NetworkManager: Failed to activate – The name org.freedesktop.NetworkManager was not provided by any .service files

Because I need to connect quickly and easily to numerous wired and wireless networks (DHCP or static IP addressing), I use NetworkManager in my Gentoo Linux amd64 installation running OpenRC and KDE 4. My Clevo W230SS laptop has an Intel Dual Band Wireless-AC 7260 Plus Bluetooth adapter card, and my installation uses the iwlwifi module:

# lspci -knn | grep Net -A2
03:00.0 Network controller [0280]: Intel Corporation Wireless 7260 [8086:08b1] (rev bb)
        Subsystem: Intel Corporation Dual Band Wireless-AC 7260 [8086:4070]
        Kernel driver in use: iwlwifi
# lsmod | grep iwl
iwlmvm                143919  0
iwlwifi                75747  1 iwlmvm

As I am using NetworkManager instead of netifrc, in accordance with the instructions in the Gentoo Wiki article on NetworkManager I do not have any net.* services enabled (not even net.lo):

# rc-update show -v
       NetworkManager |      default                 
                acpid |                              
            alsasound |                              
         avahi-daemon |                              
       avahi-dnsconfd |                              
               binfmt | boot                         
            bluetooth |      default                 
             bootmisc | boot                         
         busybox-ntpd |                              
     busybox-watchdog |                              
                clamd |                              
          consolefont |                              
           consolekit |      default                 
               cronie |      default                 
         cups-browsed |      default                 
                cupsd |      default                 
                 dbus |      default                 
                devfs |                       sysinit
               dhcpcd |                              
                dhcpd |                              
             dhcrelay |                              
            dhcrelay6 |                              
                dmesg |                       sysinit
              dropbox |                              
           fancontrol |                              
                 fsck | boot                         
                 fuse |                              
           git-daemon |                              
                  gpm |                              
              hddtemp |                              
             hostname | boot                         
              hwclock | boot                         
            ip6tables |                              
             iptables |                              
              keymaps | boot                         
            killprocs |              shutdown        
    kmod-static-nodes |                       sysinit
           lm_sensors |                              
                local |      default                 
           localmount | boot                         
             loopback | boot                         
      mit-krb5kadmind |                              
          mit-krb5kdc |                              
       mit-krb5kpropd |                              
              modules | boot                         
             mount-ro |              shutdown        
                 mtab | boot                         
                mysql |                              
                  nas |                              
         net.enp4s0f1 |                              
               net.lo |                              
             netmount |      default                 
           ntp-client |                              
                 ntpd |                              
           nullmailer |                              
              numlock |                              
  nvidia-persistenced |                              
           nvidia-smi |                              
              osclock |                              
              pciparm |                              
               procfs | boot                         
              pwcheck |                              
            pydoc-2.7 |                              
            pydoc-3.4 |                              
               rfcomm |                              
                 root | boot                         
               rsyncd |                              
            s6-svscan |                              
                samba |      default                 
                saned |                              
            saslauthd |                              
            savecache |              shutdown        
                 sntp |                              
                 sshd |      default                 
             svnserve |                              
                 swap | boot                         
            swapfiles | boot                         
              swclock |                              
               sysctl | boot                         
                sysfs |                       sysinit
            syslog-ng |      default                 
        teamviewerd10 |                              
         termencoding | boot                         
             timidity |                               |                       sysinit
       tmpfiles.setup | boot                         
               twistd |                              
                 udev |                       sysinit
                  ufw | boot                         
              urandom | boot                         
       wpa_supplicant |                              
                  xdm |      default                 
            xdm-setup |

I have left the netmount service enabled in case I want to use network-attached file shares at home or in one of the various office locations where I work.

Networking works fine on my laptop with the many wired and wireless networks I have used except for one particular public wireless network (it is in an airport, has multiple Access Points, and its Access Points only support 802.11a/b/g, which may or may not be relevant) for which the following message would usually appear in a pop-up window when I tried to connect to the network from the KDE network management GUI after start-up:

Failed to activate
The name org.freedesktop.NetworkManager was not provided by any .service files

Error message displayed by KDE when trying to connect to one specific network

Error message displayed by KDE when trying to connect to one specific network

This occurred with both networkmanager-1.0.2-r1 and networkmanager-1.0.6, the two Stable Branch releases of NetworkManager currently available in Gentoo Linux.

The wireless network is not the only network at that particular location, and the ‘Failed to activate’ message occurred whichever network (wireless or wired) I tried to access at that location. When this problem occurred, it transpired that the NetworkManager service was not running (it had crashed):

$ nmcli d
Error: NetworkManager is not running.
$ rc-status
Runlevel: default
 dbus                   [  started  ]
 NetworkManager         [  crashed  ]
 netmount               [  started  ]
 syslog-ng              [  started  ]
 cupsd                  [  started  ]
 samba                  [  crashed  ]
 consolekit             [  started  ]
 cronie                 [  started  ]
 bluetooth              [  started  ]
 xdm                    [  started  ]
 cups-browsed           [  started  ]
 sshd                   [  started  ]
 local                  [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: hotplugged
Dynamic Runlevel: needed
 xdm-setup              [  started  ]
 avahi-daemon           [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: manual

(I am not bothered that Samba crashes in that particular location. It crashes even if a connection is established, because the public wireless network does not provide network file systems. Samba works fine when I connect the laptop to an office network or to my home network.)

Even if the ‘Failed to activate’ message occurred, sometimes (but not always) the laptop could still connect to networks after I restarted the NetworkManager service (albeit sometimes it was necessary to restart it more than once):

# /etc/init.d/NetworkManager restart

When it is possible to connect to networks, the NetworkManager service is of course running:

$ nmcli d
DEVICE    TYPE      STATE        CONNECTION           
sit0      sit       connected    sit0                 
wlp3s0    wifi      connected    Free_Airport_Internet
enp4s0f1  ethernet  unavailable  --                   
lo        loopback  unmanaged    --        
$ rc-status
Runlevel: default
 dbus                   [  started  ]
 NetworkManager         [  started  ]
 netmount               [  started  ]
 syslog-ng              [  started  ]
 cupsd                  [  started  ]
 samba                  [  crashed  ]
 consolekit             [  started  ]
 cronie                 [  started  ]
 bluetooth              [  started  ]
 xdm                    [  started  ]
 cups-browsed           [  started  ]
 sshd                   [  started  ]
 local                  [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: hotplugged
Dynamic Runlevel: needed
 xdm-setup              [  started  ]
 avahi-daemon           [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: manual

I searched the Web for the error message and, based on a recommendation on the Web page ‘nm-applet gives errors‘ claiming the problem is due to the iwlwifi driver when used with an Intel 7260 controller, I created a file /etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.conf containing the following line, and rebooted:

options iwlwifi power_save=0

However, the error message still occurred. So I changed the iwlwifi module options line to the following, as also recommended on that page, and rebooted:

options iwlwifi 11n_disable=1 power_save=0

However, the error message still occurred.

The default value for OpenRC’s rc_depend_strict variable is YES if rc_depend_strict is not declared in the file /etc/rc.conf, but I do not think that is the cause of the problem:

# Do we allow any started service in the runlevel to satisfy the dependency
# or do we want all of them regardless of state? For example, if net.eth0
# and net.eth1 are in the default runlevel then with rc_depend_strict="NO"
# both will be started, but services that depend on 'net' will work if either
# one comes up. With rc_depend_strict="YES" we would require them both to
# come up.

As already mentioned, sometimes just restarting the NetworkManager service once or more did enable the laptop to connect to the network. This made me wonder whether the problem had something to do either with the timing of the launch of the NetworkManager service or with the timing of the service establishing a connection. As netmount is the only other network-related service enabled at start-up, I checked the netmount service’s configuration file /etc/conf.d/netmount to see what it contained (it’s the same in both the latest stable openrc-0.17 and the latest testing openrc-0.18.2):

# You will need to set the dependencies in the netmount script to match
# the network configuration tools you are using. This should be done in
# this file by following the examples below, and not by changing the
# service script itself.
# Each of these examples is meant to be used separately. So, for
# example, do not set rc_need to something like "net.eth0 dhcpcd".
# If you are using newnet and configuring your interfaces with static
# addresses with the network script, you  should use this setting.
# If you are using oldnet, you must list the specific net.* services you
# need.
# This example assumes all of your netmounts can be reached on
# eth0.
# This example assumes some of your netmounts are on eth1 and some
# are on eth2.
#rc_need="net.eth1 net.eth2"
# If you are using a dynamic network management tool like
# networkmanager, dhcpcd in standalone mode, wicd, badvpn-ncd, etc, to
# manage the network interfaces with the routes to your netmounts, you
# should list that tool.
# The default setting is designed to be backward compatible with our
# current setup, but you are highly discouraged from using this. In
# other words, please change it to be more suited to your system.

As I am using NetworkManager rather than netifrc, I followed the instructions in the file’s comments and changed the file’s contents from:




After making the above change, the console messages at boot-up included a new message:

* ERROR: netmount needs service(s) networkmanager

That message made sense: rc_need had been set to "networkmanager" and, obviously, netmount can only do its job if NetworkManager is running (AND a network connection has been established). However, notice that the name of the NetworkManager service initscript is /etc/init.d/NetworkManager, not /etc/init.d/networkmanager. In other words, the instructions in /etc/conf.d/netmount are wrong: the name of the service is actually ‘NetworkManager‘, not ‘networkmanager‘. So I changed /etc/conf.d/netmount to contain rc_need="NetworkManager" instead of rc_need="networkmanager" and, unsurprisingly, the above-mentioned error message no longer occurs. I have filed Gentoo Bugzilla Bug Report No. 564846 requesting that the comment in the configuration file be changed.

Nevertheless, the ‘Failed to activate’ message still occurred when I tried to connect to any network at that location by using the DE’s network management GUI, and therefore I still needed to restart the NetworkManager service manually in order to be able to connect to any network there. Although I am not yet sure of the root cause and solution, I have found a work-around which avoids me having to manually restart the NetworkManager service, as explained below.

Although OpenRC correctly launches the NetworkManager service, that service remains inactive until it actually establishes a network connection. This is not a bug, it is the way OpenRC and NetworkManager work (see the explanation in the Gentoo Forums thread NetworkManager has started, but is inactive). This is why the following console message appears during boot-up:

* WARNING: NetworkManager has already started, but is inactive

If you did not configure NetworkManager to connect automatically to a network, after logging-in to the DE you will need to use the DE’s network management GUI (plasma-nm in the case if KDE, nm-applet in the case of e.g. Xfce) to tell NetworkManager to connect to the desired network. However, I found that waiting that long before trying to connect is too late to avoid the ‘Failed to activate’ problem, i.e. NetworkManager crashes after a while. I do not know why this happens, but it usually happens only when I am at the location covered by one specific wireless network (which is why I wonder if the problem is a result of that network only supporting 802.11a/b/g). By configuring NetworkManager to connect automatically to the wireless network which seemed to trigger the problem, the NetworkManager service tries to connect earlier. It is possible to configure NetworkManager to do this either by using the DE network GUI and ticking ‘Automatically connect to this network when it is available’ for the relevant network connection, or by directly editing the relevant connection’s file in the directory /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.

Of the various wired and wireless connections I had configured on the laptop, I had named the problematic wireless network’s connection ‘Free_Airport_Internet’. So I edited the file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Free_Airport_Internet and deleted the line ‘autoconnect=false‘ in the [connections] section of the file (the default value of the autoconnect variable is TRUE – see man nm-settings). I could instead have done this by using the DE’s network manager GUI and ticking ‘Automatically connect to this network when it is available’ for that network connection. Now, when the laptop boots, NetworkManager tries to connect to that network and the ‘Failed to activate’ problem is avoided. This works with or without the iwlwifi driver options I mentioned above, so, despite the claim on the Web page I referenced above, the root cause of the problem does not appear to be the iwlwifi driver. What I don’t understand is why the problem only seems to occur with one particular network (a public wireless network which happens to only support 802.11a/b/g), i.e. even if none of the NetworkManager connection files in my installation have been configured to try to establish a connection automatically, with all the other wireless networks I have used in other locations (I believe those all support at least 802.11a/b/g/n) I have been able to establish a connection manually by using the DE’s network management GUI.

The bottom line

If your installation uses NetworkManager and you experience the ‘Failed to activate’ message when trying to connect to networks from the DE’s network management GUI, check if the NetworkManager service is running. You can check by using the command ‘nmcli d‘ in a console. If it is not running, try to restart the NetworkManager service from the command line. If the connection is not already configured to start automatically, configure it to start automatically in order to try to make NetworkManager become active at an early stage.

POSTSCRIPT (November 6, 2015)

The two links below are to old bug reports regarding earlier versions of NetworkManager having trouble using wireless networks with multiple Access Points. I wonder if the problem I saw with NetworkManager crashing when not configured to connect automatically to the specific network I mentioned above is somehow related to those problems:

background scanning causes drivers to disassociate – WiFi roaming causes NetworkManager to lose routing

network-manager roams to (none) ((none)) – background scanning

Roaming to BSSID “(none)” certainly happens with this particular network too, as shown by the messages in the laptop’s system log from yesterday when I was using the laptop with that network (the laptop was stationary the whole time):

# cat /var/log/messages | grep "Nov  5 11" | grep NetworkManager | grep \(none\)
Nov  5 11:01:22 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID 04:C5:A4:C3:F9:EE (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:01:22 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:13:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:13:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to 04:C5:A4:C3:F9:EE (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:15:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID 04:C5:A4:C3:F9:EE (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:15:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:19:22 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:19:23 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:49:50 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:49:50 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to 68:BC:0C:A1:3C:DE (Free_Airport_Internet)
Nov  5 11:51:51 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID 68:BC:0C:A1:3C:DE (Free_Airport_Internet) to (none) ((none))
Nov  5 11:51:51 clevow230ss NetworkManager[2459]:   (wlp3s0): roamed from BSSID (none) ((none)) to B8:BE:BF:69:89:6E (Free_Airport_Internet)

Today I’m using a hotel network in my hotel room, and that does not roam to BSSID “(none)”, but I don’t know if my room is within range of more than one Access Point:

# cat /var/log/messages | grep "Nov  6" | grep NetworkManager | grep \(none\)

Anyway, with the work-around described in this post I have not had any further trouble accessing the particular network, but it would be interesting to know the root cause.

Using a keyboard shortcut in Linux to add an e-mail signature giving current location and local time

In my previous post I showed how to find the current time at any town or city Worldwide from the command line in Gentoo Linux. My interest in a command to do this is not to use it on the command line per se, but to use the command in a keyboard shortcut to insert a signature at the end of my e-mails.

I have to travel internationally frequently because of my work, but I leave my laptop’s hardware clock set to UTC and the system clock set to the local time of my home town. This means that, irrespective of where I am in the World, the e-mail client (Thunderbird, in my case) uses the local time of my home town in e-mail headers and calenders. It is not practical to reconfigure Linux for each timezone I happen to be in (see my post Configuring the Linux clock), and, in any case, I want the file system’s timestamps to use one timezone only and all the timestamps in my e-mails and the e-mail client’s calender to use one timezone only, so there is less chance of me getting confused. I could have configured the installation to use UTC for the system clock, but I prefer the system clock to use the timezone of my home town. Of course, even though the system clock is always set to the timezone of my home town, on the Panel clock I select the timezone of the location where I happen to be, so that the Panel clock displays the local time in that timezone.

I wanted to be able to insert a signature at the end of each e-mail, stating my current location and the current time at that location, so that the person receiving the e-mail could tell from where in the World I sent the e-mail and the local time it was sent, as that local time could differ from the time shown in the e-mail header. For example, let us assume that Jane, who lives in the UK and whose system clock is configured for the timezone Europe/London, is making a brief visit to Perth, Australia and sends an e-mail to Dave in the UK at 06:36 on 11 October (Perth time). The e-mail below illustrates the type of signature I wanted to achieve.

Subject: Site visit
From: Jane <>
To: Dave <>
Date: Sat Oct 10 2015 23:36:40 GMT+0100 (BST)

Hello Dave,

This is to let you know that I have just arrived in Perth and will be
visiting site at 09:00 local time to speak to the client. Tomorrow p.m.
I have a meeting scheduled with our local project manager, so I would
appreciate it if you would e-mail the latest documentation to me. I will
not have spare time until I’m in my room at the hotel tonight but will
read the documents tomorrow a.m. in readiness for the meeting with
the local project manager. Thanks in advance.

Current location: Perth (Australia)
Local time now: Sat Oct 11 06:36:31 2015 AWST

As you can see above, because the OS on Jane’s and Dave’s laptops is configured for the timezone Europe/London, the e-mail header shows the current time in the UK when the e-mail was sent, which was October 10, 23:36 British Summer Time (22:36 UTC), and the signature shows the corresponding local time in Perth, Australia, which was October 11, 06:36 Australian Western Standard Time. It becomes even more confusing if the computer of the person receiving the e-mail is configured for a third timezone. For example, let’s say Dave is based in Seattle, USA rather than the UK. His e-mail client would then display the time in that timezone when the e-mail was sent. This is usually my case, i.e. my Linux installation is configured for Timezone1 but I happen to be in Timezone2 when I send an e-mail to someone who is based in Timezone3 and whose OS is configured for that timezone.

I wanted to use a keyboard shortcut to add a signature to the end of my e-mails, as shown above. I therefore created the Bash script listed below, which I named


location=$(kdialog --title "Current Location" --inputbox "Enter your location:")

localtime=$(perl /home/fitzcarraldo/ $location)
place=`echo $localtime | cut -d'|' -f1`
place=$place" "`echo $localtime | cut -d'|' -f2`
timezone=`echo $localtime | cut -d'|' -f4`

if [ $location != "" ]; then
  echo -n "Current location: "
  echo $place
  echo -n "Local time now:"
  /usr/sbin/zdump ${timezone} | cut -d' ' -f2-

Notice that the Bash script uses the GUI dialogues utility kdialog to display a pop-up window prompting me to enter the name of a town/city. As I am using KDE I opted to use a dialogues utility developed for use in KDE, but I could have used Zenity instead.

The Perl script is a variant of the Perl script described in my previous post, modified very slightly in order to facilitate formatting of the output by the Bash script, and is listed below.


use strict;
use warnings;

use DateTime;
use Geo::GeoNames;
use URI::Escape;
use Encode;

binmode STDOUT, ':encoding(UTF-8)';

my $city = decode("UTF-8", @ARGV ? shift : 'London');
# N.B. Replace London with your home town/city.

my $geo = Geo::GeoNames->new( username => '************' );
# N.B. Replace the asterisks with your GeoNames user name.

my $result = $geo->search(
q       => uri_escape_utf8($city),
maxRows => 1,
style   => 'FULL'

defined $result->[0] or die "Unrecognized city '$city'\n";

my $city_name    = $result->[0]->{name};
my $country_name = $result->[0]->{countryName};
my $time_zone    = $result->[0]->{timezone}{content};
my $time_now     = DateTime->now( time_zone => $time_zone );

#print "$city_name ($country_name) $time_now ($time_zone)\n";

print "$city_name|($country_name)|$time_now|$time_zone\n";

exit 0;

The only thing remaining was to configure a keyboard shortcut to launch the Bash script. I opted to use the key combination Ctrl-Alt-z for the shortcut. As I am using KDE I could have used KDE’s ‘System Settings’ > ‘Shortcuts and Gestures’> ‘Custom Shortcuts’ to specify the shortcut and the name of the script it launches. However, as I also use AutoKey for various shortcuts, I opted to use that instead, so I used the AutoKey GUI to create a shortcut named ‘Insert Current Time’ to use the following command:

output = system.exec_command("/home/fitzcarraldo/")


I compose my e-mails as usual, and, after entering my name at the end of the e-mail, I press Ctrl-Alt-z. A window then pops up prompting me to enter my current location, which I do and then click on ‘OK’. The location and current time at that location are then added to the end of the e-mail, and it just remains for me to click on the ‘Send’ button in the e-mail client’s window. As the Perl script uses the Internet to access the GeoNames database, my laptop must be connected to the Internet when I use the shortcut.

KDialog window that pops up when I use the keyboard shortcut

KDialog window that pops up when I use the keyboard shortcut

If the town/city name consists of more than one word (Rio de Janeiro, for example) then replace spaces with hyphens when you enter the location name in the pop-up window (Rio-de-Janeiro, for example) and then the keyboard shortcut will return the correct location and local time:

Current location: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
Local time now: Fri Oct 16 09:28:19 2015 BRT

How to group the entries in the right-click menu of a KDE file manager

This is easier to explain by giving an example. I will use PeaZip as my example, but the principle applies whatever the menu entries.

Immediately after installing PeaZip Portable on my main laptop running Gentoo Linux by using the steps in one of my earlier posts, the resulting right-click menu in KDE Dolphin looks like the screenshot below. Notice that the PeaZip entries in the Actions sub-menu are not listed contiguously.

Actions sub-menu of right-click menu in KDE

But in KDE it is relatively easy to group menu entries tidily in a sub-menu, as shown in the screenshot below.

Sub-menu of Actions sub-menu for right-click menu in KDE

The peazip*.desktop files for the five PeaZip actions shown in the above screenshots are located in the directory ~/.kde4/share/kde4/services/ServiceMenus/ and each file includes the line ‘X-KDE-Submenu='.

All I had to do was edit each of the five peazip*.desktop files and change that line in each file to ‘X-KDE-Submenu=PeaZip‘.

That’s it!

Making the X Windows cursor theme the same for KDM and KDE

For a long time it irritated me that the X Windows cursor theme on the KDM log-in screen differed to the X Windows cursor theme on the KDE Desktop. The former was usually the old-fashioned core X Windows cursor theme (or perhaps the ‘KDE Classic’ theme, I’m not sure which), whereas the latter is the theme I selected via ‘System Settings’ > ‘Workspace Appearance’ > ‘Cursor Theme’. To confuse me further, when I upgraded X Windows recently the X Windows cursor theme on the KDM log-in screen was Adwaita when I next booted my laptop, but susequently reverted to the classic cursor theme.

Anyway, I had to do the following in order to make the KDM cursor theme the same as the KDE cursor theme:

1. Create a directory /usr/share/icons/default if it does not already exist (it did not in my case):

# mkdir /usr/share/icons/default

2. Check which X Windows cursor themes are currently installed:

# ls /usr/share/icons
Adwaita HighContrast Humanity KDE_Classic Oxygen_Black Oxygen_Blue Oxygen_White Oxygen_Yellow Oxygen_Zion default gnome hicolor locolor mono nuvola oxygen ubuntu-mono-dark ubuntu-mono-light

I also find the three X Windows cursor themes ‘handhelds’, ‘redglass’ and ‘whiteglass’, installed when I installed the package x11-themes/xcursor-themes using the Portage package manager, in a different directory:

# ls /usr/share/cursors/xorg-x11/
Adwaita handhelds redglass whiteglass

The ‘Adwaita’ cursor theme was already in /usr/share/cursors/xorg-x11/ before I installed the package x11-themes/xcursor-themes, and also in the directory /usr/share/icons/ but I do not know why only that specific cursor theme is in both directories.

3. Create a file /usr/share/icons/default/index.theme with the following contents (I opted to use the Oxygen_White cursor theme, but you can choose whichever you want from the list of installed cursor themes):

[Icon Theme]
Name = Oxygen_White
Comment = Default icon theme
Inherits = Oxygen_White

4. Make sure ‘System Settings’ > ‘Worskspace Appearance’ > ‘Cursor Theme’ has the theme selected that you want for the KDE Desktop (I opted to use the Oxygen_White cursor theme).

For example, if I had wanted the cursor theme to be Adwaita, I would have selected Adwaita in KDE using ‘System Settings’ > ‘Worskspace Appearance’ > ‘Cursor Theme’ and then I would have edited /usr/share/icons/default/index.theme to contain the following:

[Icon Theme]
Name = Adwaita
Comment = Default icon theme
Inherits = Adwaita

Easy when you know how.

According to the Arch Linux Wiki, for user-specific configuration you should create or edit the file ~/.icons/default/index.theme, whereas for system-wide configuration you should create or edit the file /usr/share/icons/default/index.theme but the latter file is owned by libXcursor and user changes to it will be overwritten on update. However, in Gentoo Linux it would be possible to get around that by creating a script file in the directory /etc/local.d/ to revert the file change. For example, I could make the file /usr/share/icons/default/index.theme contain the following:

[Icon Theme]
Name = Oxygen_White
Comment = Default icon theme
Inherits = Oxygen_White

Then copy that file to somewhere safe that will not be overwritten:

# cp /usr/share/icons/default/index.theme /home/fitzcarraldo/

Then create a script file named, say, 80-xcursor.start in /etc/local.d/ with the following contents:

# Make sure X windows cursor theme on the KDM screen is the one I want:
cp /home/fitzcarraldo/index.theme /usr/share/icons/default/index.theme

and make the script file executable:

# chmod +x /etc/local.d/80-xcursor.start

Then, if something does overwrite or delete /usr/share/icons/default/index.theme in future, the script in /etc/local.d/ will restore it before the KDM log-in screen appears, so you would always see the cursor theme specified in /home/fitzcarraldo/index.theme.

Office 2007 mime-type problem in KDE

Although Microsoft Office 2007 file types are normally opened by the correct Office 2007 application (running with WINE) in my Gentoo Linux Stable amd64 installation, KDE 4.14.3 on my new Clevo notebook opened *.xlsm (Excel 2007 macro-enabled spreadsheet) files with Ark instead of Excel 2007. For some reason the *.xlsm filetype was registed in the xdg-mime database to use the Ark application:

$ file myspreadsheet.xlsm
myspreadsheet.xlsm: Microsoft Excel 2007+

$ xdg-mime query filetype myspreadsheet.xlsm

On the other hand, as you can see below, *.docx documents are correctly registed in the xdg-mime database:

$ file myworddocument.docx
myworddocument.docx: Microsoft Word 2007+

$ xdg-mime query filetype myworddocument.docx

The Office 2007 mime types are listed on the Web page Office 2007 File Format MIME Types for HTTP Content Streaming. Notice the uppercase ‘E’ in the mime-type application/ for *.xlsm files.

I had already used ‘System Settings’ > ‘File Associations’ in KDE to configure the file association for *.xlsm files, but this made no difference.

I searched my installation and found the file /usr/share/mime/application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document.xml (for *.docx) and the file (for *.xlsb), but the file (for *.xlsm) did not exist.

Then I found the bug report ‘subclasses declared have wrong case‘ about the package shared-mime-info. One of the commenters stated the problem is in fact due to a bug in KDE.

I followed the work-around given in the bug report:

# mv /usr/share/mime/subclasses /usr/share/mime/subclasses.BAK
# sed -e 's/macroEnabled/macroenabled/' /usr/share/mime/subclasses.BAK > /usr/share/mime/subclasses

I then used KDE ‘System Settings’ > ‘File associations’ again, searched for .xlsm and removed Ark from the list of applications for application/, then logged-out and back in to KDE. Double-clicking on *.xlsm files now opens them in Excel 2007 again, the file /usr/share/mime/application/ now exists and the mime-type has been set correctly:

$ xdg-mime query filetype myspreadsheet.xlsm

(I don’t have this problem opening *.xlsm files on my Compal laptop, which also has Version 1.4 of shared-mime-info installed and is also running KDE 4.14.3, albeit under Gentoo Testing ~amd64 rather than Gentoo Stable amd64, so perhaps the KDE bug has already been fixed in the Testing branch.)

Installing PeaZip in Gentoo Linux

I like the archive file utility PeaZip. A couple of years ago I used an ebuild app-arch/peazip-bin in a local overlay to install the pre-compiled utility in Gentoo Linux. Today I wanted to install PeaZip on my new laptop but neither the ebuild for the binary package nor the ebuild for the source package in third-party overlays was able to install it, not to mention that I could not find an ebuild of either type for the latest version. PeaZip Portable, however, does not require installation, so it’s not difficult to get the latest version of PeaZip running correctly in Gentoo Linux without needing an ebuild. Here’s how I installed the latest version of 64-bit PeaZip Portable in KDE …

1. Download peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2.tar.gz from the PeaZip Portable x86-64 download page and extract it to the directory /home/fitzcarraldo/peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2/ (change ‘fitzcarraldo’ to your own user name, of course).

2. Open a Konsole window and enter the following commands:

# ln -s /home/fitzcarraldo/peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2/peazip /usr/local/bin/peazip
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2/FreeDesktop_integration/peazip.desktop /usr/share/applications/kde4/
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2/FreeDesktop_integration/kde4-dolphin/usr/share/kde4/services/ServiceMenus/*.desktop /usr/share/kde4/services/ServiceMenus/

The command given below is an alternative to the last command above, and the menu items would then only appear in the right-click menu of my user account and I would be able to edit them using the KDE 4 Service Menu Editor.

$ cp /home/fitzcarraldo/peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2/FreeDesktop_integration/kde4-dolphin/usr/share/kde4/services/ServiceMenus/*.desktop /home/fitzcarraldo/.kde4/share/kde4/services/ServiceMenus/

3. Download a nice Peazip PNG icon that you find using Google Images (e.g. the 256×256 PNG icon at

4. Copy the icon to the PeaZip Portable directory:

$ cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/peazip.png /home/fitzcarraldo/peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2/

5. Use the KDE Menu Editor to specify the icon for the PeaZip menu entry.

6. Finally, use e.g. Gwenview to create a PNG copy of the icon resized to 16×16, and copy it to the icon folder used by the KDE Service Menu:

# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/peazip_portable-5.6.0.LINUX.x86_64.GTK2/peazip16x16.png /usr/share/icons/hicolor/16x16/apps/peazip.png

That’s it!

Postscript (July 26, 2015): PeaZip 5.7.0 has recently been released, so just replace ‘5.6.0’ with ‘5.7.0’ in the commands listed above, and so on for future versions. Furthermore, see my new post for a tip on how to group the various PeaZip action entries in the right-click menu of KDE file managers (Dolphin and Konqueror).

How to install Sabayon Linux via the command line using the ‘text installer’

If you have trouble installing Sabayon Linux from one of the ISOs that include KDE, GNOME or Xfce, you could try installing from the ‘SpinBase’ ISO or ‘Minimal’ ISO instead and add a desktop environment later.

And sometimes the Sabayon Linux installer is unable to install the distribution correctly for the GPU or APU in your machine, so installing the distribution to use the X.Org VESA video driver then later trying another video driver can also be a way to get you to a working installation.

Whichever ‘spin’ of Sabayon Linux I try to install, I find my success varies considerably with the release of ISO. So, if you end up with a blank screen when you reboot after installing the distribution, try installing it again with a different ISO, such as a Monthly release instead of a Daily release. If none of the current ISOs result in a working installation, you may have to wait a few days for a new Daily release to be uploaded. Despite the name, the Daily ISOs are not necessarily released daily.

I recommend you practice installation in VirtualBox before trying with an actual HDD. You can do this on a PC running VirtualBox under Windows, Mac OS or Linux. N.B. If the console goes black at any time in VirtualBox, press Enter to refresh the contents.

The steps below worked for me with a Sabayon Linux ISO dated 14 September 2014 in VirtualBox running under Windows 8.1 on a machine with Intel HD Graphics APU. In the steps below I configure the installation for the time zone in which São Paulo is situated and specify British English and Brazilian Portuguese as the languages to be used. Obviously you should choose instead the time zone and language that you want in your installation.

1. Download the Daily SpinBase ISO (Sabayon_Linux_DAILY_x86_SpinBase.iso) from one of the ISO repositories (see the Download link on the distribution’s Web site).

2. Create a LiveDVD from the ISO (see my post Help for Windows users: How to create a Linux LiveCD, LiveDVD or LivePenDrive from an ISO file if you don’t know how to do that).

3. Boot the LiveDVD.

4. You have two choices here, really. Try (a) first and, if the LiveDVD will not continue to load the OS or it will but you end up with an installation that does not work, then re-boot the LiveDVD and perform (b) instead.


a) Press ‘Enter‘ at the Sabayon Linux boot menu, to start the OS from the LiveDVD.


b) Press F5 at the Sabayon Linux boot menu, then Esc to close the pop-up list of boot parameters. Then delete the “---” at the end of the list of kernel boot parameters, delete the “vga=791“, add “xdriver=vesa” to the end of the list and press ‘Enter‘ to start the OS from the LiveDVD. Note that, unlike the other Sabayon Linux ISO releases, the SpinBase ISO does not include video drivers for X Windows. However, by booting the LiveDVD with xdriver=vesa the installation on the HDD will include that parameter in /etc/default/sabayon-grub and /boot/grub/grub.cfg.

In either case, Sabayon Linux on the LiveDVD should start in text mode and you should see a root user prompt:

sabayon ~ #

5. Enter the following command and follow the prompts to enter the relevant information to install Sabayon to your HDD:

# installer

Select 2) 'Use text mode' then work your way through steps 1 to 5, answering the installer’s prompts:

1) Timezone settings
2) Set root password
3) Create user
4) Network settings
5) Install Destination

When you select Step 5 (Install Destination) you will be presented with three ‘Autopartitioning Options’ (Replace Existing Linux System(s); Use All Space; Use Free Space). When you make your choice from those three options, you will then be presented with the options for partitioning:

Partition Scheme Options

[ ] 1) Standard Partition

[x] 2) LVM

[ ] 3) BTRFS

Select a partition scheme configuration.

Please make your choice from above ['q' to quit | 'c' to continue | 'r' to refresh]:

You may find that the installer crashes if you have selected either the default LVM partition scheme or the BTRFS partition scheme. If it does crash, run the installer again but select Option 1 instead (Standard Partition), which will create standard ext4 partitions. Actually, I prefer this option.

Quite a few Python-related error messages may be displayed towards the end of the installation process. I just ignore them.

6. Once the installer has completed installation, press Enter to quit, and you will see a root user prompt again.

7. Enter the following command to reboot (If you installed using VirtualBox, make sure you remove the ISO from the virtual CD/DVD drive, or you will just reboot from the ISO instead of the virtual HDD):

systemctl reboot

If you still have the LiveDVD in the drive, select ‘Boot from first hard drive’ in the LiveDVD’s boot menu.

8. You will see a log-in prompt:

sabayon login:

Log-in as user ‘root’ with the root user’s password you specified during installation.

9. List the available time zones:

# timedatectl list-timezones

(Press the Space Bar to page through the list, and the Q key to exit the list.)

10. Specify the timezone you want:

# timedatectl set-timezone America/Sao_Paulo

11. List the current locale:

# localectl list-locales

12. If you want to change the current locale or add a locale, edit the locale.gen file:

# nano /etc/locale.gen

I wanted to have just British English and Brazilian Portuguese, so I made the file contain only the following:

en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_GB ISO-8859-1
pt_BR.UTF-8 UTF-8
pt_BR ISO-8859-1

If I only wanted one language (I’ll use Brazilian Portuguese as an example), I would have made it contain the following instead:

pt_BR.UTF-8 UTF-8
pt_BR ISO-8859-1

13. Generate the locale(s) you want:

# locale-gen
* Generating 4 locales (this might take a while) with 1 jobs
* (1/4) Generating en_GB.UTF-8 ... [ ok ]
* (2/4) Generating en_GB.ISO-8859-1 ... [ ok ]
* (3/4) Generating pt_BR.UTF-8 ... [ ok ]
* (4/4) Generating pt_BR.ISO-8859-1 ... [ ok ]
* Generation complete

14. List the locales you have configured, just to be sure:

# localectl list-locales

15. Set the language you want to use:

# localectl set-locale LANG=pt_BR.UTF-8

16. List the console keymaps available:

# localectl list-keymaps

17. Chose the console keymap you wish to use:

# localectl set-keymap br-abnt2

N.B. The above systemd command does not change the console keymap specified in /boot/grub/grub.cfg, which remains as “vconsole.keymap=us“. You will have to fix that later by editing /etc/default/sabayon-grub and running grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg, as I show further on.

18. List the X11 keymaps available:

# localectl list-x11-keymap-layouts

19. Chose the X11 keymap you wish to use:

# localectl set-x11-keymap br

20. Update the environment variables and profile to adopt what you specified:

# env-update && source /etc/profile

21. Reboot (Remove the LiveDVD if still have not already done so):

# systemctl reboot

22. Log-in as the root user.

23. Fix the console keymap specified in grub.cfg:

# nano /etc/default/sabayon-grub

and replace “vconsole.keymap=us” with “vconsole.keymap=br-abnt2“.

# grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

24. Make sure the Entropy package database in your installation is up to date:

# equo update

25. Roll (upgrade) all installed packages to their latest version:

# equo upgrade

If you are prompted regarding any package licences, just accept them.

26. Update any superseded configuration files:

# equo conf update

27. Check if there are any missing/incorrect dependencies:

# equo deptest

28. Check if there are any missing/incorrect libraries:

# equo libtest

29. Install the X.Org VESA video driver:

# equo install xf86-video-vesa

This is needed because the VESA video driver does not get installed even if you specify “xdriver=vesa” initially in the kernel boot parameter list when booting a LiveDVD using SpinBase.

30. Install the desktop environment of your choice (I’ll choose KDE):

# equo install kde-meta

31. If you are installing KDE, also install the KDE language pack(s) for the locale(s) configured earlier:

# equo install kde-l10n-en_GB kde-l10n-pt_BR

32. Install the Sabayon Linux theme for KDE and KDM (I find this package is not installed automatically, and stops KDM from working if it is not present):

# equo install sabayon-artwork-kde

33. Reboot:

# systemctl reboot

34. Log-in as the root user and, if you installed KDE, enable KDM as the desktop manager (log-in screen):

# systemctl enable kdm

35. Then reboot:

# systemctl reboot

The installation on your HDD should now boot to the KDM log-in screen. You should be able to enter your user name and password, and the installation should launch the Desktop Environment and display the Desktop. From here you will be able to open a Konsole/Terminal window and install other packages. If you want to change the video driver from the X.Org VESA driver to a driver for an AMD, Intel or NVIDIA GPU/APU, you will need to install the relevant driver package and edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf and /etc/default/sabayon-grub accordingly (and regenerate grub.cfg). Post in the Sabayon Linux Forums to ask for help if you need it. Good luck!

Make Firefox for Linux use Dolphin to ‘Open Containing Folder’

When I click on the Download Manager icon on the tool bar, Firefox for Linux 32.0 opens a small pane listing downloads in progress, if any, and a link ‘Show All Downloads’. If I click on the link, Firefox pops up a window listing all the files downloaded via the browser, each with a folder icon beside it. Hovering the mouse pointer over the folder icon displays a tooltip ‘Open Containing Folder’. For as long as I can remember with Firefox for Linux, clicking that folder icon resulted in the Audacious music player launching and playing an MP4 file that happens to be in my ~/Downloads/ directory!

Firstly, I have no idea why Firefox was launching a media player instead of opening the directory. Secondly, I have no idea why Firefox wanted to open that specific file rather than any of the other files in the directory. Thirdly, I have no idea why it was launching Audacious, because Audacious is not even specified as the default media player for MP4 files in KDE’s ‘System Settings’ > ‘File Associations’.

This has annoyed me for a long time, but only today did I resolve to fix it, although it was not so easy to find a working solution by searching the Web. It seems it is a common problem with Firefox in Linux, and I found threads in various forums recommending the creation of a set of preferences by using about:config. Some of those threads state that one of those preferences should specify Konqueror; other threads state that one of the preferences should specify a shell script. In the end I discovered a post in an openSUSE Forums thread from 2012 Re: How use Dolphin to “open containing folder” from firefox downloads? providing a broken link to a thread at a different Web site and, fortunately, quoting the solution which worked for me, which is to create a file named ~/.local/share/applications/defaults.list containing the following:

[Default Applications]

Now when I click on the ‘Open Containing Folder’ icon in Firefox, Dolphin launches and displays the contents of ~/Downloads/ just as I would have expected from the beginning.

Opening multiple browser tabs simultaneously — AutoKey comes to the rescue

hotkey to launch an application

I sometimes consult several dictionary Web sites concurrently. Typically I have them open simultaneously on different browser tabs so that I can switch between them quickly. Naturally I have the sites bookmarked, but it is still a bit of a nuisance to have to open each site by clicking on the browser’s ‘Open a new tab’ icon and then clicking on a bookmark. So I thought it would be nice if I could have an icon in the browser or on the Desktop that I could click to open all the desired Web pages at once.

Well, I could have created a Desktop Configuration File in ~/Desktop/ to launch a command such as the one listed below, and given the file a nice icon.


Then I would have been able to double-click on the icon on my Desktop, which would have launched a separate Firefox window with those five required Web sites in different tabs. But what if I happened to have an existing window maximised? I would then have to move it to be able to see the icon on the Desktop. So I decided that was not an ideal approach.

Next I thought about the possibility of a Firefox extension, so I searched the Mozilla Add-ons site and found one called Open Multiple Locations. But, from what I read, it seems the extension is no longer being maintained. Furthermore, it appears it would have to be launched from the browser’s File menu, which would still be a little inconvenient.

Then I remembered that I have the excellent utility AutoKey installed, so why not define a hotkey sequence to do what I wanted? This is what I did.

When you install AutoKey, it creates a directory ~/.config/autokey/data/My Phrases/ which contains directories named Addresses and Sample Scripts. The latter two directories contain examples of what you can do with AutoKey. Now, one of the example scripts in Sample Scripts is Insert, a very simple script which enables you to issue the Linux date command with a hotkey combination, preconfigured as Ctrl-Alt-d (Click on the Insert Date entry in the left pane of the AutoKey window and notice in the lower right pane that the hotkey is listed and there are Set and Clear buttons to enable you to change it).

So I used the Desktop Environment’s GUI to navigate to the directory ~/.config/autokey/data/My Phrases/ and created a directory which I called ~/.config/autokey/data/My Phrases/My Scripts/. I copied the file ~/.config/autokey/data/My Phrases/Sample Scripts/Insert into the new directory and renamed it then set its AutoKey hotkey combination to be Ctrl-Alt-f and edited it to contain the desired command:

output = system.exec_command("firefox")

Now, when I am using a browser (be it Firefox, Chrome, Konqueror or whatever) or any other application and I need to consult those dictionaries, I just press Ctrl-Alt-f and up pops a Firefox window containing five tabs with the Web sites I wish to be able to use. Done and done.

Of course, if you happen to be using a Desktop Environment that has its own shortcut tool, you can use that instead. For example, in KDE I could have instead used ‘System Settings’ > ‘Shortcuts and Gestures’ | ‘Custom Shortcuts’ and configured Ctrl-Alt-f to run the above-mentioned command to launch Firefox with those five URLs. (You need to log out of KDE and log in again for the shortcut to become active.) That would have achieved exactly the same result as with AutoKey.

WINE tips: File associations for Windows applications in Linux (continued)

There is a downside to the approach described in my previous post regarding file associations for Windows applications run via WINE, at least in the case of KDE.

By using KDE’s ‘System Settings’ > ‘File Associations’ to change the application launch command from:

env WINEPREFIX="/home/fitzcarraldo/.wine-visio5" WINEARCH="win32" wine /home/fitzcarraldo/.wine-visio5/drive_c/Program\ Files/Visio/Visio32.EXE


env WINEPREFIX="/home/fitzcarraldo/.wine-visio5" WINEARCH="win32" wine C:\\windows\\command\\start.exe /Unix %U

the launch command in KDE’s Kicker application launcher menu is also changed to the latter. Trying to launch the Windows application from the Kicker menu (Wine > Programs > a_Windows_application) then fails. Presumably this is because the wine command expects a filename (the %U in the command string) but that is not being provided.

Alternative 1

One solution is to use a shell script as described in my earlier post: WINE tips: How to associate IrfanView with an image file type in Linux. Kicker can still be used to launch the application (e.g. Wine > Programs > IrfanView) when the menu command is of the following form but no filename is provided (even though the %f is left in the command string):

/home/fitzcarraldo/ %f

Alternative 2

Another solution – well, really a work-around – is to accept that the Windows application cannot be launched from the Kicker menu and to create a separate Desktop Configuration File in /home/fitzcarraldo/Desktop/ which uses a different command to launch the application. For example, in my previous post the file association I configured via ‘System Settings’ > ‘File Associations’ for Visio was:

env WINEPREFIX="/home/fitzcarraldo/.wine-visio5" WINEARCH="win32" wine C:\\windows\\command\\start.exe /Unix %U

and therefore the command in the Kicker menu entry is the same, but I created a Desktop Configuration File which I named ‘/home/fitzcarraldo/Desktop/Visio 5 Professional‘ which contains the command:

env WINEPREFIX="/home/fitzcarraldo/.wine-visio5" WINEARCH="win32" wine /home/fitzcarraldo/.wine-visio5/drive_c/Program\ Files/Visio/Visio32.EXE

$ ls -la ~/Desktop/Visio*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 fitzcarraldo users 562 Aug 26 17:42 /home/fitzcarraldo/Desktop/Visio 5 Professional

Notice that the command to launch the Windows application does not contain a filename parameter (%U), so when I double-click on the icon on the Desktop it launches Visio.


Ideally, KDE should be changed to allow the application launching command in ‘System Settings’ > ‘File Associations’ to be edited to be different to the application launching command in the Kicker menu. In the absence of that, you have two alternatives in the case of WINE:

  1. Create a shell script to launch the application. This allows you to launch the Windows application via Kicker and by double-clicking on a file of the applicable type.


  2. Create a separate Desktop Configuration File in e.g. the ~/Desktop/ directory. This allows you to launch the Windows application by double-clicking on a Desktop Configuration File for the application and by double-clicking on a file of the applicable type. However you cannot launch the application from its entry in the Kicker menu.

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