A new laptop

At the beginning of this month my trusty Compal NBLB2 laptop completed five years of heavy use. The HDD was almost full (mostly with my work files) and the laptop’s size and weight were starting to become troublesome on my frequent work trips. So I decided to bite the bullet and buy a new laptop. As Compal is an OEM and I was able to specify various components when buying the NBLB2, I decided to buy an OEM laptop again this time. In the end I decided on the Clevo W230SS, which I ordered from pcspecialist. The configuration I specified is listed below:

  • 13.3″ matte full HD LED IPS widescreen (1920×1080).
  • Intel Core i7 quad-core mobile processor i7-4810MQ (2.80GHz) 6MB.
  • 16GB Kingston SODIMM DDR3 1600MHz (2 x 8GB).
  • NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M – 2.0GB DDR5, 640 CUDA cores.
  • 750GB WD Scorpio Black WD7500BPKX, SATA 6 Gb/s, 16MB cache (7200 rpm).
  • 8x Samsung slim USB 2.0 external DVD-RW.
  • Integrated 6-in-1 memory card reader (SD/MiniSD/SDHC/SDXC/MMC/RSMMC).
  • Arctic MX-4 Extreme thermal conductivity compound.
  • Intel 2-channel High Definition Audio + mic & headphone jacks.
  • Gigabit LAN & Wireless Intel AC-7260 HMC (867Mbps, 802.11AC) + Bluetooth.
  • 3 USB 3.0 ports + 1 USB 2.0 port.
  • Backlit UK keyboard.
  • 2-button touchpad.
  • 2.0 megapixel Webcam.
  • 6-cell lithium ion battery (62.16WH).
  • Power lead & 120W AC adaptor.
  • 3-year warranty (1 year collect & return; 1 year parts; 3 years labour).
  • 1-year Dead Pixel Guarantee inc. labour & carriage.
  • No operating system required.

The laptop has both a VGA port and an HDMI port. The VGA port is important to me because I need to connect to various models of legacy monitors and projectors in the various offices where I work.

The time from ordering the laptop to its delivery was nine days, and I was impressed with the service by pcspecialist; I received e-mails at each stage of building, testing and delivery (including the option to change the delivery date), and was informed of the name of the courier company, the time of delivery and even the name of the van driver!

My two previous laptops were configured to dual-boot Linux and Windows, but this time I decided not to bother with Windows and install only Gentoo Linux. I virtually never use Windows on the Compal anyway, opting instead to run Microsoft Office 2007 with WINE in Linux, so I decided to save some money this time. I followed the Gentoo AMD64 Handbook to install the operating system and, with one exception which I will mention further on, the Handbook is a very accurate guide.

I have the Testing branch of Gentoo (‘~amd64′) installed on the Compal, but decided to install the Stable branch of Gentoo (‘amd64′) on the Clevo. Since several of the packages I wanted to install are in the Testing branch, I would declare them in /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords/ in order to be able to install them regardless.

Below are some rough notes on what I did, in case they are of any interest to others contemplating installing Gentoo on a laptop with a similar specification. I have to say I like the Clevo W230SS very much so far, although I find the NVIDIA Optimus hardware and driver more complicated to configure than the AMD ATI GPUs on my previous two laptops, and the NVIDIA driver does not work as well with the xrandr command as does the AMD FGLRX driver for ATI GPUs.

When I pressed F2 at boot to check the configuration of the American Megatrends BIOS, I found that UEFI was turned off, and I left it that way. The HDD was apparently MBR not GPT. I was happy to use PC BIOS and MBR rather than UEFI and GPT as that meant I would not have to fiddle with new technology with which I am unfamiliar, and GPT is not necessary as the HDD capacity is less than 2 TiB.

I then booted the HDD for the first time to check if pcspecialist had left anything on it after testing, and the Windows 7 Home Premium ‘Setup is preparing your computer for first use’ screen was displayed. As I had not ordered Windows and therefore had no Microsoft key, and as I did not want Windows on the laptop in any case, I used GParted on a SystemRescueCD Live pen drive to repartition and format the HDD.

I followed the Gentoo AMD64 Handbook but used SystemRescueCd rather than a Gentoo LiveCD or LiveDVD, and therefore I did not have to perform the installation procedure from the very beginning of the Handbook. After downloading the latest SystemRescueCd ISO and installing it to a pen drive (see the instructions on the SystemRescueCd Web site), I booted SystemRescueCd from the pen drive and connected the SystemRescueCd Xfce Live environment to the Web via WiFi. I did not bother to connect an Ethernet cable to the laptop and performed the entire installation of Gentoo to the HDD under WiFi.

I did not need to use the method given in the Gentoo Handbook for creating partitions; I used GParted on SystemRescueCD instead of fdisk or parted on the command line. I was therefore able to ignore the first few pages and started following the Handbook in earnest from Activating the swap partion onwards.

The Handbook recommends creating a ‘BIOS boot partition’ as well as a ‘boot partition’. This is really only necessary for UEFI machines or if the GRUB Embedding Area on the HDD is too small (the GNU Grub Manual 2.00 says the space reserved for the GRUB Embedding Area has to be at least 31 KiB). I did not need to create a ‘BIOS boot partition’, as GParted would only let me create the first partition starting 1 MiB from the beginning of the HDD. Actually, GParted will not let you create /dev/sda1 right at the beginning of the disk; it always seems to want the partition to start 1 MiB from the beginning of the HDD, so I don’t understand why the Handbook wants you to create a ‘BIOS boot partition’ before the Boot partition in the case of MBR HDDs, as there would still be 1 MiB of empty space before the ‘BIOS boot partition’, rendering the latter a waste of space and effort. (As I understand it, the situation is different in the case of GPT because the EFI boot partition must be FAT32, so you have no choice but to create a ‘BIOS boot partition’ if you’re using a GPT HDD.) Perhaps if you are using fdisk or parted on the command line then the situation is different and those commands do allow you to put the first partition right at the beginning of the HDD. So I created the following partitions by using GParted:

/dev/sda1 /boot (Primary Partition)
/dev/sda2 swap (Primary Partition)
/dev/sda3 (Extended Partition)
/dev/sda5 / (Logical Partition)
/dev/sda6 /home (Logical Partition)
/dev/sda7 NTFS partition (Logical Partition)

I specified the ext2 file system for /boot, and ext4 for / and /home. I have used these file systems for many years on previous laptops, and they are very reliable. I decided to add an NTFS partition to store my work files separately from my home files, and in case I ever want to access the laptop using Windows from e.g. a bootable external USB drive or whatever.

When creating the logical partitions sda5, sda6 and sda7, GParted always left 1 MiB unallocated before each logical partition. And I don’t know why GParted would not create a partition named /dev/sda4.

The precise partition configuration is listed below:

# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 698.7 GiB, 750156374016 bytes, 1465149168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x291ba0e7

 
Device     Boot     Start        End    Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sda1            2048     264191     262144   128M 83 Linux
/dev/sda2          264192   33822719   33558528    16G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        33822720 1465147391 1431324672 682.5G  5 Extended
/dev/sda5        33824768  302260223  268435456   128G 83 Linux
/dev/sda6       302262272  839133183  536870912   256G 83 Linux
/dev/sda7       839135232 1465147391  626012160 298.5G  7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

# blkid
/dev/sda1: LABEL="BOOT" UUID="f6ffc085-66fe-4bbe-b080-cec355749f85" TYPE="ext2" PARTUUID="291ba0e7-01"
/dev/sda2: UUID="c49e011a-bb8b-4ade-8fda-6c11ca53d660" TYPE="swap" PARTUUID="291ba0e7-02"
/dev/sda5: LABEL="ROOT" UUID="525a90f1-8ad2-44a3-ade3-20f18a0a9595" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="291ba0e7-05"
/dev/sda6: LABEL="HOME" UUID="5b60d470-a92a-45b3-9607-3ff3ab483b97" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="291ba0e7-06"
/dev/sda7: LABEL="NTFS" UUID="16F4D9B04A85A7E5" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="291ba0e7-07"

The output from the lspci command in SystemRescueCd was as follows:

# lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v3/4th Gen Core Processor DRAM Controller (rev 06)
00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v3/4th Gen Core Processor PCI Express x16 Controller (rev 06)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 4th Gen Core Processor Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 06)
00:03.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v3/4th Gen Core Processor HD Audio Controller (rev 06)
00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family USB xHCI (rev 05)
00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family MEI Controller #1 (rev 04)
00:1a.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family USB EHCI #2 (rev 05)
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset High Definition Audio Controller (rev 05)
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #1 (rev d5)
00:1c.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #3 (rev d5)
00:1c.3 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #4 (rev d5)
00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family USB EHCI #1 (rev 05)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation HM87 Express LPC Controller (rev 05)
00:1f.2 SATA controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family 6-port SATA Controller 1 [AHCI mode] (rev 05)
00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family SMBus Controller (rev 05)
01:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GM107M [GeForce GTX 860M] (rev a2)
03:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation Wireless 7260 (rev bb)
04:00.0 Unassigned class [ff00]: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. Device 5287 (rev 01)
04:00.1 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 12)

The output from the lsusb command in SystemRescueCd was as follows:

# lsusb
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 003 Device 004: ID 5986:055c Acer, Inc <-- The Webcam!
Bus 003 Device 003: ID 8087:07dc Intel Corp.
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 0dd8:17c0 Netac Technology Co., Ltd
Bus 003 Device 005: ID 090c:3261 Silicon Motion, Inc. - Taiwan (formerly Feiya Technology Corp.)
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 8087:8000 Intel Corp.
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:8008 Intel Corp.
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

The output from the lsmod command in SystemRescueCd was as follows:

# lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by
nilfs2                117674  0 
ccm                    16515  2 
arc4                   12390  2 
iwlmvm                149978  0 
mac80211              421465  1 iwlmvm
btusb                  24725  0 
iwlwifi                88602  1 iwlmvm
bluetooth             258391  2 btusb
cfg80211              320349  3 iwlwifi,mac80211,iwlmvm
x86_pkg_temp_thermal    12390  0 
6lowpan_iphc           16649  1 bluetooth
coretemp               12390  0 
iTCO_wdt               12390  0 
mei_me                 12576  0 
iTCO_vendor_support    12938  1 iTCO_wdt
crct10dif_pclmul       12479  0 
crc32_pclmul           12483  0 
crc32c_intel           16568  0 
i2c_i801               16533  0 
ghash_clmulni_intel    12523  0 
mei                    58244  1 mei_me
tpm_infineon           12437  0 
joydev                 16535  0 
tpm_tis                16533  0 
rfkill                 18094  3 cfg80211,bluetooth
serio_raw              12439  0 
tpm                    26448  2 tpm_tis,tpm_infineon
lpc_ich                20629  0 
shpchp                 29571  0 
microcode              41719  0 
raid10                 37123  0 
raid456                57671  0 
async_raid6_recov      12621  1 raid456
async_pq               12640  2 raid456,async_raid6_recov
async_xor              12573  3 async_pq,raid456,async_raid6_recov
async_memcpy           12464  2 raid456,async_raid6_recov
async_tx               12840  5 async_pq,raid456,async_xor,async_memcpy,async_raid6_recov
raid1                  28900  0 
raid0                  16515  0 
multipath              12390  0 
linear                 12390  0 
usb_storage            52365  2 
nouveau               793903  0 
i915                  586099  2 
ttm                    66567  1 nouveau
drm_kms_helper         37632  2 i915,nouveau
drm                   216971  5 ttm,i915,drm_kms_helper,nouveau
i2c_algo_bit           12633  2 i915,nouveau
i2c_core               28421  6 drm,i915,i2c_i801,drm_kms_helper,i2c_algo_bit,nouveau
rtsx_pci_sdmmc         16538  0 
mmc_core               80530  1 rtsx_pci_sdmmc
rtsx_pci_ms            12442  0 
memstick               13784  1 rtsx_pci_ms
mxm_wmi                12672  1 nouveau
r8169                  49390  0 
rtsx_pci               35470  2 rtsx_pci_ms,rtsx_pci_sdmmc
mii                    13085  1 r8169
mfd_core               12807  2 lpc_ich,rtsx_pci
wmi                    13114  2 mxm_wmi,nouveau
video                  16832  2 i915,nouveau

The output from the SystemRescueCd lsmod command told me that the nouveau driver works with this laptop, that the iwlwifi driver works too, and that the r8169 driver was the likely driver I would need for the wired Ethernet connection (I did not bother to connect an Ethernet cable whilst using SystemRescueCd).

The output from the SystemRescueCd ifconfig command told me the new names of the eth0 and wlan0 interfaces: enp4s0f1 and wlp3s0. I force udev/eudev to use interface names eth0 and wlan0 on my Compal laptop (by adding the parameter net.ifnames=0 to the kernel boot line and by using the command ‘ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-setup-link.rules‘). However, although I dislike freedesktop.org’s so-called ‘predictable network interface names‘, I decided to stick with the new interface naming scheme on the Clevo.

As shown in the Handbook, make sure you cd into the directory /mnt/gentoo/ before downloading the Gentoo Stage 3 tarball, otherwise you will end up with the tarball in the wrong directory.

I stuck with the CPU FLAGS specified in the default make.conf file to start with, then, as soon as it was possible during the installation process, I installed app-portage/cpuinfo2cpuflags, ran it to obtain the correct CPU flags and modified /etc/portage/make.conf accordingly (I duplicated the CPU flags in USE="..." and CPU_FLAGS_X86="..." as recommended in Gentoo news item 2015-01-28-cpu_flags_x86-introduction).

I found configuring make.conf for USE flags confusing (see Configuring the USE variable). Although the KDE profile I eselected already contained quite a few of the global USE flags I thought I wanted/needed, I ended up duplicating several of them in make.conf rather than going through the output from the emerge --info command to see which USE flags are already included. I will clean up make.conf sometime in the future. The way to check which USE flags are provided by the profile is to temporarily comment out the USE variable lines in make.conf (and presumably any in /etc/portage/package.use/*) then run the emerge --info command. Anyway, here is what make.conf looked like after I had edited it:

CFLAGS="-O2 -march=native -pipe"
CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
LDFLAGS="-Wl,-O1,--as-needed"
# WARNING: Changing your CHOST is not something that should be done lightly.
# Please consult <a style="color:white;text-decoration:none;">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/change-chost.xml</a> before changing.
CHOST="x86_64-pc-linux-gnu"
MY_CPUFLAGS="aes avx avx2 fma3 mmx mmxext popcnt sse sse2 sse3 sse4_1 sse4_2 ssse3"
CPU_FLAGS_X86="aes avx avx2 fma3 mmx mmxext popcnt sse sse2 sse3 sse4_1 sse4_2 ssse3"

UNWANTED="-apm -branding -eds -evo -kerberos -gnome -gtk -libav -mono -nepomuk -oss -qt5 -systemd"
MY_MEDIA="alsa audiofile cdda cddb cdr dri dvb dvd dvdr dvdread jack ipod musicbrainz pulseaudio sdl v4l wmf xine"
MY_CODECS="a52 aac dts dv ffmpeg flac gsm lame matroska mp3 musepack ogg openal speex theora x264 xvid"
MY_SYSTEM="acl acpi avahi bash-completion bidi bluetooth bzip2 cjk dbus gcj gnutls icu lm_sensors lzo networkmanager nptl pam policykit udev unicode usb wifi xcb zeroconf"
MY_FILESYS="inotify"
MY_PRINT="cups foomaticdb gimp ppds scanner"
MY_XSYS="cairo dga gphoto2 gtk openexr opengl png qt4 svg tiff X xinerama"
MY_DESKTOP="gmp kde libnotify pda rdesktop semantic-desktop startup-notification"
MY_BROWSER="nsplugin"
MY_COMMS="aim icq imap jabber mbox msn rss slp yahoo"
USE="${USE} ${UNWANTED} ${MY_MEDIA} ${MY_CODECS} ${MY_SYSTEM} ${MY_FILESYS} ${MY_PRINT} ${MY_XSYS} ${MY_DESKTOP} ${MY_BROWSER} ${MY_COMMS} ${MY_CPUFLAGS}"

PORTDIR="/usr/portage"
DISTDIR="${PORTDIR}/distfiles"
PKGDIR="${PORTDIR}/packages"
# The following line is for Layman:
source /var/lib/layman/make.conf
# The following line is for my local overlay:
PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage ${PORTDIR_OVERLAY}"
LINGUAS="en en_GB pt_BR es_ES"
GRUB_PLATFORMS="pc"
MAKEOPTS="-j9"

INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
VIDEO_CARDS="intel modesetting nvidia"

GENTOO_MIRRORS="rsync://mirror.bytemark.co.uk/gentoo/ http://mirror.qubenet.net/mirror/gentoo/ rsync://rsync.mirrorservice.org/distfiles.gentoo.org/"
SYNC="rsync://rsync.uk.gentoo.org/gentoo-portage"</code>

I don’t have the ‘source’ line and ‘SYNC’ line in my ~amd64 installation on the Compal because they are running later versions of Portage and Layman, for which the method has changed.

When following the Gentoo Handbook and merging some packages, sometimes messages about required USE flags were displayed. In some of those cases, after studying the messages carefully I repeated the merge command but included the --autounmask-write option, then used the etc-update command to apply the edits to the /etc/portage/package.use/* files, then repeated the merge command. In some cases, e.g. if only one or two USE flag changes needed, I created the new file /etc/portage/package.use/* and performed the edit manually. For example, /etc/portage/package.use/networkmanager containing:

net-misc/networkmanager nss -dhclient dhcpcd -gnutls modemmanager

I am not sure which modules to declare in /etc/conf.d/modules, since the only ones I have to declare in that file in my Compal laptop installation are VirtualBox modules and other modules are loaded automatically. Anyway, I added the r8169, nvidia and fuse modules to that file to start with. Later I added some more and it currently looks like this:

modules="r8169 nvidia fuse agpgart bnep rfcomm hidp mmb_block uvcvideo cifs"

I added ‘agpgart‘ because of what user Arthanis wrote in his post in the Gentoo Forums thread [SOLVED] Optimus and Nvidia but there is no module named agpgart in my installation, so I am not sure to what he was referring.

The modules loaded so far are listed below:

# lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by
cifs                  438492  0 
hidp                   14125  0 
rfcomm                 32181  12 
bnep                   10116  2 
fuse                   76386  2 
nvidia               8385213  33 
ecb                     1921  1 
btusb                  22292  0 
iwlmvm                143855  0 
uvcvideo               71061  0 
videobuf2_vmalloc       2800  1 uvcvideo
videobuf2_memops        1799  1 videobuf2_vmalloc
bluetooth             281605  33 bnep,hidp,btusb,rfcomm
r8169                  67544  0 
x86_pkg_temp_thermal     4567  0 
mii                     3875  1 r8169
videobuf2_core         34587  1 uvcvideo
iwlwifi                75755  1 iwlmvm

The rest of the drivers are in-kernel.

Version 216 of sys-fs/udev was installed, which predates the change in udev to stop loading firmware (see the Gentoo Forums thread udev-217 stalls booting) so I may have trouble with loading CPU microcode and WiFi firmware (and video firmware? — see further on) in future when sys-fs/udev-217 becomes stable in the Gentoo Portage tree.

I configured netifrc for enp4s0f1 only (I didn’t bother with WiFi) for DHCP, as per Gentoo Handbook section Configuring the system, as I only wanted to be sure of a network connection after rebooting until I could get NetworkManager working, at which I point I would ditch the netifrc stuff completely. As I have to travel frequently because of my work, I find NetworkManager more convenient.

Apart from configuring the kernel (I lost count of how many times I had to rebuild it), the only problem was when I installed GRUB 2 (Gentoo Handbook section Configuring the bootloader). There appears to be an error in the Gentoo Handbook; see Gentoo Forums thread grub2 install for the fix.

X Windows and NVIDIA Optimus

However, getting X Windows working was a major hassle. First I followed the Gentoo Wiki article X server to install the packages xorg-server and xorg-drivers, then I followed the Gentoo Wiki article NVIDIA Driver with Optimus Laptops to try and get the closed-source NVIDIA driver working, but X Windows could not find a screen. (I have no idea what sys-apps/qingy is or whether it is needed, but, as the Wiki article mentions it, I installed it anyway but did not add the xrandr commands to the end of the /etc/X11/Sessions/KDE-4 file, but I did add the xrandr commands to the /usr/share/config/kdm/Xsetup file.) Then I followed Gentoo user Arthanis‘ Gentoo Forums post [SOLVED] Optimus and Nvidia (changing the edid_firmware name to suit). I was confused by his reference to rcu_idle_delay, by which he meant CONFIG_RCU_FAST_NO_HZ (see Understanding RCU when Configuring the Linux Kernel). Thank goodness for his post, though, as I would never have worked it out myself. All my main laptops since 2000 have had ATI GPUs, and they were easier to set up than this NVIDIA Optimus stuff. Although the laptop has both Intel and NVIDIA graphics hardware, I think the laptop is muxless (i.e. does not have hybrid graphics/NVIDIA HybridPower), so I left CONFIG_VGASWITCHERROO=n in the kernel, but I have no idea if that is correct. This whole dual GPU/APU switching thing confuses me.

After I followed Arthanis‘ post and rebooted, the KDM screen consisted of tiled ‘mini-screens’, with the KDM log-in window in the top left mini-screen. I solved this by adding a Virtual command in xorg.conf — see the Gentoo Forums post XOrg refusing to start after a fresh build by user qweb.ric.

Below are the current contents of xorg.conf:

Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier     "Layout0"
    Screen      0  "nvidia" 0 0
    Inactive       "intel"
    InputDevice    "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice    "Mouse0" "CorePointer"
EndSection

#Section "Files"
#EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier     "Mouse0"
    Driver         "mouse"
    Option         "Protocol"
    Option         "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
    Option         "Emulate3Buttons" "no"
    Option         "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier     "Keyboard0"
    Driver         "kbd"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
    Identifier     "Monitor0"
    Option         "DPMS"
EndSection

Section "Device"
    Identifier     "nvidia"
    Driver         "nvidia"
    BusID          "PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection

Section "Device"
    Identifier     "intel"
    Driver         "modesetting"
    BusID          "PCI:0:2:0"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "nvidia"
    Device         "nvidia"
    Monitor        "Monitor0"
    DefaultDepth    24
    Option         "UseDisplayDevice" "none"
    SubSection     "Display"
        Depth       24
#        Modes      "nvidia-auto-select"
        Virtual     1920 1080
    EndSubSection
EndSection

Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "intel"
    Device         "intel"
    Monitor        "Monitor0"
EndSection

To get tapping to work on the touchpad I had to create the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/50-synaptics.conf as usual:

Section "InputClass"
    Identifier "touchpad catchall"
    Driver "synaptics"
    MatchIsTouchpad "on"
    MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
    Option "TapButton1" "1"
    Option "TapButton2" "2"
    Option "TapButton3" "3"
    Option "VertEdgeScroll" "on"
    Option "VertTwoFingerScroll" "on"
    Option "HorizEdgeScroll" "on"
    Option "HorizTwoFingerScroll" "on"
    Option "CircularScrolling" "on"
    Option "CircScrollTrigger" "0"
    Option "EmulateTwoFingerMinZ" "40"
    Option "EmulateTwoFingerMinW" "8"
    Option "CoastingSpeed" "0"
    Option "FingerLow" "35"
    Option "FingerHigh" "40"
EndSection

Section "InputClass"
    Identifier "touchpad ignore duplicates"
    MatchIsTouchpad "on"
    MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/mouse*"
    Option "Ignore" "on"

And I also created the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf:

Section "InputClass"
    Identifier "keyboard"
    # See /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst for Options.
    MatchIsKeyboard "yes"
    Option "XkbLayout" "gb,us,br,es"
    Option "XkbModel" "pc104"
    Option "XkbVariant" ""
    Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle"
EndSection

and the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf:

Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "evdev pointer catchall"
        MatchIsPointer "on"
        MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
        Driver "evdev"
EndSection

Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "evdev keyboard catchall"
        MatchIsKeyboard "on"
        MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
        Driver "evdev"
EndSection

#Section "InputClass"
#        Identifier "evdev touchpad catchall"
#        MatchIsTouchpad "on"
#        MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
#        Driver "evdev"
#EndSection

Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "evdev tablet catchall"
        MatchIsTablet "on"
        MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
        Driver "evdev"
EndSection

Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "evdev touchscreen catchall"
        MatchIsTouchscreen "on"
        MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
        Driver "evdev"
EndSection

(See my post about xorg.conf for a later version (not Stable in the Portage tree yet) of X Windows on the Compal, Fixing unperceived errors in my X Windows configuration.)

I forgot to do the following:

# rc-update add dbus default
# rc-update add consolekit default

See the Gentoo Forums thread [ConsoleKit session] Failed to connect to socket (resolved) for the error message I was getting when the KDE Desktop appeared. In addition to the aforementioned error message, a window with a KDE Daemon crash message popped-up at log-in and KDE Plasma would crash when I dragged the System Tray widget to the Panel. Once the dbus and consolekit services were added to the default runlevel, all was good.

NetworkManager

After I merged NetworkManager I forgot to do:

# rc-update add NetworkManager default

but once I did that and the following:

# rc-update del net.enp4s0f1 default

then NetworkManager worked.

There was no /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf, so I created that manually:

[main]
plugins=keyfile
dhcp=dhcpcd
no-auto-default=*

[keyfile]
hostname=clevow230ss

KDE plasma-nm crashes most times I try to create or edit a connection, so sometimes I have to edit the file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/* using nano. The current Stable version of plasma-nm in Gentoo is 0.9.3.4 and I believe the latest version of plasma-nm has fixed this bug, so eventually it should work correctly.

Audio

I followed Gentoo Wiki article ALSA and compiled ALSA into the kernel rather than modules. Card 0 is HDMI and Card 1 is HDA (the opposite to what is usually expected). KDE Multimedia settings worked when I selected Analogue Audio, but I had to install pavucontrol in order to be able to switch off HDMI and get audio in the Web browser etc. to be played via the laptop speakers/headphones. Later I will try the Gentoo Wiki ALSA article’s suggestion of adding snd-hda-intel.index=1,0 to the kernel boot line to switch the order of the cards.

Although I set what I think are the relevant MMC parameters in the kernel configration, the Memory Card slot does not work. Perhaps some kernel configuration settings remain to be set. I will have a look later. Gentoo Forums thread SD card under Gentoo Linux may help.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth is working after I made some kernel configuration settings and loaded the modules bnep, rfcomm and hidp via /etc/conf.d/modules (lsmod showed that btusb and bluetooth were already loaded automatically, but I added them anyway to /etc/conf.d/modules). I also had to do:

# rc-update bluetooth add default

The external portable USB portable CD/DVD writer (Samsung SE-208GB/RSBD) I bought from pcspecialist works well. I have tried it so far with an Audio CD, a data DVD and burning data to a CD-R.

Webcam

The built-in Webcam does not work. According to lsusb it is:

Bus 001 Device 010: ID 5986:055c Acer, Inc

The lsmod command shows the uvcvideo module is loaded. When I ‘rmmod uvcvideo‘ then ‘modprobe uvcvideo‘ the dmesg command shows the following:

[ 6508.624505] uvcvideo: Found UVC 1.00 device BisonCam, NB Pro (5986:055c)
[ 6508.627349] input: BisonCam, NB Pro as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1a.0/usb1/1-1/1-1.4/1-1.4:1.0/input/input43
[ 6508.627425] usbcore: registered new interface driver uvcvideo
[ 6508.627427] USB Video Class driver (1.1.1)

The application guvcview displays a black window, and the Konsole from which guvcview was launched displays repeated ‘Ignoring empty buffer ...‘ messages:

$ guvcview
guvcview 1.6.1
ALSA lib /var/tmp/portage/media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.28/work/alsa-lib-1.0.28/src/pcm/pcm_dsnoop.c:618:(snd_pcm_dsnoop_open) unable to open slave
ALSA lib /var/tmp/portage/media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.28/work/alsa-lib-1.0.28/src/pcm/pcm_dmix.c:1022:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
ALSA lib /var/tmp/portage/media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.28/work/alsa-lib-1.0.28/src/pcm/pcm.c:2239:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.rear
ALSA lib /var/tmp/portage/media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.28/work/alsa-lib-1.0.28/src/pcm/pcm.c:2239:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.center_lfe
ALSA lib /var/tmp/portage/media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.28/work/alsa-lib-1.0.28/src/pcm/pcm.c:2239:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.side
ALSA lib /var/tmp/portage/media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.28/work/alsa-lib-1.0.28/src/pcm/pcm_dmix.c:1022:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
video device: /dev/video0
Init. BisonCam, NB Pro (location: usb-0000:00:1a.0-1.4)
{ pixelformat = 'MJPG', description = 'MJPEG' }
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 160, height = 120 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 176, height = 144 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 320, height = 240 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 352, height = 288 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 360 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 720 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 1024 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1920, height = 1080 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ pixelformat = 'YUYV', description = 'YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV)' }
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 160, height = 120 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 176, height = 144 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 320, height = 240 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 352, height = 288 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 360 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 720 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/10, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 1024 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/5, 
{ discrete: width = 1920, height = 1080 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/5, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ pixelformat = 'RGB3', description = 'RGB3' }
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 160, height = 120 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 176, height = 144 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 320, height = 240 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 352, height = 288 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 360 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 720 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 1024 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1920, height = 1080 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ pixelformat = 'BGR3', description = 'BGR3' }
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 160, height = 120 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 176, height = 144 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 320, height = 240 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 352, height = 288 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 360 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 720 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 1024 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1920, height = 1080 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ pixelformat = 'YU12', description = 'YU12' }
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 160, height = 120 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 176, height = 144 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 320, height = 240 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 352, height = 288 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 360 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 720 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 1024 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1920, height = 1080 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ pixelformat = 'YV12', description = 'YV12' }
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 480 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 160, height = 120 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 176, height = 144 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 320, height = 240 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 352, height = 288 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 640, height = 360 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 1/15, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 720 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1280, height = 1024 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
{ discrete: width = 1920, height = 1080 }
        Time interval between frame: 1/30, 
vid:5986 
pid:055c
driver:uvcvideo
checking format: 1196444237
VIDIOC_G_COMP:: Inappropriate ioctl for device
fps is set to 1/30
drawing controls

fps is set to 1/30
Checking video mode 640x480@32bpp : OK
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
Ignoring empty buffer ...
< Here I pressed Ctrl-C >
write /home/fitzcarraldo/.guvcviewrc OK
free controls
cleaned allocations - 100%
Closing portaudio ...OK
Closing GTK... OK

I tried all the available uvcvideo quirks (see Linux UVC driver and tools – FAQ: What are quirks and how do I use them?) but the result was always the same.

# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000200
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000100
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000080
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000020
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000010
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000008
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000004
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000002
# rmmod uvcvideo
# modprobe uvcvideo quirks=0x00000001

There is possibly a bug in the uvcvideo driver (see [Kernel-packages] [Bug 1362358] Re: uvcvideo doesn’t work with USB webcam with linux 3.16), so I will have to try a later kernel at some point.

Transferring Thunderbird account settings and e-mails

My Compal laptop dual-boots Gentoo and Windows 7. Thunderbird is installed in both OSs, and both Windows Thunderbird and Linux Thunderbird use the same Mail folder on the NTFS Windows partition, but with different prefs.js files (i.e. Windows Thunderbird uses a prefs.js file on the Windows partition, and Linux Thunderbird uses a prefs.js file in the /home partition). In order to port my Thunderbird e-mails from the Windows partition on the Compal to the /home partition on the Clevo, I did the following:

  1. Installed Thunderbird on the Clevo.
  2. Launched Thunderbird and cancelled the Thunderbird wizard for creating a new account.
  3. Closed Thunderbird.
  4. Copied the Mail folder from the Compal’s Windows Thunderbird folder into the new Linux Thunderbird profile folder on the Clevo.
  5. Copied the prefs.js file from the Windows Thunderbird folder into the new Linux Thunderbird profile folder on the Clevo.
  6. Edited the prefs.js file to change all the Windows paths to Linux paths.

I also copied the three Address Book files abook.mab, history.mab and impab.mab across, but the first e-mail address in the Address Book differed between the two laptops so I exported the address books from Thunderbird in Linux (‘Address Book’ > ‘Tools’ > ‘Export…’ to create .ldif files) on the Compal and imported them into Thunderbird on the Clevo, but the result was no different to copying the .mab files, so it looks correct (the number of entries in the address books on each laptop was the same). Looking at a fresh installation of Thunderbird, I notice there is no impab.mab file, only the other two, and also the impab.mab file on the Compal has a 2011 date whereas the abook.mab and history.mab have current dates, so I wonder if the impab.mab file is redundant in the latest versions of Thunderbird.

A few panics (mine and the kernel’s!)

I had a couple of panic moments when rebooting after making changes to the kernel: if I had left a USB pen drive or a USB HDD plugged into the Clevo when I rebooted, the kernel would oops during boot-up. I initially thought these kernel panics were due to my mis-configuration of the kernel, but finally realised what was causing the oops when one of the error messages referred to a partition sdc1 on a pen drive. Actually, I had enabled too many kernel options in my first kernel build so it was probably better that I restarted the Gentoo installation anyway (I only restarted the installation from scratch once). The Compal boots normally if it has USB storage devices plugged in when it boots, so I’m not sure why it happens on the Clevo. Both laptops have the HDD first in the boot order, so I don’t know why the Clevo complains.

External monitor

I used xrandr commands to get my external monitor (an Acer AL1916W with a max resolution of 1440×900) to display the Clevo’s desktop correctly. I used the following command to view the available monitors and modes:

$ xrandr -q
Screen 0: minimum 8 x 8, current 1920 x 1080, maximum 16384 x 16384
eDP-1-0 connected 1920x1080+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 282mm x 165mm
   1920x1080     60.00*+  40.00  
   1400x1050     59.98  
   1280x1024     60.02  
   1280x960      60.00  
   1024x768      60.04    60.00  
   960x720       60.00  
   928x696       60.05  
   896x672       60.01  
   800x600       60.00    60.32    56.25  
   700x525       59.98  
   640x512       60.02  
   640x480       60.00    59.94  
   512x384       60.00  
   400x300       60.32    56.34  
   320x240       60.05  
VGA-1-0 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
DisplayPort-1-0 connected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
   1920x1080     60.00 +  40.00  
HDMI-1-0 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)

I don’t know why the connected AL1916W monitor is shown as having only one display mode, and why that mode is 1920×1080. The AL1916W supports several modes up to 1440×900, and these are all displayed by the xrandr command on the Compal. It seems the NVIDIA driver is unable to read the external monitor’s EDID whereas the AMD ATI FGLRX driver is able to do so. Anyway I did the following to force the NVIDIA driver to display the Desktop correctly, which I later automated in a Bash script launched from a Desktop Configuration File:

$ xrandr --output DisplayPort-1-0 --off
$ xrandr --newmode "1440x900" 106.50 1440 1528 1672 1904 900 903 909 934 -hsync +vsync # Only need to add new mode once per X session.
$ xrandr --addmode DisplayPort-1-0 1440x900
$ xrandr --output eDP-1-0 --off && xrandr --output DisplayPort-1-0 --mode 1440x900

I pressed the AL1916W monitor’s MENU button and selected AUTO to make sure the monitor’s display is as sharp as possible.

Scanners

I have an HP ScanJet 3400C scanner and my Canon PIXMA MP560 MFP also has a scanner. I had to install hplip in order to be able to use XSane, gscan2pdf and Simple Scan with the HP ScanJet 3400C scanner. I also found that the HP ScanJet 3400C must be switched off in order to be able to use the Canon MP560 scanner, whereas I don’t need to switch off the Canon MP560 in order to be able to use the HP ScanJet 3400C!

Skype and PulseAudio

As Qt 4.8.5 has not yet been marked stable in Gentoo, and therefore there is not a stable version of Qt with the abi_x86_32 USE flag, I installed Skype using the hack given by Gentoo user pablo_supertux in his Gentoo Forums post [SOLVED] Skype and the new multilib, which works well.

The laptop’s volume settings jumped to 100% periodically, and this is another of PulseAudio’s irritating quirks. To stop this happening I edited the file /etc/pulse/daemon.conf and changed:

; flat-volumes = yes

to:

flat-volumes = no

i.e. I uncommented the line and changed ‘yes‘ to ‘no‘.

I had disabled Skype from automatically adjusting audio settings. If I still find that PulseAudio is causing volume levels to change at start-up (see my earlier posts), I will create a script in /etc/local.d/ to set them automatically for me.

Things left for me to do:

  1. Get the Webcam working. Boot SystemRescueCd and see if the Webcam works (if Cheese or guvcvideo are installed in SystemRescueCd).
  2. Get the Memory Card slot working. Boot SystemRescueCd and see if SDHC and/or SDXC memory cards are accesible.
  3. Check the Bash backup scripts I created for the Compal and edit them if necessary so that they work on the Clevo.
  4. When Qt 4.8.6 is made Stable in the Portage tree, install Skype using Portage.
  5. Check which other applications and utilities I installed on the Compal need to be installed on the Clevo.
  6. Install the Samsung Unified Printer driver and get it working with the Samsung printers in the office.
  7. Investigate why the Clevo cannot print to my Canon PIXMA MP560 via WiFi.
  8. Install UFW and either a) the KDE KControl Module for UFW or b) UFW Frontends, and add firewall rules for Samba/CIFS and KDE Connect.
  9. Investigate why Samba cannot access the family Acer Aspire XC600 running Windows 8.1. The Samba service is running on the Clevo, and both Samba 3 and Samba 4 on the Compal can access shares on the Aspire XC600 and on the Clevo, so something must be wrong with the installation on the Clevo.
  10. Find out the manual commands for switching between the Intel APU and NVIDIA GPU that Gentoo user Arthanis mentioned in his post [SOLVED] Optimus and Nvidia.
  11. Investigate why the KDE Network widget plasma-nm is crashing when I add/edit connections (see a recent KDE blog post Plasma-nm 0.9.3.6 release about the last update to plasma-nm-4.* which fixes some bugs). I suppose I need to wait for plasma-nm-0.9.3.5 to become stable in the Portage main tree.
  12. Get qr-tools (QR Code application) working on the Clevo.

More tools for creating QR Codes in Linux

In my previous post I showed how to install CuterCode and Qreator, two simple GUI applications for producing QR Codes, in Gentoo Linux. I have now found a couple of other GUI applications, both of which offer more features than the aforementioned two, such as allowing you to specify the amount of error correction to be incorporated into the QR Code. QR Code codewords are 8 bits long and use the Reed–Solomon error correction algorithm, with four error correction levels possible in the case of QR Codes:

Level L (Low): 7% of codewords can be restored.
Level M (Medium): 15% of codewords can be restored.
Level Q (Quartile): 25% of codewords can be restored.
Level H (High): 30% of codewords can be restored.

The higher the level of error correction, the lower the storage capacity of the QR Code.

And now to the two applications …

Portable QR-Code Generator

This is a Java application, so first make sure you have installed a Java run-time environment (or Java Development Toolkit, which will include the JRE) via Portage.

Download to your home directory the archive qrcodegen_1.14.2.zip containing the compiled Java application, not the archive qrcodegen_1.14.2_src.zip with the source code (‘quellcode’ in German), from the application’s Web site. Unzip it to the directory ~/qrcodegen_1.14.2/ then enter the directory and launch the Java application from the command line as shown below:

$ cd ~/qrcodegen_1.14.2/qrcodegen
$ java -jar QRCodeGen.jar

Alternatively you can create a Desktop Configuration file QRCodeGen.desktop containing the following (change ‘fitzcarraldo’ to your own user name, of course):

[Desktop Entry]
Categories=Graphics
Comment[en_GB]=QR Code Generator is a program that lets you generate and print QR Codes easily.
Comment=QR Code Generator is a program that lets you generate and print QR Codes easily.
Exec=java -jar /home/fitzcarraldo/qrcodegen_1.14.2/qrcodegen/QRCodeGen.jar
GenericName[en_GB]=QRCodeGen
GenericName=QRCodeGen
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/qrcodegen_1.14.2/qrcodegen/icon.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=QRCodeGen
Name=QRCodeGen
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo/qrcodegen_1.14.2/qrcodegen/
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=

and make it executable:

$ chmod +x QRCodeGen.desktop

You can choose a nice PNG icon by using Google Images to search for ‘qr code icon png’ and save the image with the file name icon.png in the same directory. Then you can launch QR code Generator by double-clicking on the Desktop Configuration file.

QtQR – QR Code Generator

Download the tarball qr-tools-1.2.tar.gz from the application’s Web site, unpack it to the directory ~/qr-tools-1.2/ and make the Python scripts executable:

$ cd ~/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools
$ chmod +x qtqr.py
$ chmod +x qrtools.py

Make sure you have installed the package media-gfx/zbar with the python USE flag set, so that the Python zbar module is also installed:

# USE="python" emerge zbar

(You may as well add the python USE flag in the line for media-gfx/zbar in the Portage package.use file so that ZBar’s Python module is installed if you upgrade or re-install ZBar via Portage in future).

Check if the Python Imaging Library (fork) dev-python/pillow is already installed:

# emerge --search pillow

If it is not already installed, install it:

# emerge pillow

Now you can launch QtQR from the command line as follows:

$ cd ~/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools
$ LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/libv4l/v4l1compat.so PYTHONPATH=/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages:/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/PIL ./qtqr.py

Alternatively, you can create a Desktop Configuration file qtqr.desktop with the following contents (change ‘fitzcarraldo’ to your own user name, of course):

[Desktop Entry]
Categories=Graphics
Comment[en_GB]=QtQR is a Qt based software that lets you generate QR Codes easily, scan an image file for a QR Code and decode it or use your webcam to scan a printed one.
Comment=QtQR is a Qt based software that lets you generate QR Codes easily, scan an image file for a QR Code and decode it or use your webcam to scan a printed one.
Exec=LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/libv4l/v4l1compat.so PYTHONPATH=/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages:/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/PIL /home/fitzcarraldo/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools/qtqr.py
GenericName[en_GB]=QtQR
GenericName=QtQR
Icon=/home/fitzcarraldo/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools/icon.png
MimeType=
Name[en_GB]=QtQR
Name=QtQR
Path=/home/fitzcarraldo/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools/
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DBUS-ServiceName=
X-DBUS-StartupType=
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=

and make it executable:

$ chmod +x qtqr.desktop

Then you can launch QtQR by double-clicking on the Desktop Configuration file.

The QtQR GUI has a feature for decoding a QR Code in an image file and for decoding a printed QR Code held in front of a Webcam. If I select ‘Decode’ > ‘Decode from Webcam’, QtQR launches ZBar and, although it is a bit fiddly, I can successfully decode a printed QR Code. However, I cannot get QtQR to decode a QR Code in an image file that QtQR itself created (or to decode a QR Code in a file created by any other application, for that matter), so there is a bug in QtQR. Looking at the application’s bug reports this appears to be Bug No. 811576. It’s not a big deal, though, because the zbarimg command provided by ZBar can be used to decode QR Codes (see my post Installing and using ZBar in Linux to scan bar codes with your Webcam).

$ cd ~/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools
$ LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/libv4l/v4l1compat.so PYTHONPATH=/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages:/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/PIL ./qtqr.py
/usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/gtk-2.0/gtk/__init__.py:127: RuntimeWarning: PyOS_InputHook is not available for interactive use of PyGTK
  set_interactive(1)
Object::connect: No such signal org::freedesktop::UPower::DeviceAdded(QDBusObjectPath)
Object::connect: No such signal org::freedesktop::UPower::DeviceRemoved(QDBusObjectPath)
kfilemodule(32309) KSambaSharePrivate::testparmParamValue: Running testparm ("-d0", "-s", "--parameter-name", "usershare path")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "./qtqr.py", line 481, in decodeFile
    if qr.decode():
  File "/home/fitzcarraldo/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools/qrtools.py", line 147, in decode
    pil = Image.open(self.filename).convert('L')
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/PIL/Image.py", line 2256, in open
    % (filename if filename else fp))
IOError: cannot identify image file u'/home/fitzcarraldo/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools/test.png'

Linux Magazine has a good article on these and other QR Code tools: Generating QR Codes in Linux.

UPDATE (March 30, 2015): You can download an updated working revision (Revision 20) of the Python script qrtools.py, and an updated working revision (Revision 21) of the Python script qtqr.py, from the QtQR and QR Tools developers’ repository where they have been working on an as-yet unreleased Version 1.4 of QtQR and QR Tools:

http://bazaar.launchpad.net/~qr-tools-developers/qr-tools/trunk/files

I have briefly tested qrtools.py Revision 20 and qtqr.py Revision 21 with the other QR Tools Version 1.2 files I downloaded earlier. I simply downloaded the Revison 20 qrtools.py file and the Revision 21 qtqr.py file and overwrote the qrtools.py and qtqr.py files I had extracted earlier from qr-tools-1.2.tar.gz into the directory /home/fitzcarraldo/qr-tools-1.2/qr-tools/ (and made them executable). With the new qrtools.py and new qtqr.py it is now possible for QtQR to decode QR Codes in image files as well as QR Codes scanned via a Webcam, so the bug I mentioned above should be fixed in the next official release of QtQR/QR Tools. So you may as well skip the official Version 1.2 and download all the files from the above-mentioned developers’ repository for the future Version 1.4.

How to create QR Codes easily in Gentoo Linux

QR Codes are two-dimensional bar codes that can store a surprising amount of information. CuterCode and Qreator are two applications that are easy to install and use to produce QR Codes that can be saved as image files for use on labels, posters, Web sites, business cards, documents, etc. Here is how to install CuterCode and Qreator in Gentoo Linux.

Example of a QR Code

A QR Code created using Qreator. You can read it using the Android app Barcode Scanner by ZXing Team and several other Android apps, and also using a Linux app (see my post on ZBar).

CuterCode

This is a Python script and simple GUI.

https://github.com/mnagel/cutercode

First download the script itself:

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mnagel/cutercode/master/cutercode
$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mnagel/cutercode/master/cutercode.ui

Make the Python script exectuable:

$ chmod +x cutercode

Then install the package media-gfx/qrencode-python (it will pull-in the package media-gfx/qrencode) on which it depends:

# emerge qrencode-python

To launch the application:

$ ./cutercode

Use the Print Scrn key on your keyboard to launch KSnapshot (or whatever screen capture tool it is you use) and capture the QR Code to a JPG or PNG file for use in you documents. That’s it!

Qreator

The UI of Qreator is more polished than CuterCode, and you have the options to save the QR Code as a PNG file, copy it to the clipboard, print it or edit its appearance.

https://launchpad.net/qreator

Either merge it from Portage overlay dev-zero using layman:

# layman -S
# layman -a dev-zero
# emerge qreator

or download the dev-zero files into your local overlay and install it from there:

# mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/app-office/qreator/files
# cd /usr/local/portage/app-office/qreator
# wget http://data.gpo.zugaina.org/dev-zero/app-office/qreator/qreator-13.05.3.ebuild
# cd files
# wget http://data.gpo.zugaina.org/dev-zero/app-office/qreator/files/13.05.3-python-imaging.patch
# cd ..
# ebuild qreator-13.05.3.ebuild manifest
# emerge qreator

If you happen to be a KDE user, you will find a menu entry for Qreator is installed under ‘Applications’ > ‘Graphics’ in the KDE launcher, or you can launch it from the command line:

$ qreator

Background reading

QR Code – Wikipedia
QRcode.com – Answers to your questions about the QR Code

More on NetworkManager creating a new connection ‘eth0′ that does not work

In a previous post I described a problem I have been experiencing with NetworkManager since Version 0.9.10.0 (I am now using Version 1.0.0): sometimes, but not always, there is an invalid second eth0 connection when my laptop boots. This invalid second eth0 connection has only IPv6 Link-Local enabled (i.e. IPv4 and IPv6 are disabled) and is Active. As a result the existing eth0 connection for IPv4 I previously created is Available but unable to connect.

While on a work trip and using my laptop on an office network and an hotel network I made some changes to my installation (see the above-mentioned previous post) that seemed to fix this problem on those networks. However, on returning home and connecting my laptop to my home network, I found the problem still exists. This makes me wonder if a race condition is occurring, as network latency can differ between networks. Could it be that my home network takes longer to assign an IPv4 address than the office and hotel networks I used, which results in NetworkManager creating a second eth0 connection with IPv4 and IPv6 disabled? Or perhaps there is a race condition between services but network latency has nothing to do with it. In retrospect, I should have checked the contents of the log file /var/log/messages while on my work trip to see if those networks were providing my laptop with an IPv6 address in addition to an IPv4 address, i.e. check if the IPv6 address was not just a Link-Local address.

But why is NetworkManager creating any additional connection at all when NetworkManager.conf in my installation currently contains ‘no-auto-default=eth0‘? Surely this must be a bug in NetworkManager?

I have found virtually no mention of this behaviour on the Web. Debian bug report no. 755202 appears to describe the same problem. I started experiencing the problem in Gentoo Linux (~amd64 installation using OpenRC) after I upgraded NetworkManager to Version 0.9.10.0 too, and it has continued occurring up to the current version of NetworkManager (1.0.0). Fellow Gentoo Linux user Keivan Moradi’s fix (Message #79 in the aforementioned Debian bug report) did not cure the problem for me, and, anyway, my wired NIC uses a different driver (atl1c module) which appears to be stable in my installation.

CentOS bug report no. 0007435 also appears to report the same behaviour, but I’m not sure.

NetworkManager usually (but not always) creates an invalid second eth0 connection when my laptop boots and an Ethernet cable is connected to my home network. The second eth0 connection is shown as Active in plasma-nm (the KDE front-end for NetworkManager) but only has an IPv6 Link-Local connection configured (i.e. IPv4 is shown as Disabled). If I click on Disconnect in plasma-nm then this ‘rogue’ eth0 connection disappears from plasma-nm. Once the invalid IPv6 Link-Local connection has been disconnected, the valid IPv4 eth0 available connection can connect to the network and access the Internet.

I examined /var/log/messages when the invalid second eth0 connection occurs and when it doesn’t, and the invalid eth0 connection only seems to occur when NetworkManager appears to have first started earlier than syslog-ng began logging. When NetworkManager first starts after syslog-ng began logging, I can see it launches dhcpcd and acquires an IPv4 address. avahi-daemon does not seem to be the cause of the problem if I understand the log file correctly. Anyway, my experiments described below seem to exonerate the Avahi daemon. I could be misinterpreting what is going on, but that’s how it looks to my inexpert eyes. In Debian bug report no. 755202 some commenters refer to extra interfaces with names such as ‘eth0:avahi’ being listed by the ifconfig command when the problem occurs, but I wonder if that is just a side effect. Anyway, the ifconfig command does not list such interfaces in my case.

I tried the following experiments:

1. I commented out the entire contents of the file /etc/conf.d/net (the configuration file for initscripts /etc/init.d/net.*) — which I think is analogous to Debian’s /etc/network/interfaces file — but it did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

2. I added ‘use-ipv6=no‘ and, later, ‘use-ipv4=no‘ in the file /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf but they did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

3. I added ‘deny-interfaces=eth0‘ in the file /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf but it did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

4. In my installation, the ‘local‘ service (launched by initscript /etc/init.d/local) has always been allocated to two runlevels: ‘default‘ and ‘nonetwork‘. I de-allocated the ‘local‘ service from the ‘nonetwork‘ runlevel but this did not stop the invalid second eth0 connection occurring.

5. In my installation, the ‘net.lo‘ service (launched by initscript /etc/init.d/net.lo) has always been allocated to the ‘boot‘ runlevel (the other net.* services, such as ‘net.eth0‘ and ‘net.wlan0‘, have never been allocated to a runlevel in my installation). I de-allocated ‘net.lo‘ from the ‘boot‘ runlevel but it did not stop the invalid eth0 connection occurring.

As experiments 4 and 5 did not stop the laptop accessing the Internet once I had deleted the invalid second eth0 connection, I have left the ‘local‘ service in the ‘default‘ runlevel only, and I have left the ‘net.lo‘ service unallocated to a runlevel.

6. Since the invalid eth0 connection is allocated an IPv6 Link-Local address rather than an IPv4 address on my home network, I tried a work-around: I disabled IPv6 system-wide by un-commenting the line ‘alias net-pf-10 off‘ in the file /etc/modprobe.d/aliases.conf. Now a second eth0 connection is no longer created, and the valid eth0 IPv4 connection I created previously connects automatically. I have not rebooted many times yet, so I don’t know if this work-around has eliminated the problem for good, but it looks promising.

Nevertheless I would like to find the root cause of the problem, rather than settling for a work-around of disabling IPv6 system-wide. Given that, when IPv6 is enabled, a second eth0 connection is sometimes not created and the ‘good’ IPv4 eth0 connection I created previously can connect, hopefully it should be possible somehow to have both IPv6 and IPv4 enabled system-wide without an invalid eth0 connection ever being created. Could NetworkManager be modified so that it does not create a connection if the DHCP client launched by NetworkManager does not obtain an IP address, for example?

This is not the end of the story, I’m sure.

For information, the services currently used are shown below:

meshedgedx fitzcarraldo # rc-status --all
Runlevel: nonetwork
Runlevel: shutdown
 killprocs                               [  stopped  ]
 savecache                               [  stopped  ]
 mount-ro                                [  stopped  ]
Runlevel: sysinit
 devfs                                   [  started  ]
 tmpfiles.dev                            [  started  ]
 sysfs                                   [  started  ]
 dmesg                                   [  started  ]
 udev                                    [  started  ]
Runlevel: boot
 hwclock                                 [  started  ]
 modules                                 [  started  ]
 device-mapper                           [  started  ]
 fsck                                    [  started  ]
 root                                    [  started  ]
 mtab                                    [  started  ]
 localmount                              [  started  ]
 sysctl                                  [  started  ]
 bootmisc                                [  started  ]
 termencoding                            [  started  ]
 keymaps                                 [  started  ]
 swapfiles                               [  started  ]
 ufw                                     [  started  ]
 procfs                                  [  started  ]
 dbus                                    [  started  ]
 tmpfiles.setup                          [  started  ]
 serial                                  [  started  ]
 hostname                                [  started  ]
 consolekit                              [  started  ]
 consolefont                             [  started  ]
 xdm                                     [  started  ]
 loopback                                [  started  ]
Runlevel: single
Runlevel: default
 swap                                    [  started  ]
 bluetooth                               [  started  ]
 syslog-ng                               [  started  ]
 sshd                                    [  started  ]
 fbcondecor                              [  started  ]
 atd                                     [  started  ]
 NetworkManager                          [  started  ]
 avahi-daemon                            [  started  ]
 cupsd                                   [  started  ]
 mdadm                                   [  started  ]
 acpid                                   [  started  ]
 nfsclient                               [  started  ]
 netmount                                [  started  ]
 alsasound                               [  started  ]
 laptop_mode                             [  started  ]
 cups-browsed                            [  started  ]
 hddtemp                                 [  started  ]
 mysql                                   [  started  ]
 nfs                                     [  started  ]
 samba                                   [  started  ]
 urandom                                 [  started  ]
 vixie-cron                              [  started  ]
 local                                   [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: hotplugged
Dynamic Runlevel: needed
 rpcbind                                 [  started  ]
 rpc.statd                               [  started  ]
 rpc.pipefs                              [  started  ]
 rpc.idmapd                              [  started  ]
 xdm-setup                               [  started  ]
Dynamic Runlevel: manual
meshedgedx fitzcarraldo #

The allocations of services to runlevels are shown below:

meshedgedx fitzcarraldo # rc-update show -v
           NetworkManager |      default
 NetworkManagerDispatcher |
                    acpid |      default
                alsasound |      default
                  apache2 |
                      atd |      default
               atieventsd |
             avahi-daemon |      default
           avahi-dnsconfd |
                bluetooth |      default
                 bootmisc | boot
                   brltty |
             busybox-ntpd |
         busybox-watchdog |
                 cgconfig |
                    cgred |
                  cgroups |
                    clamd |
              consolefont | boot
               consolekit | boot
          courier-authlib |
                 cpupower |
             cups-browsed |      default
                    cupsd |      default
                     dbus | boot
                  deluged |
                    devfs |                                        sysinit
            device-mapper | boot
                      dgc |
                   dhcpcd |
                  dmcrypt |
                    dmesg |                                        sysinit
                 dmeventd |
                  dropbox |
                    eposd |
               fancontrol |
               fbcondecor |      default
                     fsck | boot
                     fuse |
               git-daemon |
                 gkrellmd |
                      gpm |
                     gpsd |
                  hddtemp |      default
                   hdparm |
          heimdal-kadmind |
              heimdal-kcm |
              heimdal-kdc |
         heimdal-kpasswdd |
                 hostname | boot
                   hsqldb |
                  hwclock | boot
                ip6tables |
                 iptables |
                   irexec |
                  keymaps | boot
                killprocs |                        shutdown
        kmod-static-nodes |
              laptop_mode |      default
                    lircd |
                   lircmd |
               lm_sensors |
                    local |      default
               localmount | boot
                 loopback | boot
                      lvm |
           lvm-monitoring |
                  lvmetad |
                    mdadm |      default
                   mdraid |
            microcode_ctl |
                  modules | boot
                 mount-ro |                        shutdown
                     mtab | boot
                multipath |
               multipathd |
                    mysql |      default
                      nas |
                  net.aol |
                 net.ath0 |
                 net.ath1 |
                 net.ath2 |
                 net.ath3 |
                 net.ath4 |
                 net.eth0 |
                 net.eth1 |
                 net.eth2 |
                 net.eth3 |
                 net.eth4 |
                 net.eth5 |
                 net.eth6 |
                 net.eth7 |
                 net.eth8 |
                   net.lo |
                 net.ppp0 |
                 net.ppp1 |
                 net.ppp2 |
                 net.ppp3 |
                  net.ra0 |
                  net.ra1 |
                  net.ra2 |
                  net.ra3 |
                  net.ra4 |
                  net.ra5 |
                net.wlan0 |
                net.wlan1 |
                net.wlan2 |
                net.wlan3 |
                 netmount |      default
                      nfs |      default
                nfsclient |      default
                 nfsmount |
               ntp-client |
  ntp-client.bak.20141013 |
                     ntpd |
                  numlock |
                  pciparm |
                  pktcdvd |
                   polipo |
                   procfs | boot
                  pwcheck |
                pydoc-2.7 |
                pydoc-3.2 |
                pydoc-3.3 |
                pydoc-3.4 |
              rename_ethX |
                   rfcomm |
                     root | boot
               rpc.idmapd |
               rpc.pipefs |
                rpc.statd |
                  rpcbind |
                rrdcached |
                   rsyncd |
                    samba |      default
                    saned |
                saslauthd |
                savecache |                        shutdown
                   serial | boot
                     slpd |
                   smartd |
                    snmpd |
                snmptrapd |
                     sntp |
                     sshd |      default
                 svnserve |
                     swap |      default
                swapfiles | boot
                  swclock |
                   sysctl | boot
                    sysfs |                                        sysinit
                syslog-ng |      default
    system-tools-backends |
             termencoding | boot
                 timidity |
             tmpfiles.dev |                                        sysinit
           tmpfiles.setup | boot
                      tor |
                   twistd |
                     udev |                                        sysinit
                      ufw | boot
                  urandom |      default
               vboxwebsrv |
               vixie-cron |      default
                     vpnc |
           wpa_supplicant |
                      xdm | boot
                xdm-setup |
                   xinetd |
meshedgedx fitzcarraldo #

My installation has the following six runlevels:

meshedgedx fitzcarraldo # ls /etc/runlevels
boot default nonetwork shutdown single sysinit

Getting Google Earth in Gentoo Linux to display Panoramio photos

Well, I decided to get Panoramio photos working in Google Earth installed using the hacked ebuild I posted in April 2014 (see my post Work-around if 64-bit Google Earth crashes in Gentoo Linux).

The modification devised by user amirpli (see Comment #9 in Gentoo Bugzilla Bug Report No. 490066) does not work in my case, as explained in detail in the above-mentioned April 2014 post. I believe this is because I am using the FGLRX video driver, as I have successfully applied amirpli‘s modification in an installation on a PC that has an Intel GPU.

Here is how I got Panoramio photos to display on my main laptop running the FGLRX driver, although my fix is yet another hack: I use 32-bit libraries downloaded from the Web. It works for me, though!

Background

I am running Google Earth 7.1.2.2041 installed from a local overlay (see my above-mentioned April 2014 post) in KDE 4.14.3 under Gentoo Linux ~amd64 with the 3.17.1-gentoo-r1 kernel and FGLRX driver:

# eix ati-drivers
[I] x11-drivers/ati-drivers
     Available versions:
     (legacy) 13.1_pre897^td
     (1)    13.4^td 13.9^td 13.12^td 14.4_p1^td (~)14.6_beta2^td (~)14.9-r2^ftd (~)14.12-r2^td 14.12-r3^td
       {debug disable-watermark +modules multilib pax_kernel qt4 static-libs ABI_X86="32 64" KERNEL="linux"}
     Installed versions:  14.12-r3(1)^td(20:22:04 13/02/15)(modules qt4 -debug -pax_kernel -static-libs ABI_X86="32 64" KERNEL="linux")
     Homepage:            http://www.amd.com
     Description:         Ati precompiled drivers for Radeon Evergreen (HD5000 Series) and newer chipsets

Procedure

1. Download into ~/Downloads/ the following Ubuntu 32-bit packages from http://packages.ubuntu.com/utopic/i386/libs/

$ ls -la *.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users  24060 Mar  1 23:59 libecore-imf1_1.8.6-2ubuntu1_i386.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 274206 Mar  1 22:59 libfreeimage3_3.15.4-3build1_i386.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users  52154 Mar  1 23:45 libilmbase6_1.0.1-6.1_i386.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 135300 Mar  2 00:28 libjasper1_1.900.1-debian1-2ubuntu0.2_i386.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 106868 Mar  1 23:00 libjpeg-turbo8_1.3.0-0ubuntu2_i386.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users  98500 Mar  1 23:39 libopenjpeg5_1.5.2-2_i386.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 189420 Mar  2 00:21 libraw10_0.16.0-6_i386.deb

2. Download into ~/Downloads/ the following 32-bit packages from http://rpmfind.net/linux/rpm2html/search.php and http://pkgs.org/

$ ls -la *.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users  57976 Mar  2 00:13 libilmbase6-1.0.2-11.1.2.i586.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 148379 Mar  2 00:03 libilmimf6-1.6.1-alt9.i586.rpm

3. Extract into ~/Downloads/ the following 32-bit libraries from the above-mentioned .deb and .rpm packages:

$ ls -la lib*.so*
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 644568 Apr 27  2014 libfreeimage-3.15.4.so
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 677340 Apr 27  2014 libfreeimageplus-3.15.4.so
-rwxr-xr-x 1 fitzcarraldo users 271780 Jul 15  2012 libHalf.so.6.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 fitzcarraldo users 104044 Jul 15  2012 libIex.so.6.0.0
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 671896 Dec  3 15:06 libIlmImf.so.6.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 fitzcarraldo users  22260 Jul 15  2012 libIlmThread.so.6.0.0
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 342116 Jan 22 18:46 libjasper.so.1.0.0
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 300776 Dec 19  2013 libjpeg.so.8.0.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 142604 Apr 26  2014 libopenjpeg.so.1.5.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 fitzcarraldo users 657336 Jul 22  2014 libraw.so.10.0.0

4. Merge the 32-bit Google Earth package from a local overlay, using the ebuild listed in my above-mentioned April 2014 post:

# emerge -C googleearth
# rm -rf /opt/googleearth/
# emerge googleearth::local_overlay

5. Delete the four bundled Qt libs, compile the shim devised by user amirpli (see Comment #9 in Gentoo Bugzilla Bug Report No. 490066) but compile it for 32 bits (‘-m32‘), and edit the googleearth script to use the 32-bit libfreeimage.so.3 that you will copy into /opt/googleearth/ later:

# cd /opt/googleearth
# rm libQt*
# touch baifaao.cpp
# nano baifaao.cpp
# cat baifaao.cpp
/* amirpli 2013/11/28 */
#include <QtCore/QAtomicInt>
extern "C" {
        int _Z34QBasicAtomicInt_fetchAndAddOrderedPVii(QAtomicInt* a, int b) {
                return a->fetchAndAddOrdered(b);
        }
}
# gcc -I/usr/include/qt4 -O3 -m32 -fPIC --shared baifaao.cpp -o baifaao.so
# nano googleearth
# tail googleearth
}

script_path=$(FindPath $0);

cd $script_path;

export LD_PRELOAD=/opt/googleearth/libfreeimage.so.3:/opt/googleearth/baifaao.so
export LC_NUMERIC=en_US.UTF-8 # Must do this if you are using non-US locale.

LD_LIBRARY_PATH=.:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH ./googleearth-bin "$@"

6. Copy into the Google Earth directory all the libraries downloaded and extracted in Steps 1 to 3 above, and create the necessary symlinks and permissions:

# cd /opt/googleearth
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libfreeimage-3.15.4.so .
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libfreeimageplus-3.15.4.so .
# ln -s libfreeimage-3.15.4.so libfreeimage.so.3
# ln -s libfreeimage.so.3 libfreeimage.so
# ln -s libfreeimageplus-3.15.4.so libfreeimageplus.so.3
# ln -s libfreeimageplus.so.3 libfreeimageplus.so
# chmod +x libfreeimage-3.15.4.so
# chmod +x libfreeimageplus-3.15.4.so
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libjpeg.so.8.0.2 .
# ln -s libjpeg.so.8.0.2 libjpeg.so
# ln -s libjpeg.so libjpeg.so.8
# chmod +x libjpeg.so.8.0.2
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libopenjpeg.so.1.5.2 .
# ln -s libopenjpeg.so.1.5.2 libopenjpeg.so
# ln -s libopenjpeg.so libopenjpeg.so.5
# chmod +x libopenjpeg.so.1.5.2
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libIlmImf.so.6.0.0 .
# ln -s libIlmImf.so.6.0.0 libIlmImf.so
# ln -s libIlmImf.so libIlmImf.so.6
# chmod +x libIlmImf.so.6.0.0
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libHalf.so.6.0.0 .
# ln -s libHalf.so.6.0.0 libHalf.so
# ln -s libHalf.so libHalf.so.6
# chmod +x libHalf.so.6.0.0
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libIex.so.6.0.0 .
# ln -s libIex.so.6.0.0 libIex.so
# ln -s libIex.so libIex.so.6
# chmod +x libIex.so.6.0.0
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libraw.so.10.0.0 .
# ln -s libraw.so.10.0.0 libraw.so
# ln -s libraw.so libraw.so.10
# chmod +x libraw.so.10.0.0
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libIlmThread.so.6.0.0 .
# ln -s libIlmThread.so.6.0.0 libIlmThread.so
# ln -s libIlmThread.so libIlmThread.so.6
# chmod +x libIlmThread.so.6.0.0
# cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Downloads/libjasper.so.1.0.0 .
# ln -s libjasper.so.1.0.0 libjasper.so
# ln -s libjasper.so libjasper.so.1
# chmod +x libjasper.so.1.0.0

Finally, launch Google Earth from your user account, not the root user’s account:

$ googleearth

Clicking on any photo icon in Google Earth should now display Panoramio photos.

If you click on a photo icon and the frame that opens displays several thumbnails, clicking on a thumbnail may result in a white Panoramio frame without any photo and thumbnails displayed. According to user amirpli this problem occurs in KDE but not GNOME. If it does happen in your case, to view the other photos right-click on a thumbnail and select ‘Open in New Window’. This way you will be able to view any of the photos.

It’s nice to be able to see the Panoramio photos again in Linux with the FGLRX driver.

Using a Samsung Xpress C460FW with Gentoo Linux and Android KitKat for printing and scanning

INTRODUCTION

A work colleague has just received a Samsung Xpress C460FW MFP (laser printer, scanner, copier and fax machine) for small print jobs. It is possible to connect to it via USB, Direct USB, wired network, wireless network, Wi-Fi Direct and NFC; that’s impressive for a MFP that can be purchased for GBP 270 in the UK.

I wanted to use the C460FW to print and scan from my laptop running Gentoo Linux, and also to print and scan from my Samsung Galaxy Note 4 running Android KiKat. It turned out that I was able to do all of those, and it was not difficult to set up.

A technician from the IT Support department had already entered a static IP address, subnet mask and default gateway IP address via the C460FW’s control panel to connect it to the office’s wired network. So my options to connect to this particular C460FW are: the wired network for Linux; Wi-Fi Direct for Linux and Android; NFC for Android.

I had never used Wi-Fi Direct before, but it turned out to be easy in Gentoo Linux on my laptop, and also easy in Android KitKat on my Samsung Galaxy Note 4. I had never used NFC before either, and that also turned out to be easy on my Samsung Galaxy Note 4.

Samsung has a series of videos on YouTube explaining how to use Wi-Fi Direct and NFC for printing, scanning and faxing with the C460FW from a Samsung smartphone; here are links to a few of them:

Samsung Smart Printing – 01 NFC Connect

Samsung Smart Printing – 02 Wi Fi Direct

Samsung Smart Printing – 03 Wi Fi

Samsung Smart Printing – 04 NFC Print

Samsung Smart Printing – 05 NFC Scan

Samsung Smart Printing – 06 NFC Fax

Samsung Smart Printing – 11 Samsung Mobile Print App(Printer Status)

PRINTING

Linux

Wired connection

I had installed the package net-print/samsung-unified-linux-driver Version 1.02 from a Portage local overlay back in March 2013 when I needed to print to a different model of Samsung MFP, so I thought I would see if that driver would work with the C460FW. I opened the CUPS Printer Manager in a browser window (http://localhost:631/) to configure my Gentoo installation to print to the device via the wired network. ‘Samsung C460 Series‘ was in the list of discovered network printers in the CUPS Printer Manager, and the driver ‘Samsung C460 Series PS‘ was displayed at the top of the list of models, so it was a piece of cake to set up the printer via CUPS, and I was able to print a test page in no time at all. My colleague uses a laptop running Windows 7, and he had to install the Windows driver from a Samsung CD that came with the C460FW.

Wireless connection

As the IT Support technician had configured the C460FW to print via the office wired network rather than the office wireless network, I decided to configure my laptop to print via Wi-Fi Direct, just to learn about Wi-Fi Direct, really. On the C460FW’s control panel I selected Network > Wireless > Wi-Fi Direct and enabled Wi-Fi Direct. Scrolling through the Wi-Fi Direct entries in the LCD I saw the following information:

Device Name: C460 Series
Network Key: <an 8-digit code>
IP address: 192.168.003.001

Two new networks were listed under ‘Available connections’ in plasma-nm (the KDE GUI front-end to NetworkManager) on my laptop: ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ and ‘DIRECT-SqC460 Series‘, both using WPA2-PSK encryption. I used the control panel of the C460FW to print a network configuration report in order to check which of the two SSIDs I should select, and it is ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ (I found out later that an adjacent room also has a C460FW and its Wi-Fi Direct SSID is ‘DIRECT-SqC460 Series‘). So I selected ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ and plasma-nm prompted me to enter a network password. I entered the 8-digit key I had found from the C460FW’s LCD panel (it’s also listed in the printed network configuration report), and NetworkManager connected to the printer.

In exactly the same way as I do when setting up any printer in Linux, I launched Firefox, opened the CUPS Printer Manager page, clicked on ‘Administration’ > ‘Add Printer’ and entered the user name ‘root’ and the password in the pop-up window. Again the ‘Add Printer’ page had ‘Samsung C460 Series‘ in the list of discovered network printers, so I just selected it and clicked on ‘Continue’. As I had already set up the printer in CUPS for the wired network connection and given it the name ‘Samsung_C460FW_office‘, I entered the name ‘Samsung_C460FW_office_WiFi_Direct‘ to distinguish it from the wired network entry, entered a Description and Location, and clicked on ‘Continue’. The next page had ‘Samsung C460 Series PS‘ first in the driver list so I selected that, clicked on ‘Add Printer’ and that was it. I was able to print a test page from the CUPS Printer Manager, and the printer is now included the list of printers in Linux applications’ print dialogues.

When I want to print using Wi-Fi Direct the only thing I need to remember to do first is select ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ in the network GUI on the KDE Panel, so that the connection is active when I click ‘Print’ in whichever application I want to print from.

Given the ease of printing via the wired network and Wi-Fi Direct, I have no doubts that printing would also work had the C460FW been configured for the office wireless network instead of the wired network.

Duplex printing

The only downside to the Samsung Xpress C460FW is that it only supports manual duplex printing. If you specify duplex printing when printing from Windows, Samsung’s Windows driver prints all the odd-numbered pages in reverse order and displays a message in Windows telling you what to do next (turn over the pile of paper and put it back in the paper tray!), but in Linux it’s not difficult to work out what you have to do: you simply have to print all the odd-numbered sides first, turn over the paper, then print all the even-numbered sides. The print dialogue in Linux applications gives you the option to print only odd-numbered pages or only even-numbered pages, so there is no problem. The print dialogue in some Linux applications allows you to print pages in reverse order as well but, if not, you have to reverse the order yourself before printing the even-numbered pages (i.e. put Page 1 face down at the top of the pile then Page 3 face down under it, and so on). It’s not a big deal unless the document has a large number of pages.

Android

As you would expect with devices from the same manufacturer, setting up my Samsung Galaxy Note 4 to print with the Samsung Xpress C460FW via WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup) was easy. When I selected ‘Print’ on the Galaxy Note 4, it gave me the option to print via wireless network or Wi-Fi Direct. I chose the latter and, as I had already enabled Wi-Fi Direct on the C460FW’s control panel, the printer name was displayed in the list of available devices. I selected it, a blue LED began flashing on the C460FW’s control panel and the LCD prompted me to press the WPS button (on the left of the control panel). As soon as I pressed that, the C460FW printed the document sent by my Galaxy Note 4. From then onwards, I just needed to select ‘Print’ on the Galaxy Note 4, select the printer from the list of available devices, and the document is printed. When I want to print using Wi-Fi Direct the only thing I need to remember to do first on the Galaxy Note 4 is select ‘DIRECT-HeC460 Series‘ as the Wi-Fi network.

NFC

I then decided to try to print using NFC. I placed the Galaxy Note 4, without Wi-Fi enabled and with the Home Screen displayed (not the Lock Screen), on the NFC label on top of the C460FW; Android launched Play Store and prompted me to install Samsung Mobile Print, which I did. Now when I place the Galaxy Note 4 on the NFC label, the Galaxy Note 4 automatically enables Wi-Fi, connects to the C460FW directly and displays the Mobile Print app showing the options Print, Scan and Fax, and a page of icons labelled: Gallery, Camera, Google Drive, E-mail, Web page, Document, Facebook, DropBox, Evernote, OneDrive and Box, as well as a Settings icon to configure the printer (paper size etc.). I am able to select a document, photograph, Web page, etc. on the Galaxy Note 4 and print it. It is also possible to launch the Mobile Print app first and then place the Galaxy Note 4 on the C460FW.

NFC is not entirely trouble-free, though. Sometimes the Galaxy Note 4 displays a ‘Device not found‘ message but I can still print. Sometimes the Galaxy Note 4 displays the message ‘Connecting printer. There was some error while connecting to this device. Check your printer and try again. If NFC Pin was changed then please enter new NFC Pin.‘ and the two devices will not connect. Powering off then on the C460FW solves that. Sometimes the Galaxy Note 4 connects to another wireless network instead of to the C460FW via Wi-Fi Direct and the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 then has to disconnect automatically from the other network. Sometimes the C460FW prompts me to press its WPS button and the Galaxy Note 4 then connects via Wi-Fi Direct but the Mobile Print app then displays the error message ‘Device not found. To troubleshoot please check – C460 Series is powered on. – Wi-Fi direct is enabled on C460 Series. – C460 Series and Mobile are connected to the same network.‘. Again, powering off then on the C460FW solves that. Despite these hiccups, printing via NFC is still handy.

SCANNING

Linux

I found out how to get the C460FW scanner working by consulting the third-party Web site The Samsung Unified Linux Driver Repository which someone created to provide .deb packages for the Samsung driver as well as tips on how to get Samsung printers and scanners working in Linux. It turned out to be relatively straightforward to scan, both via the office wired network and via Wi-Fi Direct. I edited the file /etc/sane.d/xerox_mfp.conf and replaced the following:

#Samsung C460 Series
usb 0x04e8 0x3468

with the following in order to use the C460FW to scan via the office wired network:

#Samsung C460 Series
#usb 0x04e8 0x3468
#Wired network static address of this C460FW:
tcp 10.90.21.125

or with the following in order to use the C460FW to scan via Wi-Fi Direct:

#Samsung C460 Series
#usb 0x04e8 0x3468
#Wi-Fi Direct address of this C460FW:
tcp 192.168.3.1

I found the IP addresses from the network configuration report I printed earlier.

I was able to use the two Linux scanning applications I normally use, XSane and gscan2pdf, to scan via the wired network and via Wi-Fi Direct. The resulting scans were very good. Given the ease of scanning via the wired network and Wi-Fi Direct, I have no doubts that scanning would work via a wireless network had the C460FW been configured for the office wireless network instead of the wired network.

Android

To use NFC to scan a document I place the Galaxy Note 4, without Wi-Fi enabled and with the Home Screen displayed (not the Lock Screen), on the NFC label on top of the C460FW. The Galaxy Note 4 enables Wi-Fi, connects automatically to the C460FW directly and launches the Mobile Print app showing the options Print, Scan and Fax. It is also possible to launch the Mobile Print app first and then place the Galaxy Note 4 on the C460FW. In other words, the procedure is exactly the same as when wanting to print via NFC. If I select Scan, the Galaxy Note 4 displays buttons for previewing and scanning. Amongst other things, the app’s Settings menu allows you to select whether you want to save the scanned image as a JPEG, PNG or PDF file. The hiccups mentioned above when printing via NFC also apply to scanning. Nevertheless, scanning from the C460FW to the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 via NFC is still handy.

CONCLUSION

As I am mainly interested in printing text documents I have only tried to print a few colour photographs on plain copier paper, and they look good. Text in documents looks crisp. Despite the lack of automatic duplex printing the C460FW is an excellent peripheral, especially for the price, although I don’t pay for the consumables so I have no idea of the operating costs. The ease with which I got it printing and scanning in Gentoo Linux (laptop) and Android KitKat (Samsung Galaxy Note 4) means that I would definitely consider purchasing this model for home use.

Downloading YouTube video or only audio

One of my favourite Linux applications is the command-line utility youtube-dl, which I use quite often to download YouTube videos or extract only the audio, either for leisure or work purposes.

Downloading a video

  1. Copy the URL of the YouTube video from the browser’s address bar. I’ll use the video ‘Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha‘ as an example.

  2. Ascertain the types and resolutions available for that particular video:

    $ youtube-dl -F https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BuQCD8eh9k
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading webpage
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Extracting video information
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading DASH manifest
    [info] Available formats for 8BuQCD8eh9k:
    format code extension resolution  note
    171         webm      audio only  DASH audio  118k , audio@128k (44100Hz), 5.05MiB
    140         m4a       audio only  DASH audio  129k , m4a_dash container, aac @128k (44100Hz), 5.99MiB
    141         m4a       audio only  DASH audio  256k , m4a_dash container, aac @256k (44100Hz), 11.90MiB
    160         mp4       256x144     DASH video  111k , 15fps, video only, 5.03MiB
    242         webm      426x240     DASH video  190k , 1fps, video only, 7.19MiB
    133         mp4       426x240     DASH video  248k , 30fps, video only, 11.33MiB
    243         webm      640x360     DASH video  378k , 1fps, video only, 13.83MiB
    134         mp4       640x360     DASH video  465k , 30fps, video only, 12.98MiB
    244         webm      854x480     DASH video  744k , 1fps, video only, 27.11MiB
    135         mp4       854x480     DASH video  873k , 30fps, video only, 25.98MiB
    247         webm      1280x720    DASH video 1378k , 1fps, video only, 49.45MiB
    136         mp4       1280x720    DASH video 1837k , 30fps, video only, 58.40MiB
    17          3gp       176x144
    36          3gp       320x240
    5           flv       400x240
    43          webm      640x360
    18          mp4       640x360
    22          mp4       1280x720 (best)

  3. Chose which video resolution you would like to download. For example I’ll download the highest resolution available for this particular video (Format 22, which is a 1280×720 MPEG-4 file):

    $ youtube-dl -f 22 -o Como_fazer_um_bom_churrasco_de_Picanha.mp4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BuQCD8eh9k
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading webpage
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Extracting video information
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading DASH manifest
    [download] Destination: Como_fazer_um_bom_churrasco_de_Picanha.mp4
    [download] 100% of 83.77MiB in 07:09

Extracting audio from YouTube videos

Let’s say you just want an audio file of the video’s sound track. There are several options, so I’ll just show a few simple examples here:

  1. MP3 file at default quality:

    $ youtube-dl --extract-audio --audio-format mp3 -t https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BuQCD8eh9k
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading webpage
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Extracting video information
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading DASH manifest
    [download] Destination: Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a
    [download] 100% of 11.90MiB in 00:56
    [ffmpeg] Correcting container in "Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a"
    [ffmpeg] Destination: Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.mp3
    Deleting original file Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a (pass -k to keep)

    You can see from the console output above that youtube-dl downloads an M4A file and then uses ffmpeg to convert it to the audio file type you specified. You can check the file’s properties:

    $ file Como\ fazer\ um\ bom\ churrasco\ de\ Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.mp3
    Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.mp3: Audio file with ID3 version 2.4.0, contains: MPEG ADTS, layer III, v1, 64 kbps, 44.1 kHz, Stereo

  2. MP3 file of 128 kbps:

    $ youtube-dl --extract-audio --audio-format mp3 --audio-quality 128K -t https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BuQCD8eh9k
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading webpage
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Extracting video information
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading DASH manifest
    [download] Destination: Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a
    [download] 100% of 11.90MiB in 01:23
    [ffmpeg] Correcting container in "Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a"
    [ffmpeg] Destination: Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.mp3
    Deleting original file Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a (pass -k to keep)
    $ file Como\ fazer\ um\ bom\ churrasco\ de\ Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.mp3
    Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.mp3: Audio file with ID3 version 2.4.0, contains: MPEG ADTS, layer III, v1, 128 kbps, 44.1 kHz, Stereo

  3. M4A file at best quality available for that particular video:

    $ youtube-dl --extract-audio --audio-format best -t https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BuQCD8eh9k
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading webpage
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Extracting video information
    8BuQCD8eh9k: Downloading DASH manifest
    [download] Destination: Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a
    [download] 100% of 11.90MiB in 01:07
    [ffmpeg] Correcting container in "Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a"
    Post-process file Como fazer um bom churrasco de Picanha-8BuQCD8eh9k.m4a exists, skipping

To see the many options available in youtube-dl:

$ man youtube-dl

or:

$ youtube-dl --help

Have fun!

Not able to access the CUPS Printer Manager in Firefox when, or after, using a proxy server

Just a quick tip if you are trying to use the CUPS Printer Manager in a Firefox browser window (http://localhost:631/) to add a printer, manage a printer or view print jobs but the brower displays a message such as ‘Connecting to 10.48.80.49…’ and eventually times out and displays the following message:

 Network Error (tcp_error)

A communication error occurred: “Operation timed out”
The Web Server may be down, too busy, or experiencing other problems preventing it from responding to requests. You may wish to try again at a later time.

For assistance, contact your network support team.

or the following message:

Unable to connect

Firefox can’t establish a connection to the server at 10.48.80.49.

    The site could be temporarily unavailable or too busy. Try again in a few moments.
    If you are unable to load any pages, check your computer’s network connection.
    If your computer or network is protected by a firewall or proxy, make sure that Firefox is permitted to access the Web.

    Try Again

This sometimes happens to me when my laptop is connected to a corporate network and the browser is, or recently was, configured to use a proxy server. Anyway, in Firefox I select ‘Open menu’ > ‘Preferences’ > ‘Network’ > ‘Settings…’ and make sure ‘No proxy’ is selected, then I select ‘Open menu’ > ‘Preferences’ and click on the ‘Clear Now’ button for ‘Cached Web Content’ (I have to click twice to clear the cache, for some reason) and the ‘Clear Now’ button for ‘Offline Web Content and User Data’. After doing this, I can access all the CUPS Printer Manager pages in the browser again.

NetworkManager creates a new connection ‘eth0′ that does not work

Several months ago a new entry ‘eth0′ began appearing under ‘Available connections‘ in the KDE plasma-nm widget (the KDE GUI front-end to NetworkManager) in my Gentoo Linux installation. However, there was already an automatically-created entry ‘Wired connection 1′ for the wired interface. In the plasma-nm GUI I could see that both entries were for the same interface (eth0) and MAC address. My laptop could access the Internet via the connection ‘Wired connection 1′ as usual, but not via the new connection ‘eth0′. And if I deleted ‘eth0′ in the plasma-nm GUI, ‘Wired connection 1′ could not access the Internet until I recreated ‘eth0′ manually.

Apart from the fact that two entries for the same interface is unnecessary, it was annoying because sometimes ‘eth0′ automatically became the active connection instead of ‘Wired connection 1′, despite the fact that only ‘Wired connection 1′ had ‘Automatically connect to this network when it is available’ ticked in the plasma-nm GUI. When this happened, the network icon on the Panel showed an active connection but in fact the laptop could not connect to the Internet. However, the connection did work as expected on the occasions when ‘Wired connection 1′ automatically became the active connection or if I switched manually to ‘Wired connection 1′ via the plasma-nm GUI.

Even more strangely, if I happened to be using WiFi when no Ethernet cable was connected, very occasionally the network icon on the Panel would change from a wireless icon to a wired icon and connection to the Internet would be lost. I would then have to re-select the wireless network in order to reconnect to the Internet.

As my laptop has only one Ethernet port, and as there was previously no ‘eth0′ entry under ‘Available connections‘, initially I thought that the new entry occurred because I had recently installed a new version of udev. I have the parameter net.ifnames=0 in the kernel boot line to stop udev/eudev using the so-called Predictable Network Interface Names, and I have the following udev/eudev rules files relating to networking:

# ls -la /etc/udev/rules.d/*net*
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root    9 Nov 30 15:25 80-net-setup-link.rules -> /dev/null
# ls -la /lib64/udev/rules.d/*net*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  452 Nov  7 09:57 /lib64/udev/rules.d/75-net-description.rules
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1734 Jan 28 18:29 /lib64/udev/rules.d/77-mm-huawei-net-port-types.rules
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  491 Nov  7 09:57 /lib64/udev/rules.d/80-net-name-slot.rules
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  280 Jan 24 00:41 /lib64/udev/rules.d/90-network.rules

Perhaps udev (well, eudev, as I switched to using eudev after the problem started) did have something to do with the new entry, but I began to suspect that NetworkManager was the culprit. I think the problem first occurred after installing NetworkManager 0.9.10.0 last October, but it remained after I installed NetworkManager 1.0.0, until today when I made the various changes described further on.

I had merged NetworkManager 1.0.0 and preceding versions since 0.9.8.8 with USE flags -dhclient and dhcpcd, i.e. NetworkManager in my installation uses the DHCP client dhcpcd instead of dhclient. (I used to merge NetworkManager to use dhclient but found it did not work with 0.9.8.8 and later versions of NetworkManager.)

The relevant network services running in my installation are as follows, and nothing looks incorrect to me:

# rc-update show | grep -i net
       NetworkManager |      default
                local |      default nonetwork
               net.lo | boot
             netmount |      default
# rc-status | grep -i net
NetworkManager                                                    [ started ]
netmount                                                          [ started ]
# rc-update show | grep dh
# rc-status | grep dh
# rc-update -v show | grep supplicant
wpa_supplicant |
# rc-status | grep supplicant
#

NetworkManager itself launches the DHCP client, so the installation should not be configured to launch a DHCP client. Indeed the output above shows that no DHCP client service is configured to run independently of NetworkManager, and I also double-checked that multiple instances of a DHCP client are not running (they’re not):

# ps -C NetworkManager
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 6481 ?        00:00:22 NetworkManager
# ps -C dhcpcd
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
10378 ?        00:00:00 dhcpcd
# ps -C dhclient
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
#

As far as WiFi is concerned, NetworkManager itself launches wpa_supplicant, so the installation should not be configured to launch wpa_supplicant. Indeed the output from rc-update and rc-status above shows that no wpa_supplicant service is configured to run independently of NetworkManager, and I also double-checked that multiple instances of wpa_supplicant are not running (they’re not):

# ps -C wpa_supplicant
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 6491 ?        00:00:00 wpa_supplicant
#

So, as far as I could tell, there was nothing wrong with the non-NetworkManager side of my installation.

I thought the problem might be due to the settings in the file /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf, which contained the following:

[main]
plugins=keyfile
dhcp=dhcpcd

[ifnet]
managed=true
auto_refresh=false

[keyfile]
hostname=meshedgedx

I studied the manual pages for NetworkManager.conf:

# man NetworkManager.conf

If I understand correctly, the ifnet plug-in is Gentoo-specific (see References 3, 4 and 5 further on). The entries under [ifnet] in my NetworkManager.conf file were redundant in any case because the ifnet plug-in was not included in the plugins list under [main], so I deleted the entire [ifnet] section. There is no mention of the ifnet plug-in on the NetworkManager.conf manual page or in the Gentoo Linux Wiki article on NetworkManager, and a cursory look in the Gentoo ebuild for NetworkManager 1.0.0 clearly indicates the ifnet plug-in is broken. See, for example, the following comment in the ebuild:

# ifnet plugin always disabled until someone volunteers to actively
# maintain and fix it

and the following warning messages in the ebuild if the user has included ifnet in plugin=<plugin list> in NetworkManager.conf:

ewarn "Ifnet plugin is now disabled because of it being unattended"
ewarn "and unmaintained for a long time, leading to some unfixed bugs"
ewarn "and new problems appearing. We will now use upstream 'keyfile'"
ewarn "plugin."
ewarn "Because of this, you will likely need to reconfigure some of"
ewarn "your networks. To do this you can rely on Gnome control center,"
ewarn "nm-connection-editor or nmtui tools for example once updated"
ewarn "NetworkManager version is installed."
ewarn "You seem to use 'ifnet' plugin in ${EROOT}etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf"
ewarn "Since it won't be used, you will need to stop setting ifnet plugin there."

I modified NetworkManager.conf to contain the following:

[main]
plugins=keyfile
dhcp=dhcpcd
no-auto-default=eth0

[keyfile]
hostname=meshedgedx

Note that the ifnet plug-in was not specified in the plugins list in the [main] section of my previous NetworkManager.conf so it was not the cause of my problem, but I hoped that adding no-auto-default=eth0 to NetworkManager.conf would solve the problem. I deleted the ‘Wired connection 1′ entry from the plasma-nm GUI, ticked ‘Automatically connect to this network when it is available’ for the ‘eth0′ entry and made sure that option was not ticked for any of the other entries under ‘Available connections‘, then rebooted. There was no longer an entry ‘Wired connection 1′ in the plasma-nm widget GUI, just an entry for ‘eth0′, and the installation connected automatically to the wired network and I could access the Internet, but did not reconnect to the wired network if I removed and reinserted the Ethernet cable when also connected to a wireless network. So I was not home and dry yet.

I have read on various Web sites that NetworkManager prefers wired connections over wireless connections. I assume this is because NetworkManager sets a higher metric for the wired connection.

I am on a work trip at the moment and cannot use a dynamic wired connection, only a static wired connection, but I can see that NetworkManager 1.0.0 does set a higher-priority metric for wired connections:

# # Now with both dynamic wireless and static wired:
# ip route show
default via 10.90.21.1 dev eth0  proto static  metric 100
default via 10.96.0.1 dev wlan0  proto static  metric 600
10.90.21.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.90.21.112  metric 100
10.96.0.0/16 dev wlan0  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.96.87.86
10.96.0.0/16 dev wlan0  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.96.87.86  metric 303
127.0.0.0/8 dev lo  scope host
127.0.0.0/8 via 127.0.0.1 dev lo
192.0.2.1 via 10.96.0.1 dev wlan0  proto dhcp  metric 600
#

10.90.21.1 is the IP address of the gateway for the wired connection, and 10.90.21.112 is the IP address of my laptop’s wired interface. The smaller the metric value, the higher the routing priority. Notice that the metric for the eth0 interface is 100 whereas the metric for the wlan0 interface is 600, so it does appear that NetworkManager favours a wired connection over a wireless connection when both are active.

After doing all the above, I came across Debian bug report no. 755202: network-manager: keeps creating and using new connection “eth0″ that does not work which appears to be exactly what I was experiencing. Various people posted solutions that worked in their particular circumstances, so I am none the wiser. Gentoo user Keivan Moradi posted message no. 79 on that bug report, about a warning message he found in the NetworkManager log file regarding a file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0, and he then deleted the latter file. I found the same message in /var/log/messages:

# grep networkmanager /var/log/messages
Feb  9 04:10:05 localhost NetworkManager[10355]: <warn>      error in connection /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0: invalid connection: connection.type: property is missing
Feb 11 15:53:05 localhost NetworkManager[13143]: <warn>      error in connection /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0: invalid connection: connection.type: property is missing

The file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0 also existed in my installation, so I also deleted it. It was a zero-length file and I do not know if it had anything to do with my problem:

# ls -la /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0
-rw------- 1 root root 0 Jan 20 00:09 /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0
# rm /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0
#

Anyway, the file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0 has not reappeared since I deleted it.

Keivan Moradi had ‘id=Wired‘ under [connection] in the file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0, and he decided to change the name of the file from ‘eth0‘ to ‘Wired‘. However, in my case the file name and the id in the file /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0 are both ‘eth0‘:

# cat /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0
[ethernet]
mac-address=70:5A:B6:3E:C1:8A
mac-address-blacklist=

[connection]
id=eth0
uuid=cb3d5786-f947-44b8-92f7-8471fc94c568
type=ethernet
permissions=
secondaries=

[ipv6]
method=ignore
dns-search=

[ipv4]
method=auto
dns-search=

I had already deleted and recreated the connection ‘eth0′ in the plasma-nm GUI by the time I checked the contents of the directory /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ so I do not know if the original file name and id were the same. I had also already deleted the connection ‘Wired connection 1′ in the plasma-nm GUI by the time I checked the contents of the directory; presumably files for connections ‘Wired connection 1′ and ‘eth0′ both existed in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ before then. I do not know why the zero-length file .keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0 was created, but no further files have appeared in the directory since I deleted the connection ‘Wired connection 1′ and the file .keep_net-misc_networkmanager-0.

Keivan Moradi was also previously using a buggy r8169 kernel module (Realtek Ethernet hardware) and switched to using the r8168 module, but I am using a Qualcomm Atheros AR8131 Gigabit Ethernet card and an Intel Corporation Ultimate N WiFi Link 5300 card, so that part of his problem cannot be a factor in my case.

Anyway, as I wrote earlier, I no longer have two connection entries for the wired interface, and NetworkManager no longer creates automatically a second connection entry for the wired interface. And now if I am already connected to a wireless network, NetworkManager connects/reconnects automatically to a wired network with the ‘Automatically connect’ option ticked. So it looks like my problem is completely solved, although I reserve judgement until I have been able to use the laptop in my home network (which has the same router for both wired and wireless connections, whereas the wired network and wireless network are separate networks in the office in which I am now working).

Conclusion

If you had the patience to read all the above, I am impressed! If you also understood it, I am doubly impressed!

To cut a long story short, if you are experiencing a similar problem to mine, I recommend you do the following:

  1. Check that your network driver is reliable. You can search the Web to see if other users have experienced problems with the same driver you are using.

  2. Make sure the contents of NetworkManager.conf are correct. Read the NetworkManager.conf man page and the GNOME Wiki page on NetworkManager settings to find out what options are available.

  3. Delete all the files (i.e. including hidden files) in the directory /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ and recreate your connections via either the NetworkManager GUI (e.g. plasma-nm in KDE or nm-applet in GNOME) or NetworkManager TUI (nmtui).

References

  1. man NetworkManager.conf
  2. Gentoo Linux Wiki – NetworkManager
  3. GNOME Wiki – NetworkManager SystemSettings – Configuration Plugins
  4. Gentoo NetworkManager Plugin
  5. Another Gentoo Dev – Ifnet updates for NetworkManager 0.9

UPDATE (March 10, 2015): Well, I was right to reserve judgement until I was able to use my laptop with my home network. I am now back at home and an Ethernet cable is plugged into my laptop’s RJ45 socket. Even with the changes I made, when I boot the laptop NetworkManager sometimes (but not always) has two connections named ‘eth0′, one of them the ‘Active connection’ (but not able to connect to the Internet) and the other an ‘Available connection’. In this situation the wired network icon on the Panel has a yellow question mark superimposed. If I delete the ‘eth0′ active connection and use the other ‘eth0′, the latter works as expected and I have no trouble connecting to the Internet. In Debian bug report no. 755202 (see the link further up) user Frederik Himpe added a comment on March 4, 2015 that he is also still experiencing this problem and “It looks like there is a race somewhere, causing the network interface to be brought up before Network Manager is started, and this prevents correct configuration by NM”. So the problem is still unresolved. Hmm … I wonder if udev does have something to do with it after all.

UPDATE (March 12, 2015): The problem persists. I disabled use of IPv6 in /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf to see if the Avahi daemon has something to do with the problem, but that made no difference. Later I also disabled use of IPv4 in /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf, but that made no difference either. So it looks like the Avahi daemon is not the culprit. Checking via the plasma-nm GUI I notice that the ‘rogue’ eth0 Active connection has IPv4 disabled and IPv6 Link-Local enabled. So why is NetworkManager creating a second eth0 connection just for IPv6 Link-Local? And why on Earth is NetworkManager creating any additional connection at all when NetworkManager.conf contains no-auto-default=eth0? Surely this must be a bug in NetworkManager 1.0.0?

UPDATE (March 17, 2015): I have been investigating the problem further: see my latest blog post for details.

Preventing a DNS Leak and WebRTC Leak when using Tor in Linux

Background

I have added to my 2011 Tor post a note on how to avoid a DNS Leak and WebRTC Leak, but am repeating it here in a new post, along with a Bash script that can be used to toggle the relevant Firefox user preferences before and after using Firefox with Tor, which makes the process easier.

The original eleven steps I gave in my above-mentioned post will not prevent the so-called DNS Leak problem. If your Web browser is not configured correctly it will still use your ISP’s DNS servers instead of the DNS servers favoured by Tor, in which case your ISP will know which sites you are accessing. See What is a DNS leak? for details. Reference 1 at the end of this post is a link to an article about DNS leakage, and Reference 2 is a link to an article on the Tor Browser, a browser designed to help avoid DNS leakage.

Furthermore, now that WebRTC is incorporated in some browsers, a ‘WebRTC Leak‘ is also possible if you have not configured your browser correctly.

Using the Tor Browser

Instead of performing Steps 1 to 11 in my original Tor post, download the Tor Browser, unpack it (no installation is required) and use that browser. Reference 3 below is a link to the download page, and Reference 4 below is a link to the instructions on how to unpack the tarball and launch the browser.

If you want even more security, you could instead download the ISO for the Tails Linux distribution, burn a LiveDVD or LivePenDrive — see my post Help for Windows users: How to create a Linux LiveCD, LiveDVD or LivePenDrive from an ISO file if you don’t know how to do that — and launch the browser from a Live Environment.

Using Tor with Firefox

However, if you still want to use the method I gave in my original Tor post then you could try all the additional steps given below to stop DNS leakage and WebRTC leakage.

  1. Use the OpenDNS servers instead of your ISP’s DNS servers. That will not help, though, if your ISP is using a Transparent DNS Proxy.
  2. Make the following changes to the preferences in Firefox (enter about:config in the Firefox address bar):
    Preference Name                       Status   Type     Value
    network.dns.disableIPv6               default  boolean  false  Change to true
    network.dns.disablePrefetch           default  boolean  false  Change to true
    network.proxy.socks_remote_dns        default  boolean  false  Change to true
    browser.safebrowsing.enabled          default  boolean  true   Change to false
    browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled  default  boolean  true   Change to false
    media.peerconnection.enabled          default  boolean  true   Change to false
    

    (When you have finished using Tor, set media.peerconnection.enabled back to true if you want to use WebRTC. If you also want Firefox to warn you of phishing Web sites and Web sites that download malware, also set browser.safebrowsing.enabled and browser.safebrowsing.enabled back to true after you have finished using Tor.)

    You may be wondering why I disable IPv6 DNS requests. It is because some IPv6-capable DNS servers may return an IPv4 address when an IPv6 address is requested. I disable the two ‘safe browsing’ preferences because, if enabled, they cause Firefox to compare visited URLs against a remotely-stored blacklist or submit URLs to a third party to determine whether a site is legitimate, and I don’t want the possibility of Firefox contacting other sites outside Tor or trying to find an IP address for a URL. The PeerConnection preference relates to WebRTC, and I disable that to stop Firefox contacting STUN servers (see Reference 5 below).

  3. Test if there is still leakage by visiting the DNS leak test Web site and clicking on the Standard test button, and visiting the IP/DNS Detect site.

Furthermore, do not forget to use a Private Browsing window in Firefox.

Automate the editing of Firefox user preferences

Using about:config to change the user preferences in Firefox is laborious, so I created a Bash script edit_firefox.sh to toggle the relevant user preferences:

#!/bin/bash
# Script to change Firefox user preferences rather than
# using about:config from within Firefox.
# Make sure you only run this script when Firefox is not running.
#
FILE="/home/fitzcarraldo/.mozilla/firefox/fm8q09x0.default/prefs.js"
#
#
STATE=$(grep media.peerconnection.enabled $FILE | cut -c 43- | cut -d')' -f1)
if ! grep -q media.peerconnection.enabled $FILE ; then
  echo 'user_pref("media.peerconnection.enabled", false);' >> $FILE
  echo 'Added media.peerconnection.enabled false (secure) to prefs.js'
elif [ $STATE = "true" ]; then
     sed -i s/^.*media.peerconnection.enabled.*$/'user_pref("media.peerconnection.enabled", false);'/ $FILE
     echo 'media.peerconnection.enabled changed to false (secure) in prefs.js'
  else
     sed -i s/^.*media.peerconnection.enabled.*$/'user_pref("media.peerconnection.enabled", true);'/ $FILE
     echo 'media.peerconnection.enabled changed to true (not secure) in prefs.js'
fi
#
STATE=$(grep browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled $FILE | cut -c 51- | cut -d')' -f1)
if ! grep -q browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled $FILE ; then
  echo 'user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled", false);' >> $FILE
  echo 'Added browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled false (secure) to prefs.js'
elif [ $STATE = "true" ]; then
     sed -i s/^.*browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled.*$/'user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled", false);'/ $FILE
     echo 'browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled changed to false (secure) in prefs.js'
  else
     sed -i s/^.*browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled.*$/'user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled", true);'/ $FILE
     echo 'browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled changed to true (not secure) in prefs.js'
fi
#
STATE=$(grep browser.safebrowsing.enabled $FILE | cut -c 43- | cut -d')' -f1)
if ! grep -q browser.safebrowsing.enabled $FILE ; then
  echo 'user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.enabled", false);' >> $FILE
  echo 'Added browser.safebrowsing.enabled false (secure) to prefs.js'
elif [ $STATE = "true" ]; then
     sed -i s/^.*browser.safebrowsing.enabled.*$/'user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.enabled", false);'/ $FILE
     echo 'browser.safebrowsing.enabled changed to false (secure) in prefs.js'
  else
     sed -i s/^.*browser.safebrowsing.enabled.*$/'user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.enabled", true);'/ $FILE
     echo 'browser.safebrowsing.enabled changed to true (not secure) in prefs.js'
fi
#
STATE=$(grep network.proxy.socks_remote_dns $FILE | cut -c 45- | cut -d')' -f1)
if ! grep -q network.proxy.socks_remote_dns $FILE ; then
  echo 'user_pref("network.proxy.socks_remote_dns", true);' >> $FILE
  echo 'Added network.proxy.socks_remote_dns true (secure) to prefs.js'
elif [ $STATE = "true" ]; then
     sed -i s/^.*network.proxy.socks_remote_dns.*$/'user_pref("network.proxy.socks_remote_dns", false);'/ $FILE
     echo 'network.proxy.socks_remote_dns changed to false (not secure) in prefs.js'
  else
     sed -i s/^.*network.proxy.socks_remote_dns.*$/'user_pref("network.proxy.socks_remote_dns", true);'/ $FILE
     echo 'network.proxy.socks_remote_dns changed to true (secure) in prefs.js'
fi
#
STATE=$(grep network.dns.disablePrefetch $FILE | cut -c 42- | cut -d')' -f1)
if ! grep -q network.dns.disablePrefetch $FILE ; then
  echo 'user_pref("network.dns.disablePrefetch", true);' >> $FILE
  echo 'Added network.dns.disablePrefetch true (secure) to prefs.js'
elif [ $STATE = "true" ]; then
     sed -i s/^.*network.dns.disablePrefetch.*$/'user_pref("network.dns.disablePrefetch", false);'/ $FILE
     echo 'network.dns.disablePrefetch changed to false (not secure) in prefs.js'
  else
     sed -i s/^.*network.dns.disablePrefetch.*$/'user_pref("network.dns.disablePrefetch", true);'/ $FILE
     echo 'network.dns.disablePrefetch changed to true (secure) in prefs.js'
fi
#
STATE=$(grep network.dns.disableIPv6 $FILE | cut -c 38- | cut -d')' -f1)
if ! grep -q network.dns.disableIPv6 $FILE ; then
  echo 'user_pref("network.dns.disableIPv6", true);' >> $FILE
  echo 'Added network.dns.disableIPv6 true (secure) to prefs.js'
elif [ $STATE = "true" ]; then
     sed -i s/^.*network.dns.disableIPv6.*$/'user_pref("network.dns.disableIPv6", false);'/ $FILE
     echo 'network.dns.disableIPv6 changed to false (not secure) in prefs.js'
  else
     sed -i s/^.*network.dns.disableIPv6.*$/'user_pref("network.dns.disableIPv6", true);'/ $FILE
     echo 'network.dns.disableIPv6 changed to true (secure) in prefs.js'
fi

You will need to change the path to the Firefox prefs.js file in the sixth line of the script, to suit your installation. If you have the utility mlocate installed you can find the file easily by using the command:

$ locate prefs.js | grep firefox

You will also need to make the script executable:

$ chmod +x edit_firefox.sh

You can see below how the script works:

$ ./edit_firefox.sh
media.peerconnection.enabled changed to false (secure) in prefs.js
browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled changed to false (secure) in prefs.js
browser.safebrowsing.enabled changed to false (secure) in prefs.js
network.proxy.socks_remote_dns changed to true (secure) in prefs.js
network.dns.disablePrefetch changed to true (secure) in prefs.js
network.dns.disableIPv6 changed to true (secure) in prefs.js
$ ./edit_firefox.sh
media.peerconnection.enabled changed to true (not secure) in prefs.js
browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled changed to true (not secure) in prefs.js
browser.safebrowsing.enabled changed to true (not secure) in prefs.js
network.proxy.socks_remote_dns changed to false (not secure) in prefs.js
network.dns.disablePrefetch changed to false (not secure) in prefs.js
network.dns.disableIPv6 changed to false (not secure) in prefs.js
$

Procedure to use Tor

So, if I am not using the Tor Browser, in summary I do the following (refer to my 2011 Tor post for the details):

  1. Launch Polipo from a Konsole window.
  2. Launch Vidalia from a Konsole window.
  3. Launch edit_firefox.sh to make sure the relevant user preferences are set securely.
  4. Launch Firefox and change the network settings to enable use of Polipo and Vidalia.
  5. Launch a Firefox Private Browsing window and close the original window.
  6. Visit TorCheck at Xenobite.eu, What Is My IP Address?, DNS leak test and IP/DNS Detect to be sure I am using Tor and that there is no DNS leak or WebRTC leak.

The router provided by my ISP does not allow me to change its DNS server settings. Using the router’s Web browser interface I was able to view the IP addresses of the DNS servers the router uses (Whois Lookup is a good place to check to whom an IP address belongs), and they are indeed owned by the ISP. However, the leak test Web sites I mention above show me that there is no DNS leakage to the ISP’s DNS servers when I have performed all the steps above.

When I have finished using Tor, I do the following:

  1. Exit Firefox.
  2. Stop Tor from the Vidalia GUI, exit Vidalia and end the Konsole session.
  3. Stop Polipo and end the Konsole session.
  4. Launch edit_firefox.sh to set the relevant user preferences back to their original settings.
  5. Launch Firefox and change the network settings back to the original settings.

References

1. Preventing Tor DNS Leaks
2. Tor new advice (February 2014)
3. Download Tor Browser
4. Linux Instructions for Tor Browser
5. New Browser Based Flaw Leaks VPN Users’ IP Addresses

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