "e" ]]; then MENU=""; fi
         if [[ $FPROMPT == "D" ]] || [[ $FPROMPT == "d" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox History........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FHISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            sqlite3 "$FHISTORY" "delete from moz_historyvisits;"
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox Cookies........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox Site Data......."
            echo " ================================="
            ls "$FSITEDAT" | grep http | sed 's/^/ /'
            find "$FSITEDAT" -name "http*" -type d -exec rm -r "{}" \; -prune
            echo
            echo " Deleting Firefox Cache..........."
            echo " ================================="
            if [[ $( ls -A "$FCACHEDF" ) ]]; then # Directory not empty
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$FCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$FCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               find "$FCACHEDF" -type f -delete
            fi
         fi
         if [[ $FPROMPT == "L" ]] || [[ $FPROMPT == "l" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox History.........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FHISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox Cookies.........."
            echo " ================================="
            sqlite3 "$FCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox Site Data........"
            echo " ================================="
            ls "$FSITEDAT" | grep http | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Firefox Cache..........."
            echo " ================================"
            NUM=$( ls -1 "$FCACHEDF" | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh "$FCACHEDF" )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         fi
         FPROMPT=""
      fi
   done
   ##############
   # Thunderbird
   ##############
   while [[ $MENU == "T" ]] || [[ $MENU == "t" ]]; do
      pgrep -u $USER thunderbird > /dev/null
      if [[ $? -eq 0 ]]; then
         echo
         echo -n "Thunderbird e-mail client is open, do you wish to close it now? [Y/N]: "
         read -n1 YN
         echo
         if [[ $YN == "Y" ]] || [[ $YN == "y" ]]; then
            TPID=$( pgrep -u $USER thunderbird )
            TPID=$( echo $TPID | cut -d" " -f1 )
            kill -1 $TPID
         else
            echo
            echo " Cannot list or delete Thunderbird URLs if the e-mail client is open"
            break
         fi
      fi
      if [ -z "$THUNDERBIRD" ]; then
         echo
         echo "Thunderbird directory does not exist"
         break
      else
         TPROMPT=""
         echo
         echo -n "[D]elete, [L]ist or [E]xit: "
         read -n1 TPROMPT
         echo
         case $TPROMPT in
            [Dd] ) echo; echo " Thunderbird is using profile: $TCURPROF";;
            [Ll] ) echo; echo " Thunderbird is using profile: $TCURPROF";;
            [Ee] ) ;;
            * ) echo; echo " Enter 'D/d', 'L/l' or 'E/e'";;
         esac
         if [[ $TPROMPT == "E" ]] || [[ $TPROMPT == "e" ]]; then MENU=""; fi
         if [[ $TPROMPT == "D" ]] || [[ $TPROMPT == "d" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Deleting Thunderbird History........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$THISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            sqlite3 "$THISTORY" "delete from moz_historyvisits;"
            echo
            echo " Deleting Thunderbird Cookies........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$TCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies; delete from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /'
            echo
            echo " Deleting Thunderbird Cache..........."
            echo " ====================================="
            if [[ $( ls -A "$TCACHEDF" ) ]]; then # Directory not empty
               NUM=$( ls -1 "$TCACHEDF" | wc -l )
               SIZ=$( du -sbh "$TCACHEDF" )
               SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
               echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
               find "$TCACHEDF" -type f -delete
            fi
         fi
         if [[ $TPROMPT == "L" ]] || [[ $TPROMPT == "l" ]]; then
            echo
            echo " Current Thunderbird History.........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$THISTORY" "SELECT datetime(moz_historyvisits.visit_date/1000000,'unixepoch'), moz_places.url FROM moz_places, moz_historyvisits WHERE moz_places.id = moz_historyvisits.place_id;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Thunderbird Cookies.........."
            echo " ====================================="
            sqlite3 "$TCOOKIES" "select datetime(creationTime/1000000,'unixepoch'),host from moz_cookies;" | sed 's/^/ /' | more
            echo
            echo " Current Thunderbird Cache..........."
            echo " ===================================="
            NUM=$( ls -1 "$TCACHEDF" | wc -l )
            SIZ=$( du -sbh "$TCACHEDF"  )
            SIZ=$( echo $SIZ | cut -d" " -f1 )
            echo " Files: $NUM Size: $SIZ"
         fi
         TPROMPT=""
      fi
   done
done
echo

Listed below is the Desktop Configuration file clear_browser_data.desktop for KDE in Gentoo Linux that I created in the ~/Desktop/ directory. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/broom.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be modified if the icon file were to be stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/clear_browser_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear browser caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear browser caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/broom.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=clear_browser_data
Name=clear_browser_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Listed below is the Desktop Configuration file clear_browser_data.desktop for LXDE in Lubuntu 18.04 that I created in the ~/Desktop/ directory. I downloaded a nice PNG icon from the Web, which I saved as ~/Pictures/Icons/broom.png, although of course the Desktop Configuration file can be modified if the icon file were to be stored elsewhere. Obviously change the username accordingly.

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Comment=Clear Chrome, Firefox or Thunderbird caches and cookies
Exec=/home/fitzcarraldo/clear_browser_data.sh
GenericName[en_GB]=Clear browser caches and cookies
GenericName=Clear browser caches and cookies
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/Pictures/Icons/broom.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=clear_browser_data
Name=clear_browser_data
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=true
TerminalOptions=\s--noclose
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=none
X-LXDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-LXDE-Username=fitzcarraldo

Update April 5, 2020: I have modified Lines 24, 37 (a comment), 40 and 55 in the above script. The original Line 24 did not select the Chrome profile name correctly in another installation, the original Line 40 did not select the Firefox profile name correctly in another installation, and the search string for the Thunderbird profile was not tight enough in the original Line 55. The above script now works in three different installations.

Update April 25, 2020: Arrgghh! I installed Thunderbird in Lubuntu 18.04 and discovered that clear_browser_data.sh did not find the Thunderbird cached files to delete. Unlike Thunderbird in Gentoo Linux on my main laptop, the file profiles.ini for Thunderbird (but not Firefox) in my Lubuntu 18.04 installation contains a line ‘Locked=1‘, and the actual profile used by Thunderbird in Lubuntu 18.04 is the profile specified in the line before ‘Locked=1‘, not the profile specified in the line before ‘Default=1‘. Someone I know uses Ubuntu 16.04 and he tells me Firefox in his installation is like this too. So, for reasons I don’t know, profiles.ini contains ‘Locked=1‘ in some Firefox or Thunderbird installations but not in others. Anyway, I have now modified the script to cater for both cases. It checks if the profiles.ini files for Firefox and Thunderbird contain ‘Locked=1‘ and, if they do, finds the currently-used profile from the line before ‘Locked=1‘ instead of the line before ‘Default=1‘. The line numbers mentioned in my previous update will be different now.

My system upgrade procedure for Gentoo Linux

Gentoo Linux is a so-called ‘rolling-release’ distribution, and each Gentoo Linux user has their own preferred sequence of steps for keeping their installation up-to-date. Below is the general procedure I use for system maintenance of my Gentoo installations, which I perform approximately weekly.

1. Update the ebuilds on the machine (see Gentoo Wiki – Project:Portage/Sync)

root # emaint sync -a

If I were using the deprecated Portage sync method I would instead have used the following commands:

root # emerge --sync # Update the ebuilds from the main Portage tree
root # layman -S # Update the ebuilds from 3rd-party overlays

2. Upgrade the Portage package manager if the console output from Step 1 included a message telling me to upgrade portage

root # emerge -1v portage

3. As I use the eix and the mlocate utilities, update their data files

root # eix-update && updatedb

4. Check if there are any News items I have not read yet

root # eselect news list

5. Read new News items and make necessary changes, if any

root # eselect news read <n>

6. Perform a dry run for the upgrade of any packages in the World file that have new versions

root # emerge -uvpDN --with-bdeps=y @world

7. If no problems were flagged in Step 6, go to Step 9

8. Sort out any problem(s) flagged in Step 6 then go back to Step 6

9. Launch the upgrade of those packages in the World file that have new versions

root # emerge -uvDN --with-bdeps=y --keep-going @world

My decision on whether or not to include the option ‘--keep-going‘ will depend on the precise circumstances.

10. If Step 9 ran to completion successfully, go to Step 14

11. If Step 9 did not run to completion successfully and it appears the package that failed to merge will not cause further problems, go to Step 12, otherwise fix the problem(s)* and go back to Step 9

*Sometimes I find that one or more packages do not merge successfully during Step 9 but do merge successfully simply by repeating Step 9.

12. Resume the upgrade process

root # emerge --resume --skipfirst

13. If Step 12 did not run to completion successfully and it appears the package that failed to merge will not cause further problems, go back to Step 12, otherwise fix the problem(s) and go back to Step 9

14. Upgrade any packages that are still built against old versions of libraries if the console output from Step 9 or Step 12 includes a message telling me to do that

root # emerge @preserved-rebuild

15. If any problems remain, fix them and go back to Step 14

16. Scan libraries and binaries for missing shared library dependencies and re-merge any broken binaries and shared libraries

root # revdep-rebuild -i

Actually, I cannot recall the last time ‘revdep-rebuild‘ was needed, as Portage has improved so much over the years.

17. Remove outdated and unneeded packages

root # emerge --ask --depclean

18. Merge any configuration files

root # etc-update

I always check the differences between the listed existing and new configuration files before going ahead, and may edit the new configuration file if I deem it necessary.

19. As I use the mlocate utility I make sure its index file is bang up to date

root # updatedb

20. Optionally, I clear out any old source-code and binary packages

root # eclean-dist --deep

21. If I remember to do it, I check if there are any installed obsolete packages and then remove them

root # eix-test-obsolete

22. I make sure no temporary work files have been left around by any failed merges

root # rm -rf /usr/tmp/portage/*

Actually, I created a script in directory /etc/local.d/ to do this automatically when HDD free space gets low (see my blog post ‘Automatically clearing the /usr/tmp/portage directory in Gentoo Linux‘).

23. I wait for at least 24 hours (usually about a week) and then go to Step 1

Notes

Actually, I have added the option ‘--with-bdeps=y‘ to EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPS in the file /etc/portage/make.conf so I do not need to type that option every time.

One of my laptops has an older Core i7 CPU and I initially added ‘--jobs=8 --load-average=8‘ to EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS in order to merge packages in parallel, which speeds up upgrading. However, I found this slowed interactive use of the machine and therefore I changed the options to ‘--jobs=6 --load-average=6‘ which works a bit better on that machine.

In order to prevent the number of log files increasing indefinitely, I added ‘clean-logs‘ to FEATURES in the file /etc/portage/make.conf so that log files older than seven days are deleted automatically.