BT Broadband and Netflix on a smart TV: a solution at last?

The fix I described in an earlier post stopped working after a couple of weeks, and my family was again unable to access Netflix on our smart TV. Some people had reported that replacing their BT Home Hub 3 with a BT Home Hub 5 resolved the Netflix problem with their smart TVs, so I decided to buy a second-hand BT Home Hub 5 and can report that Netflix is again accessible via the Netflix app on my LG smart TV.

A post by an owner of a Sony smart TV reinforces my suspicion that the problem is due to a combination of providers:

The problem is that netflix app adds 8.8.4.4 as a DNS server. Using anything other than the homehub default gateway as the DNS server returns an error from parental controls as it uses that to apply said controls. No other app on my Sony smart TV does that and just uses what the DHCP server on the homehub hands out. The netflix app has to stop adding that backup IP address for DNS. Is it Sony setting that value or Netflix? Considering it is happening on non-Sony TVs the finger looks to be pointing at Netflix.

Anyway, I just hope the problem is finally solved in my case. The price I paid for the second-hand BT Home Hub 5 was reasonable, and it does have some advantages over the BT Home Hub 3 I was using previously, such as support for 802.11ac Wi-Fi and no need for an external DSL modem, so I am satisfied with the outcome although my opinion of BT is even lower now.

BT Broadband could be cause of Netflix app’s ui-113 message

A couple of months ago I posted regarding a problem with the Netflix app on my LG smart TV (Netflix – Not fit for purpose?). We use BT Infinity broadband with a BT HomeHub 3. The Netflix app on the TV stopped working in early January and always displayed a Netflix ‘ui-113’ message when trying to connect. As we are paying good money to Netflix, we resorted to trying various DNS server addresses posted on the Web for US Netflix, which only work for a short time. Although US Netflix has more content than UK Netflix, we want the latter as it has UK programmes not available on US Netflix. Not to mention that we live in the UK. And it seems my family is not the only one suffering: BT Broadband Users Suffer Problems with Netflix on UK Smart TVs.

Today I found a YouTube video regarding a different Netflix error code (‘nw-2-5’) but, having tried everything else, I tried the suggested fix anyway (Enable Parental Controls then Disable Parental Controls then Delete Parental Controls) and then changed the DNS server address setting in the TV back to the default 192.168.1.254 for the BT Home Hub. Although the Netflix app first displays the ‘ui-113’ or ‘nw-2-5’ messages, if I retry a few times it now manages to connect to UK Netflix. After a couple of months of hassle with Netflix, that is progress.

The fix suggested in the above-mentioned YouTube video consisted of enabling then disabling and deleting BT Parental Controls via the user’s account page on the BT Web site. Even though I had never previously enabled BT Parental Controls, I logged in to the BT Web site, enabled Parental Controls, and then disabled and deleted them as per the instructions given in the aforementioned YouTube video.

So it seems that BT is either the cause of the problem or a major contributor. I suspect the blame may lie with more than one company, though, because: a) the Netflix app’s ‘ui-113’ and ‘nw-2-5’ messages occur even after I made sure BT Parental Controls really are disabled; b) it is touch and go whether the app is successful in accessing the Netflix site at the first attempt; c) other devices accessing Netflix via my home network don’t suffer from the problem. I just hope LG, Netflix and BT are working together to solve it properly, because the current situation is completely unacceptable.

KDE Connect on a hotel Wi-Fi network

KDE Connect

I am a fan of KDE Connect (see my 2014 post about an earlier version), but had previously been unable to use it with a hotel network. However today I managed to do that, and here is how I did it …

I first connected my laptop and my Samsung Galaxy Note 4 to the hotel’s Wi-Fi network, then used the ifconfig command in Linux on my laptop to find the IP address of my laptop on the hotel’s network. Note that the IP address one sees if one uses a Web site such as WhatIsMyIPAddress will be the laptop’s outward-facing IP address, not the IP address of the laptop on the hotel network. For example, the ifconfig command has just shown me that my current DHCP-allocated IP address is 10.154.245.40 on this hotel’s network for this session whereas the Web site WhatIsMyIPAddress is showing my IP address as 78.100.57.102.

By the way, I can also use the excellent Android utility Fing on my Galaxy Note 4 to find the IP address of my laptop on the hotel’s network. It is quite interesting to use Fing to see what other devices (their hostname and IP address) are currently connected to the hotel’s network.

Anyway, then I launched KDE Connect on the Galaxy Note 4, tapped and ‘Add devices by IP’, and entered the laptop’s IP address (10.154.245.40 in this specific case). I was able to pair with KDE Connect running on my laptop and send files from my phone to the laptop, and vice versa.

Netflix – Not fit for purpose?

One of my family has a Netflix account. The account is accessible from any of the desktop and laptop computers in the house, whichever OS they are running.

Recently we bought a so-called ‘smart TV’ (an LG 40UF770V 4K Ultra HD TV, as it happens), and are pleased with it. It runs WebOS 2.0 (yay, Linux!) and the LG Content Store contains a Netflix app, which we promptly installed. The app worked perfectly for several weeks but then stopped being able to access Netflix. When the app was launched, the usual screen with the Netflix logo and the ‘Loading’ rotating indicator would appear but, after a minute or so, an error message would be displayed informing us that Netflix error ‘ui-113’ had occurred. One of the on-screen options then offered by the app was to check the network connection, which we tried, but everything was reported to be working correctly. Not to mention that all the other apps that require an Internet connection work fine. In order to watch a film using Netflix over the Christmas period we had to resort to connecting a laptop to the TV via an HDMI cable and accessing Netflix in a Web browser on the laptop. It is ridiculous to have to resort to such measures to view content on smart TVs which have Netflix apps.

I searched the Web and discovered that many, many people experience the same problem with Netflix and smart TVs. As in our case, they had no trouble accessing their Netflix account on their home network with other devices such as computers, tablets and smart phones. I came across reports by owners of smart TVs made by LG, Philips, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, and other manufacturers. People who had contacted the relevant TV manufacturer were often told the problem is caused by Netflix, and people who had contacted Netflix were often told the problem is caused by the TV manufacturer.

Netflix has a Help page for this error message, but none of the steps Netflix listed worked, and neither did any of the remedies suggested by others on the Web (including in various YouTube videos). Resetting the TV did not solve the problem. Neither did cycling the mains power to the TV, broadband modem and router (however long the power was off). Nor did changing the TV’s setting for the IP address of the DNS server to one of the well-known public DNS servers such as Google’s. Nor did suggestions such as un-installing and re-installing the Netflix app. Nor did configuring the router to perform port forwarding for Netflix on the TV (not that this should be necessary, but I tried it anyway). Several people wrote that the parental lock in their routers caused the problem, but the parental lock is definitely not enabled in my router. I also tried to access Netflix via the TV’s Web browser; it can log-in to the Netflix account but cannot play content as it does not support the Microsoft Silverlight plug-in or HTML5 required by Netflix.

Nothing we tried solved the problem, and two weeks of this messing around was exasperating. Some people reported that changing the DNS server address in the TV to Google’s DNS servers worked, whereas others reported it didn’t. Even if some lucky person managed to get Netflix working on their smart TV using a certain procedure, other people in the same country with the same model of TV could not, even if they used the same procedure.

In addition to people in a given country trying to get the Netflix app in their smart TV to access their Netflix account in that country, I came across posts by people wanting to access Netflix in a different country (mostly people not in the USA wanting to access US Netflix because it offers a wider range of films and programmes, but also expatriates wanting to access Netflix for their home country with their home-country Netflix account). So I tried recommendations to configure the TV to use a DNS server in the US that some people in the UK had recently indicated would give the Netflix app access to US Netflix rather than UK Netflix (even though we wanted to access UK Netflix from the UK). But that didn’t work either.

However, I didn’t give up. I trawled the Web for lists of DNS servers that some people claimed would give access to Netflix in the UK. I found various Web sites listing IP addresses for DNS servers and tried several of them. Eventually I found one that actually enables the Netflix app in the TV to work, but it accesses US Netflix instead of UK Netflix. Given that the Netflix app has not worked for several weeks, I’m not complaining, but it is not what we were trying to achieve (US Netflix does not provide all the UK TV series available on UK Netflix). Furthermore, according to some of the posts I’ve read, periodically you have to change the DNS server address in the TV because Netflix stops working with the existing address.

Now, I’m a technically-oriented person and it took me several hours over a two-week period to find a solution (well, a work-around). Someone with little or no IT knowledge in the same situation would be at a complete loss as to how to get their Netfix account working. In order for streaming media services to become as ubiquitous as e.g. terrestrial TV, they have to be reliable and be accessible easily to paying customers. Use of Geolocation, GeoDNS and other complex techniques should not cause such a headache to bona fide users. Someone with a Netflix account in his/her country of residence and who simply wants to access Netflix on a smart TV should not have to jump through hoops or hit a brick wall. Clearly this is happening to many people.

On top of that, people such as myself who have to travel internationally frequently because of their work need to be certain that, if they subscribe to a streaming media service, it will work in whatever country they happen to be in at the time (except if blocked by Great Firewalls or content filters on proxy servers, of course) and not be purposely or inadvertently prevented from working by the media service provider’s network concept.

I myself had considered signing up for a Netflix account so that I could view films and TV programmes during my overseas work trips, but, after having to struggle for days to help a family member access a valid Netflix account on a smart TV in the country where the account was set up, will definitely not be giving Netflix my business. In this day and age it is ridiculous that users should have to try umpteen DNS server addresses and reset TVs, routers and modems in order to access their account with a media provider. Services such as Netflix will never have my business until their networking and DRM are sorted out properly and made to work reliably. Until Netflix changes its network delivery model, its service will remain a curate’s egg in my opinion.

NetworkManager: Failed to activate – The name org.freedesktop.NetworkManager was not provided by any .service files

Because I need to connect quickly and easily to numerous wired and wireless networks (DHCP or static IP addressing), I use NetworkManager in my Gentoo Linux amd64 installation running OpenRC and KDE 4. My Clevo W230SS laptop has an Intel Dual Band Wireless-AC 7260 Plus Bluetooth adapter card, and my installation uses the iwlwifi module:

# lspci -knn | grep Net -A2
03:00.0 Network controller [0280]: Intel Corporation Wireless 7260 [8086:08b1] (rev bb)
        Subsystem: Intel Corporation Dual Band Wireless-AC 7260 [8086:4070]
        Kernel driver in use: iwlwifi
# lsmod | grep iwl
iwlmvm                143919  0
iwlwifi                75747  1 iwlmvm

As I am using NetworkManager instead of netifrc, in accordance with the instructions in the Gentoo Wiki article on NetworkManager I do not have any net.* services enabled (not even net.lo):

# rc-update show -v
       NetworkManager |      default                 
                acpid |                              
            alsasound |                              
         avahi-daemon |                              
       avahi-dnsconfd |                              
               binfmt | boot                         
            bluetooth |      default                 
             bootmisc | boot                         
         busybox-ntpd |                              
     busybox-watchdog |                              
                clamd |                              
          consolefont |                              
           consolekit |      default                 
               cronie |      default                 
         cups-browsed |      default                 
                cupsd |      default                 
                 dbus |      default                 
                devfs |                       sysinit
               dhcpcd |                              
                dhcpd |                              
             dhcrelay |                              
            dhcrelay6 |                              
                dmesg |                       sysinit
              dropbox |                              
           fancontrol |                              
                 fsck | boot                         
                 fuse |                              
           git-daemon |                              
                  gpm |                              
              hddtemp |                              
             hostname | boot                         
              hwclock | boot                         
            ip6tables |                              
             iptables |                              
              keymaps | boot                         
            killprocs |              shutdown        
    kmod-static-nodes |                       sysinit
           lm_sensors |                              
                local |      default                 
           localmount | boot                         
             loopback | boot                         
      mit-krb5kadmind |                              
          mit-krb5kdc |                              
       mit-krb5kpropd |                              
              modules | boot                         
             mount-ro |              shutdown        
                 mtab | boot                         
                mysql |                              
                  nas |                              
         net.enp4s0f1 |                              
               net.lo |                              
             netmount |      default                 
           ntp-client |                              
                 ntpd |                              
           nullmailer |                              
              numlock |                              
  nvidia-persistenced |                              
           nvidia-smi |                              
              osclock |                              
              pciparm |                              
               procfs | boot                         
              pwcheck |                              
            pydoc-2.7 |                              
            pydoc-3.4 |                              
               rfcomm |                              
                 root | boot                         
               rsyncd |                              
            s6-svscan |                              
                samba |      default                 
                saned |                              
            saslauthd |                              
            savecache |              shutdown        
                 sntp |                              
                 sshd |      default                 
             svnserve |                              
                 swap | boot                         
            swapfiles | boot                         
              swclock |                              
               sysctl | boot                         
                sysfs |                       sysinit
            syslog-ng |      default                 
        teamviewerd10 |                              
         termencoding | boot                         
             timidity |                              
         tmpfiles.dev |                       sysinit
       tmpfiles.setup | boot                         
               twistd |                              
                 udev |                       sysinit
                  ufw | boot                         
              urandom | boot                         
       wpa_supplicant |                              
                  xdm |      default                 
            xdm-setup |

I have left the netmount service enabled in case I want to use network-attached file shares at home or in one of the various office locations where I work.

Networking works fine on my laptop with the many wired and wireless networks I have used except for one particular public wireless network (it is in an airport, has multiple Access Points, and its Access Points only support 802.11a/b/g, which may or may not be relevant) for which the following message would usually appear in a pop-up window when I tried to connect to the network from the KDE network management GUI after start-up:

Failed to activate
The name org.freedesktop.NetworkManager was not provided by any .service files

Error message displayed by KDE when trying to connect to one specific network

Error message displayed by KDE when trying to connect to one specific network


This occurred with both networkmanager-1.0.2-r1 and networkmanager-1.0.6, the two Stable Branch releases of NetworkManager currently available in Gentoo Linux.

The wireless network is not the only network at that particular location, and the ‘Failed to activate’ message occurred whichever network (wireless or wired) I tried to access at that location. When this problem occurred, it transpired that the NetworkManager service was not running (it had crashed):

$ nmcli d
Error: NetworkManager is not running.
$ rc-status
Runlevel: default
 dbus                   [  started  ]
 NetworkManager         [  crashed  ]
 netmount               [  started  ]
 syslog-ng              [  started  ]
 cupsd                  [  started  ]
 samba                  [  crashed  ]
 consolekit             [  started  ]
 cronie                 [  started  ]
 bluetooth              [  started  ]
 xdm                    [  started  ]
 cups-browsed           [  started  ]
 sshd                   [  started  ]
 local                  [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: hotplugged
Dynamic Runlevel: needed
 xdm-setup              [  started  ]
 avahi-daemon           [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: manual

(I am not bothered that Samba crashes in that particular location. It crashes even if a connection is established, because the public wireless network does not provide network file systems. Samba works fine when I connect the laptop to an office network or to my home network.)

Even if the ‘Failed to activate’ message occurred, sometimes (but not always) the laptop could still connect to networks after I restarted the NetworkManager service (albeit sometimes it was necessary to restart it more than once):

# /etc/init.d/NetworkManager restart

When it is possible to connect to networks, the NetworkManager service is of course running:

$ nmcli d
DEVICE    TYPE      STATE        CONNECTION           
sit0      sit       connected    sit0                 
wlp3s0    wifi      connected    Free_Airport_Internet
enp4s0f1  ethernet  unavailable  --                   
lo        loopback  unmanaged    --        
$ rc-status
Runlevel: default
 dbus                   [  started  ]
 NetworkManager         [  started  ]
 netmount               [  started  ]
 syslog-ng              [  started  ]
 cupsd                  [  started  ]
 samba                  [  crashed  ]
 consolekit             [  started  ]
 cronie                 [  started  ]
 bluetooth              [  started  ]
 xdm                    [  started  ]
 cups-browsed           [  started  ]
 sshd                   [  started  ]
 local                  [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: hotplugged
Dynamic Runlevel: needed
 xdm-setup              [  started  ]
 avahi-daemon           [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: manual

I searched the Web for the error message and, based on a recommendation on the Web page ‘nm-applet gives errors‘ claiming the problem is due to the iwlwifi driver when used with an Intel 7260 controller, I created a file /etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.conf containing the following line, and rebooted:

options iwlwifi power_save=0

However, the error message still occurred. So I changed the iwlwifi module options line to the following, as also recommended on that page, and rebooted:

options iwlwifi 11n_disable=1 power_save=0

However, the error message still occurred.

The default value for OpenRC’s rc_depend_strict variable is YES if rc_depend_strict is not declared in the file /etc/rc.conf, but I do not think that is the cause of the problem:

# Do we allow any started service in the runlevel to satisfy the dependency
# or do we want all of them regardless of state? For example, if net.eth0
# and net.eth1 are in the default runlevel then with rc_depend_strict="NO"
# both will be started, but services that depend on 'net' will work if either
# one comes up. With rc_depend_strict="YES" we would require them both to
# come up.
#rc_depend_strict="YES"

As already mentioned, sometimes just restarting the NetworkManager service once or more did enable the laptop to connect to the network. This made me wonder whether the problem had something to do either with the timing of the launch of the NetworkManager service or with the timing of the service establishing a connection. As netmount is the only other network-related service enabled at start-up, I checked the netmount service’s configuration file /etc/conf.d/netmount to see what it contained (it’s the same in both the latest stable openrc-0.17 and the latest testing openrc-0.18.2):

# You will need to set the dependencies in the netmount script to match
# the network configuration tools you are using. This should be done in
# this file by following the examples below, and not by changing the
# service script itself.
#
# Each of these examples is meant to be used separately. So, for
# example, do not set rc_need to something like "net.eth0 dhcpcd".
#
# If you are using newnet and configuring your interfaces with static
# addresses with the network script, you  should use this setting.
#
#rc_need="network"
#
# If you are using oldnet, you must list the specific net.* services you
# need.
#
# This example assumes all of your netmounts can be reached on
# eth0.
#
#rc_need="net.eth0"
#
# This example assumes some of your netmounts are on eth1 and some
# are on eth2.
#
#rc_need="net.eth1 net.eth2"
#
# If you are using a dynamic network management tool like
# networkmanager, dhcpcd in standalone mode, wicd, badvpn-ncd, etc, to
# manage the network interfaces with the routes to your netmounts, you
# should list that tool.
#
#rc_need="networkmanager"
#rc_need="dhcpcd"
#rc_need="wicd"
#
# The default setting is designed to be backward compatible with our
# current setup, but you are highly discouraged from using this. In
# other words, please change it to be more suited to your system.
#
rc_need="net"

As I am using NetworkManager rather than netifrc, I followed the instructions in the file’s comments and changed the file’s contents from:

rc_need="net"

to:

rc_need="networkmanager"

After making the above change, the console messages at boot-up included a new message:

* ERROR: netmount needs service(s) networkmanager

That message made sense: rc_need had been set to "networkmanager" and, obviously, netmount can only do its job if NetworkManager is running (AND a network connection has been established). However, notice that the name of the NetworkManager service initscript is /etc/init.d/NetworkManager, not /etc/init.d/networkmanager. In other words, the instructions in /etc/conf.d/netmount are wrong: the name of the service is actually ‘NetworkManager‘, not ‘networkmanager‘. So I changed /etc/conf.d/netmount to contain rc_need="NetworkManager" instead of rc_need="networkmanager" and, unsurprisingly, the above-mentioned error message no longer occurs. I have filed Gentoo Bugzilla Bug Report No. 564846 requesting that the comment in the configuration file be changed.

Nevertheless, the ‘Failed to activate’ message still occurred when I tried to connect to any network at that location by using the DE’s network management GUI, and therefore I still needed to restart the NetworkManager service manually in order to be able to connect to any network there. Although I am not yet sure of the root cause and solution, I have found a work-around which avoids me having to manually restart the NetworkManager service, as explained below.

Although OpenRC correctly launches the NetworkManager service, that service remains inactive until it actually establishes a network connection. This is not a bug, it is the way OpenRC and NetworkManager work (see the explanation in the Gentoo Forums thread NetworkManager has started, but is inactive). This is why the following console message appears during boot-up:

* WARNING: NetworkManager has already started, but is inactive

If you did not configure NetworkManager to connect automatically to a network, after logging-in to the DE you will need to use the DE’s network management GUI (plasma-nm in the case if KDE, nm-applet in the case of e.g. Xfce) to tell NetworkManager to connect to the desired network. However, I found that waiting that long before trying to connect is too late to avoid the ‘Failed to activate’ problem, i.e. NetworkManager crashes after a while. I do not know why this happens, but it usually happens only when I am at the location covered by one specific wireless network (which is why I wonder if the problem is a result of that network only supporting 802.11a/b/g). By configuring NetworkManager to connect automatically to the wireless network which seemed to trigger the problem, the NetworkManager service tries to connect earlier. It is possible to configure NetworkManager to do this either by using the DE network GUI and ticking ‘Automatically connect to this network when it is available’ for the relevant network connection, or by directly editing the relevant connection’s file in the directory /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.

Of the various wired and wireless connections I had configured on the laptop, I had named the problematic wireless network’s connection ‘Free_Airport_Internet’. So I edited the file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Free_Airport_Internet and deleted the line ‘autoconnect=false‘ in the [connections] section of the file (the default value of the autoconnect variable is TRUE – see man nm-settings). I could instead have done this by using the DE’s network manager GUI and ticking ‘Automatically connect to this network when it is available’ for that network connection. Now, when the laptop boots, NetworkManager tries to connect to that network and the ‘Failed to activate’ problem is avoided. This works with or without the iwlwifi driver options I mentioned above, so, despite the claim on the Web page I referenced above, the root cause of the problem does not appear to be the iwlwifi driver. What I don’t understand is why the problem only seems to occur with one particular network (a public wireless network which happens to only support 802.11a/b/g), i.e. even if none of the NetworkManager connection files in my installation have been configured to try to establish a connection automatically, with all the other wireless networks I have used in other locations (I believe those all support at least 802.11a/b/g/n) I have been able to establish a connection manually by using the DE’s network management GUI.

The bottom line

If your installation uses NetworkManager and you experience the ‘Failed to activate’ message when trying to connect to networks from the DE’s network management GUI, check if the NetworkManager service is running. You can check by using the command ‘nmcli d‘ in a console. If it is not running, try to restart the NetworkManager service from the command line. If the connection is not already configured to start automatically, configure it to start automatically in order to try to make NetworkManager become active at an early stage.

POSTSCRIPT (November 6, 2015)

The two links below are to old bug reports regarding earlier versions of NetworkManager having trouble using wireless networks with multiple Access Points. I wonder if the problem I saw with NetworkManager crashing when not configured to connect automatically to the specific network I mentioned above is somehow related to those problems:

background scanning causes drivers to disassociate – WiFi roaming causes NetworkManager to lose routing

network-manager roams to (none) ((none)) – background scanning

Roaming to BSSID “(none)” certainly happens with this particular network too, as shown by the messages in the laptop’s system log from yesterday when I was using the laptop with that network (the laptop was stationary the whole time):

# cat /var/log/messages | grep "Nov  5 11" | grep NetworkManager | grep \(none\)
Nov  5 11:01:22 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID 04:C5:A4:C3:F9:EE (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:01:22 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:13:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:13:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to 04:C5:A4:C3:F9:EE (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:15:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID 04:C5:A4:C3:F9:EE (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:15:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:19:22 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:19:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:49:50 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:49:50 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to 68:BC:0C:A1:3C:DE (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:51:51 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID 68:BC:0C:A1:3C:DE (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:51:51 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)

Today I’m using a hotel network in my hotel room, and that does not roam to BSSID “(none)”, but I don’t know if my room is within range of more than one Access Point:

# cat /var/log/messages | grep "Nov  6" | grep NetworkManager | grep \(none\)
#

Anyway, with the work-around described in this post I have not had any further trouble accessing the particular network, but it would be interesting to know the root cause.

‘Waiting for 192.168.1.254…’ (Why I could not access a home hub’s management page)

I had not been able to access the Manager of the BT Home Hub 3 on my home network to view and configure the hub’s settings. All the network’s users could access the Internet, and I could ping the hub, but trying to access the BT Home Hub Manager from a Web browser resulted in the message ‘Waiting for 192.168.1.254…’. The same thing happened whatever the PC, OS, browser and method of connection (wired or wireless). Sometimes, after about ten minutes or so, an incomplete Manager page would appear, but usually the browser would just display ‘Waiting for 192.168.1.254…’ forever.

I should point out that my Ethernet wired connections use Powerline adapters (HomePlug) connected to the mains wiring of my semi-detached house.

Actually, I did find a temporary work-around to enable me to access the Home Hub Manager. If I switched off then on the power supply to the Home Hub I could access the Manager for a short period (the time varied, but typically was less than half an hour). Then I would be back in the same position of seeing ‘Waiting for 192.168.1.254…’ in a browser window if I tried later to access the Manager. Although I do not need to access the Home Hub Manager often, it was still a nuisance to have to cycle the power to the hub every time I needed to access the Manager.

Searching the Web, it seems this is quite a common problem and can occur irrespective of the manufacturer of the hub (or router) and its IP address. In some cases users have fixed the problem by upgrading the hub’s firmware or by performing a ‘factory reset’ of the hub, but some users never found a solution.

In my case, the BT Home Hub 3 has the latest available version of firmware installed. Not only did I check that via the Web, I also checked the firmware version of another BT Home Hub 3 in the house of someone I know who lives in another town. The curious thing was that he has no trouble accessing the BT Home Hub Manager (also IP address 192.168.1.254).

So I decided to perform a ‘factory reset’ of the Home Hub, but that made no difference.

Then, after many hours searching the Web, I found a thread about a similar problem with a different model of hub: Can’t access BT HomeHub 4? But I’m online ok?. A post by user troublegum in that thread made me sit up:

I still reckon it’s the homeplugs. Regardless of whether your PC is connected to it or not, If one of them is connected to your neighbour’s as well as your router, then it’s going to put 2 DHCP servers on your network.

Disconnect the homeplug from the router, renew your DHCP lease if necessary and try again.

Even before finding that thread I had wondered if the problem was somehow linked to my use of Powerline (HomePlug) adapters.

It seems that, if one PC on a home network is connected to the Home Hub via a Powerline adapter AND a neighbour also happens to be using Powerline adapters AND his single-phase mains house wiring is somehow linked to yours (which is unusual, as adjacent houses are normally connected to a different mains phase), there is the possibility that none of your PCs will be able to access the Home Hub Manager (even if they are connected directly to the Home Hub by Ethernet cable or Wi-Fi rather than via a Powerline adapter).

I have been using Powerline (HomePlug) adapters successfully for about nine years. In late December 2012 I changed from HomePlug 1.0 adapters (14 Mbps) to HomePlug AV adapters (200 Mbps). HomePlug 1.0 adapters and HomePlug AV adapters can operate concurrently over the same mains wiring but can only communicate with adapters of the same standard. The problem of not being able to access the Home Hub Manager started two or three years ago, so I assume that either my neighbour began using Powerline adapters at that time or, coincidentally, I changed to the same standard and manufacturer of Powerline adapter he uses.

Powerline adapters each have a non-volatile encryption key, intended to enable separate Powerline networks to co-exist on the same mains wiring by using a different encryption key for each network.

Since the end of December 2012 I have been using NETGEAR XAVB1301 200 Mbps Powerline adapters but had not bothered to change the encryption key in them (they all come configured with the factory default encryption key ‘HomePlugAV’). If my neighbour happens to be using Powerline adapters with the same default encryption key, and a hub with the same IP address as mine, we would both have two DHCP servers on the same network.

So I changed the encryption key on each of the four Powerline adapters I use:

  • Ethernet connection from the BT Home Hub to a mains socket in the Lounge.
  • Ethernet connection from a PC to a mains socket in the Lounge.
  • Ethernet connection from a laptop to a mains socket in my upstairs office.
  • Ethernet connection from a laptop to a mains socket in a bedroom.

It is supposed to be easy to set the encryption key in the model of Powerline adapter I use. You have to press a button on one adapter for 2 seconds, then a button on the next adapter for 2 seconds, and so on. You have to do them all within 2 minutes. The adapters only generate an encryption key once, so if you want to repeat the process you first have to press a recessed Factory Reset button on all the adapters.

However, despite following to the letter the instructions in the NETGEAR manual, I could not get all four adapters to connect to the network. So I downloaded the NETGEAR Powerline Universal Utility, installed it on the PC running Windows 10 in my lounge, connected the Ethernet port of that PC to one of the Powerline adapters and plugged it into a mains wall socket, plugged the other three Powerline adapters into a multi-socket mains adapter and plugged that into a mains wall socket in the lounge, launched the Powerline Universal Utility and I allocated all four adapters the same encryption key. Each adapter has its own MAC address, serial number and ‘Device Password’ (PWD) printed on it, and the NETGEAR utility program required me to enter the relevant PWD for each MAC address. Then I entered an encryption key (any string of characters of my choice) and clicked a button to set the adapters to use that encryption key. As that encryption key is different to the default key used by my neighbour, the two networks can now coexist without interfering with each other.

NETGEAR Powerline Utility showing my four Powerline adapters

NETGEAR Powerline Utility showing my four Powerline adapters.

The use of the NETGEAR Powerline utility program is explained in NETGEAR’s ‘How To’ Setting network encryption key on Powerline Adapters using the Config utility.

Problem finally solved! I can now access the Home Hub Manager without any trouble. And, as a bonus, Internet access seems a little quicker.

NetworkManager creating a new connection ‘eth0’ that does not work, Part 4

Further to my previous post, this is to report the result of another experiment. By doing all the following I can stop NetworkManager creating an invalid second eth0 connection:

  • Enable IPv6 system-wide in /etc/modprobe.d/aliases.conf by commenting-out ‘alias net-pf-10 off‘.
  • Disable use of IPv6 by the Avahi daemon in /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf (see the four additional lines given in my previous post).
  • Use plasma-nm to edit the connection profile for ‘eth0’ that I had already created. Click on the IPv6 tab and ensure ‘Method: Ignored‘ is selected. Click on the IPv4 tab and ensure ‘Method: Automatic‘ is selected and ‘IPv4 is required for this connection‘ is ticked. Ticking ‘IPv4 is required for this connection‘ adds the line ‘may-fail=false‘ in the [ipv4] section in the file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0 (the default value for may-fail is ‘true‘ if the box has not been ticked and may-fail has not been assigned in the file).

The various experiments I have conducted are summarised in the following table:

Laptop WiFi switch off off off off off on
IPv6 enabled in aliases.conf yes no yes yes yes yes
IPv6 enabled in avahi-daemon.conf yes yes no no yes yes
[ipv6] method= ignore ignore ignore ignore ignore ignore
[ipv4] method= auto auto auto auto auto auto
[ipv4] may-fail= true true true false false false
Invalid second eth0 created usually no usually no yes yes

As disabling IPv6 system-wide makes it impossible for NetworkManager to use IPv6, the above table can actually be written as follows:

Laptop WiFi switch off off off off off on
IPv6 enabled in aliases.conf yes no yes yes yes yes
IPv6 enabled in avahi-daemon.conf yes yes||no no no yes yes
[ipv6] method= ignore ignore ignore ignore ignore ignore
[ipv4] method= auto auto auto auto auto auto
[ipv4] may-fail= true true||false true false false false
Invalid second eth0 created usually no usually no yes yes

I still think there is a bug in NetworkManager. I would not have expected NetworkManager to create a second eth0 connection and make it an IPv6 Link-Local connection when all the following are true:

  • /etc/NetworkManager.conf has ‘no-auto-default=eth0‘ in the [main] section.
  • IPv4 is required for this connection‘ is not ticked in plasma-nm (i.e. the [ipv4] section in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0 contains either the line ‘may-fail=true‘ or the line ‘may-fail=‘).
  • Method: Automatic‘ is selected for IPv4 (‘method=auto‘ under [ipv4] in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0).
  • Method: Ignored‘ is selected for IPv6 (‘method=ignore‘ under [ipv6] in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0) and the other fields on the IPv6 tab have been rendered unselectable as a result.

Anyway, I will keep IPv6 disabled in /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf and IPv6 enabled system-wide. This seems to be the first thing to try if you’re experiencing the creation of an invalid additional eth0 connection with an IPv6 Link-Local address and you’re sure that none of the net.* services are running.

NetworkManager creating a new connection ‘eth0′ that does not work, Part 3

I’m even more convinced the problem discussed in my previous post is due to a bug in NetworkManager. I believe the issue with the Avahi daemon generating an IPv6 Link-Local address is a consequence of NetworkManager not always activating an interface and therefore not obtaining an IPv4 address, i.e. the IPv6 Link-Local address produced by the Avahi daemon is a side effect, not the root cause.

After my previous post I discovered that adding ‘use-ipv6=no‘ in /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf (my Experiment 2) had not prevented avahi-daemon using IPv6. However, adding the following lines in /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf defintely does prevent avahi-daemon from using IPv6 in my installation:

use-ipv4=yes
use-ipv6=no
publish-a-on-ipv6=no
publish-aaaa-on-ipv4=no

You can see in the message log below that the Avahi daemon is no longer generating an IPv6 Link-Local address. However, even with IPv6 disabled in avahi-daemon, an invalid second eth0 connection with an IPv6 Link-Local address still occurs in my installation. This indicates the problem is not caused by the Avahi daemon.

Mar 18 22:17:31 localhost syslog-ng[8316]: syslog-ng starting up; version='3.6.2'
Mar 18 22:17:32 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  NetworkManager (version 1.0.0) is starting...
Mar 18 22:17:32 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  Read config: /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf
Mar 18 22:17:32 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  WEXT support is enabled
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: fglrx_pci 0000:01:00.0: irq 34 for MSI/MSI-X
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] Firegl kernel thread PID: 8351
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] Firegl kernel thread PID: 8352
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] Firegl kernel thread PID: 8353
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] IRQ 34 Enabled
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] Reserved FB block: Shared offset:0, size:1000000 
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] Reserved FB block: Unshared offset:f7e2000, size:4000 
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] Reserved FB block: Unshared offset:f7e6000, size:51a000 
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost kernel: <6>[fglrx] Reserved FB block: Unshared offset:3fff3000, size:d000 
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  Loaded plugin keyfile: (c) 2007 - 2013 Red Hat, Inc.  To report bugs please use the NetworkManager mailing list.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  new connection /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Cisco00497
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  new connection /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  new connection /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/DIRECT-HeC460 Series
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  monitoring kernel firmware directory '/lib/firmware'.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  rfkill0: found WiFi radio killswitch (at /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.1/0000:03:00.0/ieee80211/phy0/rfkill0) (driver iwlwifi)
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  WiFi hardware radio set enabled
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  WWAN hardware radio set enabled
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost /etc/init.d/NetworkManager[8326]: WARNING: NetworkManager has started, but is inactive
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  Loaded device plugin: /usr/lib64/NetworkManager/libnm-device-plugin-bluetooth.so
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  Loaded device plugin: /usr/lib64/NetworkManager/libnm-device-plugin-adsl.so
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  Loaded device plugin: /usr/lib64/NetworkManager/libnm-device-plugin-wwan.so
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  Loaded device plugin: /usr/lib64/NetworkManager/libnm-device-plugin-wifi.so
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  WiFi disabled by radio killswitch; enabled by state file
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  WWAN enabled by radio killswitch; enabled by state file
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  WiMAX enabled by radio killswitch; enabled by state file
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  Networking is enabled by state file
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (lo): link connected
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (lo): carrier is ON
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (lo): new Generic device (driver: 'unknown' ifindex: 1)
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (lo): exported as /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/Devices/0
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): link connected
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): carrier is ON
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): new Ethernet device (driver: 'atl1c' ifindex: 2)
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): exported as /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/Devices/1
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: unmanaged -> unavailable (reason 'connection-assumed') [10 20 41]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: unavailable -> disconnected (reason 'connection-assumed') [20 30 41]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  startup complete
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: starting connection 'eth0'
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 1 of 5 (Device Prepare) scheduled...
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (wlan0): using nl80211 for WiFi device control
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (wlan0): new 802.11 WiFi device (driver: 'iwlwifi' ifindex: 3)
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (wlan0): exported as /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/Devices/2
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (wlan0): device state change: unmanaged -> unavailable (reason 'managed') [10 20 2]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (wlan0): preparing device
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 1 of 5 (Device Prepare) started...
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: disconnected -> prepare (reason 'none') [30 40 0]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 2 of 5 (Device Configure) scheduled...
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 1 of 5 (Device Prepare) complete.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 2 of 5 (Device Configure) starting...
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: prepare -> config (reason 'none') [40 50 0]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 2 of 5 (Device Configure) successful.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 3 of 5 (IP Configure Start) scheduled.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 2 of 5 (Device Configure) complete.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 3 of 5 (IP Configure Start) started...
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: config -> ip-config (reason 'none') [50 70 0]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.ModemManager1' (using servicehelper)
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 5 of 5 (IPv6 Commit) scheduled...
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 3 of 5 (IP Configure Start) complete.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 5 of 5 (IPv6 Commit) started...
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: ip-config -> ip-check (reason 'none') [70 80 0]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: Stage 5 of 5 (IPv6 Commit) complete.
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: ip-check -> secondaries (reason 'none') [80 90 0]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): device state change: secondaries -> activated (reason 'none') [90 100 0]
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  NetworkManager state is now CONNECTED_LOCAL
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost acpid[8386]: starting up with netlink and the input layer
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost acpid[8386]: 6 rules loaded
Mar 18 22:17:33 localhost acpid[8386]: waiting for events: event logging is off
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost ModemManager[8385]: <info>  ModemManager (version 1.4.2) starting in system bus...
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  (eth0): Activation: successful, device activated.
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost nm-dispatcher[8435]: Dispatching action 'up' for eth0
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost rpc.statd[8451]: Version 1.3.2 starting
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost rpc.statd[8451]: Flags: TI-RPC 
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost /etc/init.d/NetworkManager[8457]: status: inactive
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost rpc.statd[8451]: Running as root.  chown /var/lib/nfs to choose different user
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost /etc/init.d/NetworkManager[8469]: status: inactive
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.ModemManager1'
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  ModemManager disappeared from bus
Mar 18 22:17:34 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  ModemManager available in the bus
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost sm-notify[8556]: Version 1.3.2 starting
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Found user 'avahi' (UID 108) and group 'avahi' (GID 444).
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Successfully dropped root privileges.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: avahi-daemon 0.6.31 starting up.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Successfully called chroot().
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Successfully dropped remaining capabilities.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Loading service file /services/sftp-ssh.service.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Loading service file /services/ssh.service.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Network interface enumeration completed.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Registering HINFO record with values 'X86_64'/'LINUX'.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Server startup complete. Host name is meshedgedx.local. Local service cookie is 3778762828.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Service "meshedgedx" (/services/ssh.service) successfully established.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost avahi-daemon[8585]: Service "meshedgedx" (/services/sftp-ssh.service) successfully established.
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: ntpd 4.2.8@1.3265-o Wed  4 Mar 02:23:30 UTC 2015 (1): Starting
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: Command line: ntpd -g -q
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: proto: precision = 0.061 usec (-24)
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: Listen and drop on 0 v6wildcard [::]:123
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: Listen and drop on 1 v4wildcard 0.0.0.0:123
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: Listen normally on 2 lo 127.0.0.1:123
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: Listen normally on 3 lo [::1]:123
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: Listen normally on 4 eth0 [fe80::725a:b6ff:fe3e:c18a%2]:123
Mar 18 22:17:35 localhost ntpd[8645]: Listening on routing socket on fd #21 for interface updates
Mar 18 22:17:36 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: console 1 using theme 'Emergance'
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: switched decor state to 'on' on console 1
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: console 2 using theme 'Emergance'
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: switched decor state to 'on' on console 2
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: console 3 using theme 'Emergance'
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: switched decor state to 'on' on console 3
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: console 4 using theme 'Emergance'
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: switched decor state to 'on' on console 4
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: console 5 using theme 'Emergance'
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: fbcondecor: switched decor state to 'on' on console 5
Mar 18 22:17:36 localhost bluetoothd[8787]: Bluetooth daemon 5.28
Mar 18 22:17:36 localhost bluetoothd[8787]: Starting SDP server
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: Core ver 2.19
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: NET: Registered protocol family 31
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initialized
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: L2CAP socket layer initialized
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: SCO socket layer initialized
Mar 18 22:17:38 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: BNEP (Ethernet Emulation) ver 1.3
Mar 18 22:17:38 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: BNEP filters: protocol multicast
Mar 18 22:17:38 localhost kernel: Bluetooth: BNEP socket layer initialized
Mar 18 22:17:36 localhost bluetoothd[8787]: Bluetooth management interface 1.7 initialized
Mar 18 22:17:36 localhost NetworkManager[8346]: <info>  use BlueZ version 5
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost ModemManager[8385]: <warn>  Couldn't find support for device at '/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.1/0000:03:00.0': not supported by any plugin
Mar 18 22:17:37 localhost ModemManager[8385]: <warn>  Couldn't find support for device at '/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.2/0000:04:00.0': not supported by any plugin
Mar 18 22:17:39 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.ColorManager' (using servicehelper)
Mar 18 22:17:39 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.ColorManager'
Mar 18 22:17:41 localhost kernel: nf_conntrack: automatic helper assignment is deprecated and it will be removed soon. Use the iptables CT target to attach helpers instead.
Mar 18 22:17:43 localhost kernel: [UFW BLOCK] IN=eth0 OUT= MAC= SRC=fe80:0000:0000:0000:725a:b6ff:fe3e:c18a DST=ff02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 LEN=64 TC=0 HOPLIMIT=1 FLOWLBL=0 PROTO=UDP SPT=8612 DPT=8612 LEN=24 
Mar 18 22:17:43 localhost kernel: [UFW BLOCK] IN=eth0 OUT= MAC= SRC=fe80:0000:0000:0000:725a:b6ff:fe3e:c18a DST=ff02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 LEN=64 TC=0 HOPLIMIT=1 FLOWLBL=0 PROTO=UDP SPT=8612 DPT=8612 LEN=24 
Mar 18 22:17:43 localhost laptop-mode[8947]: Laptop mode 
Mar 18 22:17:43 localhost laptop-mode[8948]: enabled, not active
Mar 18 22:17:58 localhost kernel: Installing knfsd (copyright (C) 1996 okir@monad.swb.de).
Mar 18 22:17:58 localhost rpc.mountd[9741]: Version 1.3.2 starting
Mar 18 22:17:59 localhost kernel: NFSD: Using /var/lib/nfs/v4recovery as the NFSv4 state recovery directory
Mar 18 22:17:59 localhost kernel: NFSD: starting 90-second grace period (net ffffffff81c3d580)
Mar 18 22:17:58 localhost sm-notify[9760]: Version 1.3.2 starting
Mar 18 22:17:58 localhost sm-notify[9760]: Already notifying clients; Exiting!
Mar 18 22:18:00 localhost sshd[9816]: Server listening on 0.0.0.0 port 22.
Mar 18 22:18:00 localhost sshd[9816]: Server listening on :: port 22.
Mar 18 22:18:00 localhost cron[9870]: (CRON) STARTUP (V5.0)
Mar 18 22:18:00 localhost su[9899]: Successful su for fitzcarraldo by root
Mar 18 22:18:00 localhost su[9899]: + /dev/console root:fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:00 localhost su[9899]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user fitzcarraldo by (uid=0)
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.RealtimeKit1' (using servicehelper)
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.RealtimeKit1'
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Successfully called chroot.
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Successfully dropped privileges.
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Successfully limited resources.
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Running.
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Watchdog thread running.
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Canary thread running.
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost kdm[8833]: :0[8833]: pam_unix(kde:session): session opened for user fitzcarraldo by (uid=0)
Mar 18 22:18:01 localhost kdm[8833]: :0[8833]: pam_ck_connector(kde:session): nox11 mode, ignoring PAM_TTY :0
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [pulseaudio] sink.c: Default and alternate sample rates are the same.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [pulseaudio] source.c: Default and alternate sample rates are the same.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 0 threads of 0 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [pulseaudio] module-jackdbus-detect.c: Unable to contact D-Bus session bus: org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NotSupported: Unable to autolaunch a dbus-daemon without a $DISPLAY for X11
Mar 18 22:18:03 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [pulseaudio] module.c: Failed to load module "module-jackdbus-detect" (argument: "channels=2"): initialization failed.
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [pulseaudio] main.c: Module load failed.
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [pulseaudio] server-lookup.c: Unable to contact D-Bus: org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NotSupported: Unable to autolaunch a dbus-daemon without a $DISPLAY for X11
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [pulseaudio] main.c: Unable to contact D-Bus: org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NotSupported: Unable to autolaunch a dbus-daemon without a $DISPLAY for X11
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9899]: pam_unix(su:session): session closed for user fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9964]: Successful su for fitzcarraldo by root
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9964]: + /dev/console root:fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9964]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user fitzcarraldo by (uid=0)
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9964]: pam_unix(su:session): session closed for user fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9966]: Successful su for fitzcarraldo by root
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9966]: + /dev/console root:fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9966]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user fitzcarraldo by (uid=0)
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9966]: pam_unix(su:session): session closed for user fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9968]: Successful su for fitzcarraldo by root
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9968]: + /dev/console root:fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9968]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user fitzcarraldo by (uid=0)
Mar 18 22:18:04 localhost su[9968]: pam_unix(su:session): session closed for user fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:18:15 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.UPower' (using servicehelper)
Mar 18 22:18:15 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.UPower'
Mar 18 22:18:17 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.UDisks2' (using servicehelper)
Mar 18 22:18:17 localhost udisksd[10120]: udisks daemon version 2.1.4 starting
Mar 18 22:18:17 localhost dbus[7763]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.UDisks2'
Mar 18 22:18:17 localhost udisksd[10120]: Acquired the name org.freedesktop.UDisks2 on the system message bus
Mar 18 22:18:19 localhost kernel: [UFW BLOCK] IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=01:00:5e:00:00:01:00:16:fa:25:28:01:08:00 SRC=0.0.0.0 DST=224.0.0.1 LEN=36 TOS=0x00 PREC=0xC0 TTL=1 ID=0 PROTO=2 
Mar 18 22:18:54 localhost hp-systray[10453]: hp-systray[10453]: error: option -s not recognized
Mar 18 22:18:55 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Successfully made thread 10469 of process 10469 (/usr/bin/pulseaudio) owned by '1000' high priority at nice level -11.
Mar 18 22:18:55 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 1 threads of 1 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:55 localhost pulseaudio[10469]: [pulseaudio] pid.c: Daemon already running.
Mar 18 22:18:56 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Successfully made thread 10485 of process 10485 (/usr/bin/pulseaudio) owned by '1000' high priority at nice level -11.
Mar 18 22:18:56 localhost rtkit-daemon[9906]: Supervising 1 threads of 1 processes of 1 users.
Mar 18 22:18:56 localhost pulseaudio[10485]: [pulseaudio] pid.c: Daemon already running.
Mar 18 22:19:04 localhost polkitd[7911]: Registered Authentication Agent for unix-session:/org/freedesktop/ConsoleKit/Session1 (system bus name :1.52 [/usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/polkit-kde-authentication-agent-1], object path /org/kde/PolicyKit1/AuthenticationAgent, locale en_GB.UTF-8)
Mar 18 22:19:10 localhost su[10569]: Successful su for root by fitzcarraldo
Mar 18 22:19:10 localhost su[10569]: + /dev/pts/0 fitzcarraldo:root
Mar 18 22:19:10 localhost su[10569]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user root by fitzcarraldo(uid=1000)
Mar 18 22:19:26 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [alsa-sink-ALC272 Analog] alsa-sink.c: ALSA woke us up to write new data to the device, but there was actually nothing to write!
Mar 18 22:19:26 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [alsa-sink-ALC272 Analog] alsa-sink.c: Most likely this is a bug in the ALSA driver 'snd_hda_intel'. Please report this issue to the ALSA developers.
Mar 18 22:19:26 localhost pulseaudio[9904]: [alsa-sink-ALC272 Analog] alsa-sink.c: We were woken up with POLLOUT set -- however a subsequent snd_pcm_avail() returned 0 or another value < min_avail.
Mar 18 22:20:01 localhost cron[10670]: (root) CMD (test -x /usr/sbin/run-crons && /usr/sbin/run-crons)

In the cases when NetworkManager activates a connection correctly and there is no invalid second eth0 connection, the log contains a message like the following:

Mar 16 22:23:47 localhost NetworkManager[6688]: <info>  Auto-activating connection 'eth0'.

Notice there is no such message in the message log above.

The only way I can be sure of preventing NetworkManager creating an invalid second eth0 connection is to disable IPv6 system-wide by uncommenting the line ‘alias net-pf-10 off‘ in the file /etc/modprobe.d/aliases.conf.

So, to me, this looks like a bug in NetworkManager 1.0.0 (I have been experiencing it since Version 0.9.10.0).

More on NetworkManager creating a new connection ‘eth0′ that does not work

In a previous post I described a problem I have been experiencing with NetworkManager since Version 0.9.10.0 (I am now using Version 1.0.0): sometimes, but not always, there is an invalid second eth0 connection when my laptop boots. This invalid second eth0 connection has only IPv6 Link-Local enabled (i.e. IPv4 and IPv6 are disabled) and is Active. As a result the existing eth0 connection for IPv4 I previously created is Available but unable to connect.

While on a work trip and using my laptop on an office network and an hotel network I made some changes to my installation (see the above-mentioned previous post) that seemed to fix this problem on those networks. However, on returning home and connecting my laptop to my home network, I found the problem still exists. This makes me wonder if a race condition is occurring, as network latency can differ between networks. Could it be that my home network takes longer to assign an IPv4 address than the office and hotel networks I used, which results in NetworkManager creating a second eth0 connection with IPv4 and IPv6 disabled? Or perhaps there is a race condition between services but network latency has nothing to do with it. In retrospect, I should have checked the contents of the log file /var/log/messages while on my work trip to see if those networks were providing my laptop with an IPv6 address in addition to an IPv4 address, i.e. check if the IPv6 address was not just a Link-Local address.

But why is NetworkManager creating any additional connection at all when NetworkManager.conf in my installation currently contains ‘no-auto-default=eth0‘? Surely this must be a bug in NetworkManager?

I have found virtually no mention of this behaviour on the Web. Debian bug report no. 755202 appears to describe the same problem. I started experiencing the problem in Gentoo Linux (~amd64 installation using OpenRC) after I upgraded NetworkManager to Version 0.9.10.0 too, and it has continued occurring up to the current version of NetworkManager (1.0.0). Fellow Gentoo Linux user Keivan Moradi’s fix (Message #79 in the aforementioned Debian bug report) did not cure the problem for me, and, anyway, my wired NIC uses a different driver (atl1c module) which appears to be stable in my installation.

CentOS bug report no. 0007435 also appears to report the same behaviour, but I’m not sure.

NetworkManager usually (but not always) creates an invalid second eth0 connection when my laptop boots and an Ethernet cable is connected to my home network. The second eth0 connection is shown as Active in plasma-nm (the KDE front-end for NetworkManager) but only has an IPv6 Link-Local connection configured (i.e. IPv4 is shown as Disabled). If I click on Disconnect in plasma-nm then this ‘rogue’ eth0 connection disappears from plasma-nm. Once the invalid IPv6 Link-Local connection has been disconnected, the valid IPv4 eth0 available connection can connect to the network and access the Internet.

I examined /var/log/messages when the invalid second eth0 connection occurs and when it doesn’t, and the invalid eth0 connection only seems to occur when NetworkManager appears to have first started earlier than syslog-ng began logging. When NetworkManager first starts after syslog-ng began logging, I can see it launches dhcpcd and acquires an IPv4 address. avahi-daemon does not seem to be the cause of the problem if I understand the log file correctly. Anyway, my experiments described below seem to exonerate the Avahi daemon. I could be misinterpreting what is going on, but that’s how it looks to my inexpert eyes. In Debian bug report no. 755202 some commenters refer to extra interfaces with names such as ‘eth0:avahi’ being listed by the ifconfig command when the problem occurs, but I wonder if that is just a side effect. Anyway, the ifconfig command does not list such interfaces in my case.

I tried the following experiments:

1. I commented out the entire contents of the file /etc/conf.d/net (the configuration file for initscripts /etc/init.d/net.*) — which I think is analogous to Debian’s /etc/network/interfaces file — but it did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

2. I added ‘use-ipv6=no‘ and, later, ‘use-ipv4=no‘ in the file /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf but they did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

3. I added ‘deny-interfaces=eth0‘ in the file /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf but it did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

4. In my installation, the ‘local‘ service (launched by initscript /etc/init.d/local) has always been allocated to two runlevels: ‘default‘ and ‘nonetwork‘. I de-allocated the ‘local‘ service from the ‘nonetwork‘ runlevel but this did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

5. In my installation, the ‘net.lo‘ service (launched by initscript /etc/init.d/net.lo) has always been allocated to the ‘boot‘ runlevel (the other net.* services, such as ‘net.eth0‘ and ‘net.wlan0‘, have never been allocated to a runlevel in my installation). I de-allocated ‘net.lo‘ from the ‘boot‘ runlevel but it did not stop the invalid eth0 connection occurring.

As experiments 4 and 5 did not stop the laptop accessing the Internet once I had deleted the invalid second eth0 connection, I have left the ‘local‘ service in the ‘default‘ runlevel only, and I have left the ‘net.lo‘ service unallocated to a runlevel.

6. Since the invalid eth0 connection is allocated an IPv6 Link-Local address rather than an IPv4 address on my home network, I tried a work-around: I disabled IPv6 system-wide by un-commenting the line ‘alias net-pf-10 off‘ in the file /etc/modprobe.d/aliases.conf. Now a second eth0 connection is no longer created, and the valid eth0 IPv4 connection I created previously connects automatically. I have not rebooted many times yet, so I don’t know if this work-around has eliminated the problem for good, but it looks promising.

Nevertheless I would like to find the root cause of the problem, rather than settling for a work-around of disabling IPv6 system-wide. Given that, when IPv6 is enabled, a second eth0 connection is sometimes not created and the ‘good’ IPv4 eth0 connection I created previously can connect, hopefully it should be possible somehow to have both IPv6 and IPv4 enabled system-wide without an invalid eth0 connection ever being created. Could NetworkManager be modified so that it does not create a connection if the DHCP client launched by NetworkManager does not obtain an IP address, for example?

This is not the end of the story, I’m sure.

For information, the services currently used are shown below:

meshedgedx fitzcarraldo # rc-status --all
Runlevel: nonetwork
Runlevel: shutdown
 killprocs                               [  stopped  ]
 savecache                               [  stopped  ]
 mount-ro                                [  stopped  ]
Runlevel: sysinit
 devfs                                   [  started  ]
 tmpfiles.dev                            [  started  ]
 sysfs                                   [  started  ]
 dmesg                                   [  started  ]
 udev                                    [  started  ]
Runlevel: boot
 hwclock                                 [  started  ]
 modules                                 [  started  ]
 device-mapper                           [  started  ]
 fsck                                    [  started  ]
 root                                    [  started  ]
 mtab                                    [  started  ]
 localmount                              [  started  ]
 sysctl                                  [  started  ]
 bootmisc                                [  started  ]
 termencoding                            [  started  ]
 keymaps                                 [  started  ]
 swapfiles                               [  started  ]
 ufw                                     [  started  ]
 procfs                                  [  started  ]
 dbus                                    [  started  ]
 tmpfiles.setup                          [  started  ]
 serial                                  [  started  ]
 hostname                                [  started  ]
 consolekit                              [  started  ]
 consolefont                             [  started  ]
 xdm                                     [  started  ]
 loopback                                [  started  ]
Runlevel: single
Runlevel: default
 swap                                    [  started  ]
 bluetooth                               [  started  ]
 syslog-ng                               [  started  ]
 sshd                                    [  started  ]
 fbcondecor                              [  started  ]
 atd                                     [  started  ]
 NetworkManager                          [  started  ]
 avahi-daemon                            [  started  ]
 cupsd                                   [  started  ]
 mdadm                                   [  started  ]
 acpid                                   [  started  ]
 nfsclient                               [  started  ]
 netmount                                [  started  ]
 alsasound                               [  started  ]
 laptop_mode                             [  started  ]
 cups-browsed                            [  started  ]
 hddtemp                                 [  started  ]
 mysql                                   [  started  ]
 nfs                                     [  started  ]
 samba                                   [  started  ]
 urandom                                 [  started  ]
 vixie-cron                              [  started  ]
 local                                   [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: hotplugged
Dynamic Runlevel: needed
 rpcbind                                 [  started  ]
 rpc.statd                               [  started  ]
 rpc.pipefs                              [  started  ]
 rpc.idmapd                              [  started  ]
 xdm-setup                               [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: manual
meshedgedx fitzcarraldo #

The allocations of services to runlevels are shown below:

meshedgedx fitzcarraldo # rc-update show -v
           NetworkManager |      default
 NetworkManagerDispatcher |
                    acpid |      default
                alsasound |      default
                  apache2 |
                      atd |      default
               atieventsd |
             avahi-daemon |      default
           avahi-dnsconfd |
                bluetooth |      default
                 bootmisc | boot
                   brltty |
             busybox-ntpd |
         busybox-watchdog |
                 cgconfig |
                    cgred |
                  cgroups |
                    clamd |
              consolefont | boot
               consolekit | boot
          courier-authlib |
                 cpupower |
             cups-browsed |      default
                    cupsd |      default
                     dbus | boot
                  deluged |
                    devfs |                                        sysinit
            device-mapper | boot
                      dgc |
                   dhcpcd |
                  dmcrypt |
                    dmesg |                                        sysinit
                 dmeventd |
                  dropbox |
                    eposd |
               fancontrol |
               fbcondecor |      default
                     fsck | boot
                     fuse |
               git-daemon |
                 gkrellmd |
                      gpm |
                     gpsd |
                  hddtemp |      default
                   hdparm |
          heimdal-kadmind |
              heimdal-kcm |
              heimdal-kdc |
         heimdal-kpasswdd |
                 hostname | boot
                   hsqldb |
                  hwclock | boot
                ip6tables |
                 iptables |
                   irexec |
                  keymaps | boot
                killprocs |                        shutdown
        kmod-static-nodes |
              laptop_mode |      default
                    lircd |
                   lircmd |
               lm_sensors |
                    local |      default
               localmount | boot
                 loopback | boot
                      lvm |
           lvm-monitoring |
                  lvmetad |
                    mdadm |      default
                   mdraid |
            microcode_ctl |
                  modules | boot
                 mount-ro |                        shutdown
                     mtab | boot
                multipath |
               multipathd |
                    mysql |      default
                      nas |
                  net.aol |
                 net.ath0 |
                 net.ath1 |
                 net.ath2 |
                 net.ath3 |
                 net.ath4 |
                 net.eth0 |
                 net.eth1 |
                 net.eth2 |
                 net.eth3 |
                 net.eth4 |
                 net.eth5 |
                 net.eth6 |
                 net.eth7 |
                 net.eth8 |
                   net.lo |
                 net.ppp0 |
                 net.ppp1 |
                 net.ppp2 |
                 net.ppp3 |
                  net.ra0 |
                  net.ra1 |
                  net.ra2 |
                  net.ra3 |
                  net.ra4 |
                  net.ra5 |
                net.wlan0 |
                net.wlan1 |
                net.wlan2 |
                net.wlan3 |
                 netmount |      default
                      nfs |      default
                nfsclient |      default
                 nfsmount |
               ntp-client |
  ntp-client.bak.20141013 |
                     ntpd |
                  numlock |
                  pciparm |
                  pktcdvd |
                   polipo |
                   procfs | boot
                  pwcheck |
                pydoc-2.7 |
                pydoc-3.2 |
                pydoc-3.3 |
                pydoc-3.4 |
              rename_ethX |
                   rfcomm |
                     root | boot
               rpc.idmapd |
               rpc.pipefs |
                rpc.statd |
                  rpcbind |
                rrdcached |
                   rsyncd |
                    samba |      default
                    saned |
                saslauthd |
                savecache |                        shutdown
                   serial | boot
                     slpd |
                   smartd |
                    snmpd |
                snmptrapd |
                     sntp |
                     sshd |      default
                 svnserve |
                     swap |      default
                swapfiles | boot
                  swclock |
                   sysctl | boot
                    sysfs |                                        sysinit
                syslog-ng |      default
    system-tools-backends |
             termencoding | boot
                 timidity |
             tmpfiles.dev |                                        sysinit
           tmpfiles.setup | boot
                      tor |
                   twistd |
                     udev |                                        sysinit
                      ufw | boot
                  urandom |      default
               vboxwebsrv |
               vixie-cron |      default
                     vpnc |
           wpa_supplicant |
                      xdm | boot
                xdm-setup |
                   xinetd |
meshedgedx fitzcarraldo #

My installation has the following six runlevels:

meshedgedx fitzcarraldo # ls /etc/runlevels
boot default nonetwork shutdown single sysinit

Using a Samsung Xpress C460FW with Gentoo Linux and Android KitKat for printing and scanning

INTRODUCTION

A work colleague has just received a Samsung Xpress C460FW MFP (laser printer, scanner, copier and fax machine) for small print jobs. It is possible to connect to it via USB, Direct USB, wired network, wireless network, Wi-Fi Direct and NFC; that’s impressive for a MFP that can be purchased for GBP 270 in the UK.

I wanted to use the C460FW to print and scan from my laptop running Gentoo Linux, and also to print and scan from my Samsung Galaxy Note 4 running Android KiKat. It turned out that I was able to do all of those, and it was not difficult to set up.

A technician from the IT Support department had already entered a static IP address, subnet mask and default gateway IP address via the C460FW’s control panel to connect it to the office’s wired network. So my options to connect to this particular C460FW are: the wired network for Linux; Wi-Fi Direct for Linux and Android; NFC for Android.

I had never used Wi-Fi Direct before, but it turned out to be easy in Gentoo Linux on my laptop, and also easy in Android KitKat on my Samsung Galaxy Note 4. I had never used NFC before either, and that also turned out to be easy on my Samsung Galaxy Note 4.

Samsung has a series of videos on YouTube explaining how to use Wi-Fi Direct and NFC for printing, scanning and faxing with the C460FW from a Samsung smartphone; here are links to a few of them:

Samsung Smart Printing – 01 NFC Connect

Samsung Smart Printing – 02 Wi Fi Direct

Samsung Smart Printing – 03 Wi Fi

Samsung Smart Printing – 04 NFC Print

Samsung Smart Printing – 05 NFC Scan

Samsung Smart Printing – 06 NFC Fax

Samsung Smart Printing – 11 Samsung Mobile Print App(Printer Status)

PRINTING

Linux

Wired connection

I had installed the package net-print/samsung-unified-linux-driver Version 1.02 from a Portage local overlay back in March 2013 when I needed to print to a different model of Samsung MFP, so I thought I would see if that driver would work with the C460FW. I opened the CUPS Printer Manager in a browser window (http://localhost:631/) to configure my Gentoo installation to print to the device via the wired network. ‘Samsung C460 Series‘ was in the list of discovered network printers in the CUPS Printer Manager, and the driver ‘Samsung C460 Series PS‘ was displayed at the top of the list of models, so it was a piece of cake to set up the printer via CUPS, and I was able to print a test page in no time at all. My colleague uses a laptop running Windows 7, and he had to install the Windows driver from a Samsung CD that came with the C460FW.

Wireless connection

As the IT Support technician had configured the C460FW to print via the office wired network rather than the office wireless network, I decided to configure my laptop to print via Wi-Fi Direct, just to learn about Wi-Fi Direct, really. On the C460FW’s control panel I selected Network > Wireless > Wi-Fi Direct and enabled Wi-Fi Direct. Scrolling through the Wi-Fi Direct entries in the LCD I saw the following information:

Device Name: C460 Series
Network Key: <an 8-digit code>
IP address: 192.168.003.001

Two new networks were listed under ‘Available connections’ in plasma-nm (the KDE GUI front-end to NetworkManager) on my laptop: ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ and ‘DIRECT-SqC460 Series‘, both using WPA2-PSK encryption. I used the control panel of the C460FW to print a network configuration report in order to check which of the two SSIDs I should select, and it is ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ (I found out later that an adjacent room also has a C460FW and its Wi-Fi Direct SSID is ‘DIRECT-SqC460 Series‘). So I selected ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ and plasma-nm prompted me to enter a network password. I entered the 8-digit key I had found from the C460FW’s LCD panel (it’s also listed in the printed network configuration report), and NetworkManager connected to the printer.

In exactly the same way as I do when setting up any printer in Linux, I launched Firefox, opened the CUPS Printer Manager page, clicked on ‘Administration’ > ‘Add Printer’ and entered the user name ‘root’ and the password in the pop-up window. Again the ‘Add Printer’ page had ‘Samsung C460 Series‘ in the list of discovered network printers, so I just selected it and clicked on ‘Continue’. As I had already set up the printer in CUPS for the wired network connection and given it the name ‘Samsung_C460FW_office‘, I entered the name ‘Samsung_C460FW_office_WiFi_Direct‘ to distinguish it from the wired network entry, entered a Description and Location, and clicked on ‘Continue’. The next page had ‘Samsung C460 Series PS‘ first in the driver list so I selected that, clicked on ‘Add Printer’ and that was it. I was able to print a test page from the CUPS Printer Manager, and the printer is now included the list of printers in Linux applications’ print dialogues.

When I want to print using Wi-Fi Direct the only thing I need to remember to do first is select ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ in the network GUI on the KDE Panel, so that the connection is active when I click ‘Print’ in whichever application I want to print from.

Given the ease of printing via the wired network and Wi-Fi Direct, I have no doubts that printing would also work had the C460FW been configured for the office wireless network instead of the wired network.

Duplex printing

The only downside to the Samsung Xpress C460FW is that it only supports manual duplex printing. If you specify duplex printing when printing from Windows, Samsung’s Windows driver prints all the odd-numbered pages in reverse order and displays a message in Windows telling you what to do next (turn over the pile of paper and put it back in the paper tray!), but in Linux it’s not difficult to work out what you have to do: you simply have to print all the odd-numbered sides first, turn over the paper, then print all the even-numbered sides. The print dialogue in Linux applications gives you the option to print only odd-numbered pages or only even-numbered pages, so there is no problem. The print dialogue in some Linux applications allows you to print pages in reverse order as well but, if not, you have to reverse the order yourself before printing the even-numbered pages (i.e. put Page 1 face down at the top of the pile then Page 3 face down under it, and so on). It’s not a big deal unless the document has a large number of pages.

Android

As you would expect with devices from the same manufacturer, setting up my Samsung Galaxy Note 4 to print with the Samsung Xpress C460FW via WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup) was easy. When I selected ‘Print’ on the Galaxy Note 4, it gave me the option to print via wireless network or Wi-Fi Direct. I chose the latter and, as I had already enabled Wi-Fi Direct on the C460FW’s control panel, the printer name was displayed in the list of available devices. I selected it, a blue LED began flashing on the C460FW’s control panel and the LCD prompted me to press the WPS button (on the left of the control panel). As soon as I pressed that, the C460FW printed the document sent by my Galaxy Note 4. From then onwards, I just needed to select ‘Print’ on the Galaxy Note 4, select the printer from the list of available devices, and the document is printed. When I want to print using Wi-Fi Direct the only thing I need to remember to do first on the Galaxy Note 4 is select ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ as the Wi-Fi network.

NFC

I then decided to try to print using NFC. I placed the Galaxy Note 4, without Wi-Fi enabled and with the Home Screen displayed (not the Lock Screen), on the NFC label on top of the C460FW; Android launched Play Store and prompted me to install Samsung Mobile Print, which I did. Now when I place the Galaxy Note 4 on the NFC label, the Galaxy Note 4 automatically enables Wi-Fi, connects to the C460FW directly and displays the Mobile Print app showing the options Print, Scan and Fax, and a page of icons labelled: Gallery, Camera, Google Drive, E-mail, Web page, Document, Facebook, DropBox, Evernote, OneDrive and Box, as well as a Settings icon to configure the printer (paper size etc.). I am able to select a document, photograph, Web page, etc. on the Galaxy Note 4 and print it. It is also possible to launch the Mobile Print app first and then place the Galaxy Note 4 on the C460FW.

NFC is not entirely trouble-free, though. Sometimes the Galaxy Note 4 displays a ‘Device not found‘ message but I can still print. Sometimes the Galaxy Note 4 displays the message ‘Connecting printer. There was some error while connecting to this device. Check your printer and try again. If NFC Pin was changed then please enter new NFC Pin.‘ and the two devices will not connect. Powering off then on the C460FW solves that. Sometimes the Galaxy Note 4 connects to another wireless network instead of to the C460FW via Wi-Fi Direct and the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 then has to disconnect automatically from the other network. Sometimes the C460FW prompts me to press its WPS button and the Galaxy Note 4 then connects via Wi-Fi Direct but the Mobile Print app then displays the error message ‘Device not found. To troubleshoot please check – C460 Series is powered on. – Wi-Fi direct is enabled on C460 Series. – C460 Series and Mobile are connected to the same network.‘. Again, powering off then on the C460FW solves that. Despite these hiccups, printing via NFC is still handy.

SCANNING

Linux

I found out how to get the C460FW scanner working by consulting the third-party Web site The Samsung Unified Linux Driver Repository which someone created to provide .deb packages for the Samsung driver as well as tips on how to get Samsung printers and scanners working in Linux. It turned out to be relatively straightforward to scan, both via the office wired network and via Wi-Fi Direct. I edited the file /etc/sane.d/xerox_mfp.conf and replaced the following:

#Samsung C460 Series
usb 0x04e8 0x3468

with the following in order to use the C460FW to scan via the office wired network:

#Samsung C460 Series
#usb 0x04e8 0x3468
#Wired network static address of this C460FW:
tcp 10.90.21.125

or with the following in order to use the C460FW to scan via Wi-Fi Direct:

#Samsung C460 Series
#usb 0x04e8 0x3468
#Wi-Fi Direct address of this C460FW:
tcp 192.168.3.1

I found the IP addresses from the network configuration report I printed earlier.

I was able to use the two Linux scanning applications I normally use, XSane and gscan2pdf, to scan via the wired network and via Wi-Fi Direct. The resulting scans were very good. Given the ease of scanning via the wired network and Wi-Fi Direct, I have no doubts that scanning would work via a wireless network had the C460FW been configured for the office wireless network instead of the wired network.

Android

To use NFC to scan a document I place the Galaxy Note 4, without Wi-Fi enabled and with the Home Screen displayed (not the Lock Screen), on the NFC label on top of the C460FW. The Galaxy Note 4 enables Wi-Fi, connects automatically to the C460FW directly and launches the Mobile Print app showing the options Print, Scan and Fax. It is also possible to launch the Mobile Print app first and then place the Galaxy Note 4 on the C460FW. In other words, the procedure is exactly the same as when wanting to print via NFC. If I select Scan, the Galaxy Note 4 displays buttons for previewing and scanning. Amongst other things, the app’s Settings menu allows you to select whether you want to save the scanned image as a JPEG, PNG or PDF file. The hiccups mentioned above when printing via NFC also apply to scanning. Nevertheless, scanning from the C460FW to the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 via NFC is still handy.

CONCLUSION

As I am mainly interested in printing text documents I have only tried to print a few colour photographs on plain copier paper, and they look good. Text in documents looks crisp. Despite the lack of automatic duplex printing the C460FW is an excellent peripheral, especially for the price, although I don’t pay for the consumables so I have no idea of the operating costs. The ease with which I got it printing and scanning in Gentoo Linux (laptop) and Android KitKat (Samsung Galaxy Note 4) means that I would definitely consider purchasing this model for home use.

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