Work-around in Linux to switch between single-sided and double-sided printing

I use Gentoo Linux on my laptop, and have drivers installed for quite a few printer manufacturers and models, as I work in multiple offices and they have a wide range of printers and MFPs. To date I have had no trouble printing single-sided (‘simplex’) and double-sided (‘duplex’) documents on the printers that support duplex printing. However, one of the offices I have been working in recently has a Konica Minolta bizhub C368, a floor-standing MFP, and the printer in this MFP did not enable me to switch between single-sided and double-sided printing even though Windows users in the same office could. This article explains how I managed to switch between the two printing modes.

A Linux driver for the bizhub C368 can be downloaded from the Konica Minolta Download Centre. I downloaded the tarball KMbeuUXv1_22_multi_language.tar.gz, extracted the contents to the directory ~/KMbeuUXv1_22_multi_language/ and followed the instructions in ‘BEU Linux CUPS Driver Guide.pdf‘:

user $ cd ~/KMbeuUXv1_22_multi_language
user $ su
root # ./
root # rc-service cupsd restart

I then used the CUPS Administration page in a browser window to set up the printer.

As I wanted the printer to be the default printer while I was working in that office, I edited the system-wide and user-specific lpoptions files to contain the printer name I had specified to CUPS when setting up the printer:

user $ cat ~/.cups/lpoptions
Default Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368
root # cat /etc/cups/lpoptions
Default Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368

I was then able to print from all the usual applications, except that the applications could only select single-sided printing, even though the printer supports double-sided printing and Windows users in the office could print double-sided. I could not find a setting for this in the CUPS Manager’s ‘Set Default Options’ page for the printer, so I edited the PPD file to change the relevant default option:

root # nano /etc/cups/ppd/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd

I changed the default printing option from:

*DefaultKMDuplex: 1Sided


*DefaultKMDuplex: 2Sided

Then I could print double-sided pages, but selecting ‘single-sided’ in applications would still print double-sided. Now, I don’t know if there is a proper fix for this, but I could not find out how to do it. Therefore I opted for a work-around which is fine for my purposes. Here is what I did…

I created the shell script ~/ containing the following:

echo "Konica Minolta bizhub C368 printer"
echo "Select single-sided or double-sided printing as the default"
# Get the password entry over and done with now
echo "Enter your user account password."
sudo ls > /dev/null
while [[ $CHOICE != "X" && $CHOICE != "x" ]]; do
    if [[ $CHOICE != "X" && $CHOICE != "x" ]]; then
        echo -n "[1]-sided, [2]-sided or e[X]it : "
        read -n1 CHOICE
    case $CHOICE in
        [1] ) sudo cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd.single-sided /etc/cups/ppd/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd
              echo "Single-sided printing has been selected"
        [2] ) sudo cp /home/fitzcarraldo/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd.double-sided /etc/cups/ppd/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.ppd
              echo "Double-sided printing has been selected"
        [Xx] ) echo; exit;;
        * ) echo; echo " Enter '1', '2' or 'X/x'"

I created the Desktop Configuration File ~/Desktop/Konica_Minolta_bizhub_C368.desktop containing the following:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Select single-sided or double-sided printing for Konica Minolta bizhub C368
Comment=Select single-sided or double-sided printing for Konica Minolta bizhub C368
Exec=konsole -e sh /home/fitzcarraldo/
GenericName[en_GB]=Select printing sides for KM bizhub C368
GenericName=Select printing sides for KM bizhub C368

I downloaded a Konica Minolta logo from the Web and used it for the icon for the Desktop Configuration File.

And finally I copied the PPD file to two files and edited them:


which includes *DefaultKMDuplex: 1Sided


which includes *DefaultKMDuplex: 2Sided

Now, if I want to switch between single-sided and double-sided printing I just double-click on the icon on my Desktop and a terminal window pops-up allowing me to select the new default:

Konica Minolta bizhub C368 printer

Select single-sided or double-sided printing as the default

Enter your user account password.

[1]-sided, [2]-sided or e[X]it :

Migrating to libglvnd in Gentoo Linux on a laptop with NVIDIA Optimus

In a 2015 post I described how I configured my Gentoo Linux installation to switch between the closed-source NVIDIA driver and the open-source Intel driver on a Clevo W230SS laptop that has NVIDIA Optimus hardware (NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU plus Intel HD 4600 IGP). I did not want to use Bumblebee, preferring to use only the NVIDIA driver or only the Intel driver, switching between them by running a Bash script then logging out of KDE Plasma and back in again. Basically, the scheme a) swapped the xorg.conf file depending on which driver I wanted to use, and b) used the eselect opengl command to select the applicable OpenGL library. The latest versions of the files in my scheme are listed below if you’re interested (I use LightDM instead of KDM these days, as KDM is no more), otherwise just skip to the section after, titled ‘Migrating to libglvnd’.

Previous scheme using eselect opengl


[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Run a script to configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU when you restart X Windows
Comment=Run a script to configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU when you restart X Windows
Exec=konsole -e sh /home/fitzcarraldo/
GenericName[en_GB]=Configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU
GenericName=Configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU


echo "Your installation is currently configured to use the following graphics processor:"
GPU=`eselect opengl list | grep \* | awk '{ print $2 }'`
if [ "$GPU" = "nvidia" ]; then
  echo "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M"
  echo "You do not need to do anything. Please close this window."
elif [ "$GPU" = "xorg-x11" ]; then
  echo "Intel HD 4600 Integrated Graphics Processor"
  echo "This script will configure your installation to use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M GPU all the time."
  echo "Enter your own password."
  sudo eselect opengl set nvidia
# See separate configuration of LightDM for NVIDIA GPU and Intel HD Graphics.
  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf.nvidia /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  echo "Now you should logout to restart X Windows."
echo -n "Press ENTER to end: "


Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier     "Layout0"
    Screen      1  "nvidia" 0 0
    Inactive       "intel"

Section "Monitor"
    Identifier     "Monitor0"
    Option         "DPMS"
    Option         "DPI" "96 x 96"

Section "Device"
    Identifier     "nvidia"
    Driver         "nvidia"
    BusID          "PCI:1:0:0"

Section "Device"
    Identifier     "intel"
    Driver         "modesetting"
    BusID          "PCI:0:2:0"

Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "nvidia"
    Device         "nvidia"
    Monitor        "Monitor0"
    DefaultDepth    24
    Option         "UseDisplayDevice" "none"
    SubSection     "Display"
        Depth       24
        Virtual     1920 1080

Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "intel"
    Device         "intel"
    Monitor        "Monitor0"


[Desktop Entry]
Comment[en_GB]=Run a script to configure your installation to use Intel Integrated Graphics when you restart X Windows
Comment=Run a script to configure your installation to use Intel Integrated Graphics when you restart X Windows
Exec=konsole -e sh /home/fitzcarraldo/
GenericName[en_GB]=Configure your installation to use Intel HD Graphics
GenericName=Configure your installation to use Intel HD Graphics
Name[en_GB]=Intel HD Graphics
Name=Intel HD Graphics


echo "Your installation is currently configured to use the following graphics processor:"
GPU=`eselect opengl list | grep \* | awk '{ print $2 }'`
if [ "$GPU" = "xorg-x11" ]; then
  echo "Intel HD 4600 Integrated Graphics Processor"
  echo "You do not need to do anything. Please close this window."
elif [ "$GPU" = "nvidia" ]; then
  echo "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 860M"
  echo "This script will configure your installation to use the"
  echo "Intel HD 4600 Integrated Graphics Controller all the time."
  echo "Enter your own password."
  sudo eselect opengl set xorg-x11
# See separate configuration of LightDM for Intel HD Graphics and NVIDIA GPU.
  sudo cp /etc/X11/ /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  echo "Now you should logout to restart X Windows."
echo -n "Press ENTER to end: "


Section "Device" 
   Identifier  "Intel Graphics" 
   Driver      "intel" 
   Option      "AccelMethod" "sna" 
   Option      "TearFree" "true" 


Section "Files"
        ModulePath "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
        ModulePath "/usr/lib64/xorg/modules"

/etc/X11/Sessions/plasma (used by LightDM)

# Make sure the following is in /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf
# display-setup-script=/etc/X11/Sessions/plasma
GPU=`eselect opengl list | grep \* | awk '{ print $2 }'`
if [ "$GPU" = "nvidia" ]; then
    xrandr --setprovideroutputsource modesetting NVIDIA-0
    xrandr --auto

Migrating to libglvnd

Well, the above scheme worked fine… until the recent decision by the Gentoo Linux developers to drop the app-eselect/eselect-opengl ebuild and switch the x11-base/xorg-server, media-libs/mesa and x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers to using the libglvnd library:

This package is masked and could be removed soon!
The mask comment indicates that this package is scheduled for removal from our package repository.
Please review the mask information below for more details.

Replaced by media-libs/libglvnd. Masked for removal in 30 days. Bug #728286

Affected packages	app-eselect/eselect-opengl

Author/Date		Matt Turner  (2020-08-11 00:00:00 +0000 UTC)

Without the eselect opengl command, my scripts were scuppered. So I decided to bite the bullet and switch to using libglvnd. It turned out not to be difficult, and I took the following steps to migrate:

  1. Deleted the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  2. Created the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/01-nvidia-offload.conf containing the following:
    Section "ServerLayout"
        Identifier "layout"
        Option "AllowNVIDIAGPUScreens"
  3. Performed the usual ‘emerge -uvDN @world‘ to update and upgrade the relevant packages, which automatically unmerged app-eselect/eselect-opengl

If I had run into trouble with the installed app-eselect/eselect-opengl blocking the upgrade, I could have worked around that by doing the following:

root # emerge -C eselect-opengl
root # emerge -1v nvidia-drivers mesa xorg-server xorg-drivers

I removed all references to the libglvnd USE flag from /etc/portage/make.conf, and the only place libglvnd is declared explicitly now is in the file /etc/portage/package.use/world because I have a multilib installation:

root # grep libglvnd /etc/portage/package.*/*
/etc/portage/package.use/world:>=media-libs/libglvnd-1.3.1 abi_x86_32

The status of the applicable packages in my installation is now as follows:

root # eix -I nvidia-drivers
[I] x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers
     Available versions:  [M]340.108-r1(0/340)^mtd ~390.132-r4(0/390)^mtd 390.138-r1(0/390)^mtd 435.21-r6(0/435)^mtd 440.100-r2(0/440)^mtd 450.57-r1(0/450)^mtd {+X compat (+)driver gtk3 +kms +libglvnd multilib static-libs +tools uvm wayland ABI_MIPS="n32 n64 o32" ABI_RISCV="lp64 lp64d" ABI_S390="32 64" ABI_X86="32 64 x32" KERNEL="FreeBSD linux"}
     Installed versions:  450.57-r1(0/450)^mtd(22:04:56 14/08/20)(X driver kms libglvnd multilib tools wayland -compat -gtk3 -static-libs -uvm ABI_MIPS="-n32 -n64 -o32" ABI_RISCV="-lp64 -lp64d" ABI_S390="-32 -64" ABI_X86="32 64 -x32" KERNEL="linux -FreeBSD")
     Description:         NVIDIA Accelerated Graphics Driver

root # eix -I mesa
[I] media-libs/mesa
     Available versions:  20.0.8^t ~20.1.4^t ~20.1.5^t ~20.2.0_rc1^t ~20.2.0_rc2^t **9999*l^t {+X +classic d3d9 debug +dri3 +egl +gallium +gbm gles1 +gles2 +libglvnd +llvm lm-sensors opencl osmesa selinux test unwind vaapi valgrind vdpau vulkan vulkan-overlay wayland xa xvmc zink +zstd ABI_MIPS="n32 n64 o32" ABI_RISCV="lp64 lp64d" ABI_S390="32 64" ABI_X86="32 64 x32" KERNEL="linux" VIDEO_CARDS="freedreno i915 i965 intel iris lima nouveau panfrost r100 r200 r300 r600 radeon radeonsi v3d vc4 virgl vivante vmware"}
     Installed versions:  20.0.8^t(22:03:42 14/08/20)(X classic dri3 egl gallium gbm gles2 libglvnd llvm wayland zstd -d3d9 -debug -gles1 -lm-sensors -opencl -osmesa -selinux -test -unwind -vaapi -valgrind -vdpau -vulkan -vulkan-overlay -xa -xvmc ABI_MIPS="-n32 -n64 -o32" ABI_RISCV="-lp64 -lp64d" ABI_S390="-32 -64" ABI_X86="32 64 -x32" KERNEL="linux" VIDEO_CARDS="i965 intel -freedreno -i915 -iris -lima -nouveau -panfrost -r100 -r200 -r300 -r600 -radeon -radeonsi -vc4 -virgl -vivante -vmware")
     Description:         OpenGL-like graphic library for Linux

[I] x11-apps/mesa-progs
     Available versions:  8.4.0 **9999*l {egl gles2}
     Installed versions:  8.4.0(13:53:51 02/05/19)(-egl -gles2)
     Description:         Mesa's OpenGL utility and demo programs (glxgears and glxinfo)

Found 2 matches
root # eix -I xorg-server
[I] x11-base/xorg-server
     Available versions:  1.20.8-r1(0/1.20.8) **9999(0/9999)*l {debug dmx doc +elogind ipv6 kdrive +libglvnd libressl minimal selinux static-libs suid systemd +udev unwind wayland xcsecurity xephyr xnest xorg xvfb}
     Installed versions:  1.20.8-r1(0/1.20.8)(22:07:21 14/08/20)(elogind ipv6 libglvnd udev wayland xorg -debug -dmx -doc -kdrive -libressl -minimal -selinux -static-libs -suid -systemd -unwind -xcsecurity -xephyr -xnest -xvfb)
     Description:         X.Org X servers

root # eix -I xorg-drivers
[I] x11-base/xorg-drivers
     Available versions:  1.20-r2 **9999*l {INPUT_DEVICES="elographics evdev joystick libinput synaptics vmmouse void wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="amdgpu ast dummy fbdev freedreno geode glint i915 i965 intel mga nouveau nv nvidia omap qxl r128 radeon radeonsi siliconmotion tegra vc4 vesa via virtualbox vmware"}
     Installed versions:  1.20-r2(22:05:41 14/08/20)(INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics -elographics -joystick -libinput -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="i965 intel nvidia -amdgpu -ast -dummy -fbdev -freedreno -geode -glint -i915 -mga -nouveau -nv -omap -qxl -r128 -radeon -radeonsi -siliconmotion -tegra -vc4 -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware")
     Description:         Meta package containing deps on all xorg drivers

I can now delete the line display-setup-script=/etc/X11/Sessions/plasma in /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf, and delete the script /etc/X11/Sessions/plasma, as the script no longer works and the xrandr commands in it are no longer necessary in any case. The files and scripts Select_NVIDIA_GPU.desktop,, xorg.conf.nvidia, Select_Intel_HD_Graphics.desktop, and are also redundant now and can be deleted.

After rebooting, the LightDM login screen appears as usual and I can login to the Desktop Environment. I can connect an external monitor to the laptop via either VGA cable or HDMI cable and both methods work, and I can switch between the laptop monitor and the external monitor using KDE Plasma’s ‘System Settings’ > ‘Display Configuration’, so everything appears to be working correctly.

The command xrandr --listproviders (add ‘--verbose‘ to provide more information) lists both the NVIDIA and Intel video devices, so I assume everything is working correctly:

user $ xrandr --listproviders
Providers: number : 2
Provider 0: id: 0x47 cap: 0xb, Source Output, Sink Output, Sink Offload crtcs: 4 outputs: 4 associated providers: 0 name:Intel
Provider 1: id: 0x203 cap: 0x0 crtcs: 0 outputs: 0 associated providers: 0 name:NVIDIA-G0

It appears that the default is to use the Intel IGP:

user $ glxinfo | grep -E 'OpenGL (vendor|renderer)'
OpenGL vendor string: Intel Open Source Technology Center
OpenGL renderer string: Mesa DRI Intel(R) HD Graphics 4600 (HSW GT2)
user $ __NV_PRIME_RENDER_OFFLOAD_PROVIDER=Intel __GLX_VENDOR_LIBRARY_NAME=mesa glxinfo  | grep -E 'OpenGL (vendor|renderer)'
OpenGL vendor string: Intel Open Source Technology Center
OpenGL renderer string: Mesa DRI Intel(R) HD Graphics 4600 (HSW GT2)

unless I use environment variables explicitly to specify that the NVIDIA GPU be used for a specific application:

user $ __NV_PRIME_RENDER_OFFLOAD_PROVIDER=NVIDIA-G0 __GLX_VENDOR_LIBRARY_NAME=nvidia glxinfo  | grep -E 'OpenGL (vendor|renderer)'
OpenGL vendor string: NVIDIA Corporation
OpenGL renderer string: GeForce GTX 860M/PCIe/SSE2

Performance seems reasonable:

27197 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5439.292 FPS
27332 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5466.274 FPS
27857 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5571.184 FPS
27553 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5510.447 FPS
27128 frames in 5.0 seconds = 5425.556 FPS

To run a program such as LibreCAD using the NVIDIA GPU I can do the following:


I need to play around more to understand how to use nvidia-drivers and libglvnd with the NVIDIA Optimus hardware in this laptop, but at least I have managed to migrate from app-eselect/eselect-opengl to media-libs/libglvnd before the former is dropped from the Portage tree in the near future.

That UPS you bought for your home server may not be as useful as you think

Some years ago I decided to install a server at home for use as a NAS (network-attached storage) in my home network, and for an Internet-facing server. I live in a place where blackouts are very infrequent (perhaps a couple per year), but occasionally the mains drops out for only a second or two. I suspect these very short dropouts occur when substation switchgear operates, but have no way of being sure. Anyway, with a server running 24/7 I obviously wanted protection against any loss of the mains supply.

I ended up buying a 700VA APC Back-UPS ES-BE700G-UK, which has four mains sockets that are battery-backed and also have surge protection, plus another four mains sockets that have surge protection but are not battery-backed. Additionally, it has two RJ45 sockets to provide pass-through filtering for an Ethernet connection. It also has a USB port for connection to the server so that it can transmit unsolicited status information to the server (including requesting the server to shutdown) and can also be interrogated by the server using the apcaccess command. The APC UPS daemon works with this model of UPS, and was relatively easy to set up. APC, formerly American Power Conversion Corporation, is a subsidiary of European company Schneider Electric. My UPS was manufactured in The Philippines.

I have three devices plugged into the battery-backed sockets on the APC UPS: the server, an external 6TB USB HDD connected to the server for automated daily backups by the server, and a 5-port Ethernet switch. The battery in the UPS would provide between 15 and 20 minutes of power when the mains fails, although I have configured the UPS to trigger the server to shutdown when 30 per cent of the battery power remains, as battery life is reduced considerably if its power is allowed to drain completely. In case you’re wondering why my router is not also plugged into the UPS, due to the position of the broadband provider’s socket the router is in a different room and I have therefore had to connect it to a different UPS, an iLEPO multi-functional DC UPS (the ECO PLUS 412P, which is tiny but can keep the router powered for several hours). Obviously the router needs to be connected to a UPS, otherwise the server would not be able to send me e-mails when there is a mains power cut. Being able to receive UPS status e-mails from the server is important to me when I am away from home on work trips.

So I thought I had covered all bases, and, indeed, the UPS proved useful on several occasions. I would quite often be on a work trip and receive an e-mail from the server informing me that mains power to the UPS had been lost, then another e-mail soon after informing me that mains power to the UPS had returned. Only once did the power cut last longer than the battery capacity, and the server was shutdown automatically.

Now, the life of the 12-volt lead-acid battery in the APC UPS is supposed to last approximately three to five years. The life will depend on how many times the battery is discharged and ambient temperature.

While I was away from home on a long work trip, suddenly I could no longer connect to my server and I had not received an e-mail from the server informing me of any problem. Luckily it was near the end of my trip so I was not too inconvenienced. When I arrived home I found that the UPS was sounding an alarm and was not supplying power to the server even though there was mains supply to the UPS. It transpired that the UPS battery had suddenly died without warning and could no longer hold a charge, and this had happened while there was mains supply to the UPS, i.e. there had not been a power cut while I was away. Fortunately there was no loss of data on the server; I was able to run fsck during boot-up.

This failure was annoying on two counts. Firstly, the battery was only about thirteen months old (the manufacturing date stamped on the UPS box was only two or three months before the date I purchased the UPS). Secondly, I certainly did not expect the UPS to stop supplying power to the server while there was mains supply to the UPS. The APC white paper on UPS topologies, ‘The Different Types of UPS Systems‘, does not make this behaviour clear.

It turns out that the type of UPS topology (‘Standby’ — see the model’s Technical Specifications) in this model of UPS does not continue to provide power to connected equipment when the UPS battery either fails or is disconnected for whatever reason when there is mains power supply to the UPS. A quick search of the Web showed me that I was not alone in discovering this ‘feature’: an APC Back-UPS 350 owner posted ‘UPS Battery Backup — useless when the battery dies?‘.

From what I have read, the so-called ‘Line Interactive’ UPS topology does not suffer this shortcoming, so, the next time I have to buy a UPS for a piece of equipment that requires power 24/7, I will buy a line-interactive UPS rather than a standby UPS. But, before purchasing, I will be sure to ask the manufacturer what the precise model would do if its battery fails or is disconnected while there is mains supply to the UPS. The APC line-interactive UPSs are more expensive than the APC Back-UPS models; now I know why. It’s a pity I was not aware of the shortcoming of the Back-UPS models, as I would have spent more and bought a UPS that continues to work when the battery dies while there is mains supply. I would also hope the UPS would issue an alarm if the battery has failed or is disconnected while there is mains supply. Be sure to ask the manufacturer all these questions if you cannot tolerate a sudden loss of power to your equipment if the battery dies while there is mains supply.

Anyway, after checking that the dead battery was indeed useless I replaced it with a new Yuasa battery that has lasted nearly three years now. I will be replacing it shortly as a precaution, even though it has not had to be used much at all since I installed it. I have not replaced the APC Back-UPS model but I will be replacing the battery at least every three years just to be cautious, and of course taking the old batteries to my local waste disposal centre to be recycled properly. By the way, it is possible to purchase a 12-volt battery manufactured by one of the reputable battery manufacturers such as Yuasa with the same specification as the APC battery, for a significantly lower price than APC charges for replacement batteries (which I suspect are badged by APC in any case).

Updating the Powerline adapters in my home network

I have blogged previously about a couple of problems with using Powerline adapters in my home network:

As my NETGEAR XAV1301 (200 Mbps) Powerline adapters bought in 2012 apparently do not fully support IPv6, and as my NETGEAR XAV5221 (500 Mbps) adapters bought in 2016 are no longer manufactured either, I decided to invest in some new Powerline adapters that would guarantee IPv6 support. My Web searches did not confirm that the current models of NETGEAR Powerline adapters support IPv6, so I decided to try TP-Link Powerline adapters because the TP-Link Web site states that all current TP-Link Powerline adapters support IPv6. I wanted Powerline adapters for five devices (router, smart TV and three computers), plus the ability to use a mains plug on at least two of those (i.e. so-called ‘pass-through’ adapters). I also wanted to avoid buying different models, in order to minimise the possibility of any problems. TP-Link have a range of 600 Mbps adapters under the name ‘AV600’, so I plumped for two TP-PL4010 adapters (single Ethernet port per adapter), one TP-PL4010P adapter (single Ethernet port and one mains pass-through socket) and one TP-PL4020P (two Ethernet ports and one mains pass-through socket). These all use the Qualcomm Atheros QCA7420 Powerline chipset (which happens to be the same chipset used in my old NETGEAR XAV5221 500 Mbps adapters).

Like NETGEAR, TP-Link does not have a Powerline utility program for Linux, so I had to install TP-Link’s tpPLC utility program in Windows 10 running in a VM (virtual machine) in order to configure the four TP-Link adapters and set the ‘Powerline network name’ to avoid crosstalk with my neighbour’s Powerline adapters that use the factory default network name (‘HomePlugAV’).

Anyway, I got everything set up and working, but soon noticed that there were quite frequent dropouts of the connection to my router and the Internet. Some dropouts did occur when I was using the old NETGEAR Powerline adapters, but I was surprised to find that the performance of the new TP-Link adapters was much worse. The dropouts typically lasted a minute or two. This was annoying, to say the least.

I started searching the Web, and ‘TP-Link’ and ‘dropout’ occur together a lot. I had already disabled Power Saving Mode in the adapters, so knew that was not the cause. I happen to know someone who also uses TP-Link adapters, and he mentioned that he also experienced frequent dropouts. In addition to turning off Power Saving Mode, he had implemented a shell script on his machines to ping an Internet site periodically to try and keep the connection from dropping out, but this did not appear to make any difference. I wrote the script below to try the same thing, and it did not cure the dropouts either:

# Script to try to keep the Powerline adapter connected to this machine
# from dropping the connection to the router
while true
    ping -W 2 -c 1 >>/dev/null 2>&1
    if [ $PREVIOUS -ne 0 ] && [ $STATUS -eq 0 ]; then
        logger "Ping successful: connection to Internet is up."
#        echo "Ping successful: connection to Internet is up."
    elif [ $PREVIOUS -eq 0 ] && [ $STATUS -ne 0 ]; then
        logger "Ping unsuccessful: connection to Internet may be down."
#        echo "Ping unsuccessful: connection to Internet may be down."
    elif [ $FIRSTPASS -eq 1 ] && [ $STATUS -ne 0 ]; then
        logger "Ping unsuccessful: connection to Internet may be down."
#        echo "Ping unsuccessful: connection to Internet may be down."
    sleep 10

In my Web searches I came across a a thread in the TP-Link SOHO Community forums with a URL for a new version of firmware for TP-Link Powerline adapters that use the Qualcomm Atheros QCA7420 chipset. I learned from the TP-Link forums that the firmware in NVM (Non-Volatile Memory) depends on the chipset manufacturer’s chipset, not on the Powerline manufacturer’s adapter model, whereas the adapter’s PIB (Parameter Information Block) does change depending on the model (including the country). So I started searching online for a PIB file for the three models of TP-Link adapter that I am using, but I could not find them. However, the Linux open-plc-tools command ‘plctool‘ enabled me to read the PIB from each adapter and store it as a file:

user $ sudo plctool -i eth0 -p TL-PA4010P.pib <MAC address printed on the adapter>
user $ sudo plctool -i eth0 -p TL-PA4010_TV.pib <MAC address printed on the adapter>
user $ sudo plctool -i eth0 -p TL-PA4010_HOME-HUB.pib <MAC address printed on the adapter>
user $ sudo plctool -i eth0 -p TL-PA4020P.pib <MAC address printed on the adapter>

The Ethernet interface in the computer I used is named ‘eth0′, so change it accordingly. You can give any name to the PIB files.

It is also easy to find out the adapters’ MAC addresses and current firmware by using another open-plc-tools command:

user $ plcstat -t -i eth0

The TP-Link tpPLC utility for Windows also shows the firmware version. I was surprised to see that the firmware version was different in the three models I had just bought:

  • TL-PA4010P firmware version:
  • TL-PA4010 firmware version:
  • TL-PA4020P firmware version:

The command to update the firmware in an adapter using the NVM file I downloaded from the URL in the above-mentioned TP-Link Community forum thread and the PIB file read from the relevant adapter, is as follows:

user $ sudo plctool -i <interface> -P <PIB file> -N <NVM file> -R <MAC address of adapter>

For example:

user $ sudo plctool -i eth0 -P TL-PA4010P.pib -N FW-QCA7420- -R 15:B3:D2:D8:5F:BA

I am fortunate in that the three models of TP-Link Powerline adapter I bought all use the Qualcomm Atheros QCA7420 chipset, so I could use the same NVM file for all four adapters that I bought. I only needed to repeat the command with a different PIB file for each adapter model. The plcstat command can be used to check that the firmware version is different from the factory original version:

user $ plcstat -t -i eth0

Actually, the tpPLC utility in Windows 10 also has the ability to upload an NVM file and a PIB file to an adapter, so, as I have tpPLC installed in a VM, I can use that instead to update firmware in my TP-Link Powerline adapters.

And what difference did upgrading the firmware in my new TP-Link adapters make? A big difference. There are no more dropouts; the connection is now stable and I no longer get interruptions while browsing the Internet. It’s a pity that TP-Link does not supply every chipset’s latest firmware file and every model’s PIB file on their support Web site so that users can update their Powerline adapters.

Powerline adapters and IPv6

My home network includes a number of devices connected via Powerline (HomePlug) adapters. Back in 2015 I blogged about ‘crosstalk’ between my and my neighbour’s home networks, both of which use Powerline adapters (see my post ‘Waiting for…’ (Why I could not access a home hub’s management page)), which I was able to resolve by changing the encryption key so that it is different to the default key used by my neighbour. Since then the Powerline adapters have worked well. However, an unrelated network problem recently highlighted another problem with my Powerline adapters…

In November last year there was an external fault with the broadband service to my house, so I had to contact my ISP (the company BT) to fix the problem. BT does not use highly-skilled field personnel to diagnose broadband problems; they tend to use a ‘shotgun’ approach to problem solving. Their first attempt was to replace my router, a BT Home Hub 5, which I knew was actually working perfectly. I was not going to argue, though, because they replaced the router with the newest model, a BT Smart Hub 2. Unlike the Home Hub 5, the Smart Hub 2 fully supports IPv6. BT’s broadband network has supported IPv6 for several years (see ISPreview – UPDATE All BT Broadband Lines Now Support IPv6 Internet Addresses) so I was expecting the computers on my home network to be assigned IPv6 addresses, but ‘ifconfig‘ and ‘ip address‘ showed they were not being assigned IPv6 addresses when connected via the Powerline adapters, only when connected to the Smart Hub 2 via Wi-Fi.

All my computers have IPv6 enabled:

$ sudo sysctl -a | grep disable_ipv6
[sudo] password for fitzcarraldo: 
sysctl: net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 0
reading key "net.ipv6.conf.all.stable_secret"
sysctl: reading key "net.ipv6.conf.default.stable_secret"
net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 0
sysctl: reading key "net.ipv6.conf.eno1.stable_secret"
net.ipv6.conf.eno1.disable_ipv6 = 0
sysctl: reading key "net.ipv6.conf.lo.stable_secret"
net.ipv6.conf.lo.disable_ipv6 = 0
sysctl: net.ipv6.conf.wlp2s0.disable_ipv6 = 0
reading key "net.ipv6.conf.wlp2s0.stable_secret"
$ test -f /proc/net/if_inet6 && echo "IPv6 supported" || echo "IPv6 not supported"
IPv6 supported

The fact that the computers on the home network were allocated an IPv6 address when connected to the Smart Hub 2 via Wi-Fi, and that confirmed the BT broadband public network was also allocating an IPv6 address, made me suspect the problem of no IPv6 via the wired network was due to the Powerline adapters.

As more machines were added to my home network over the years, I had to buy more Powerline adapters. In 2014 I bought some NETGEAR XAVB5221 (500 Mbps) Powerline adapters to supplement the superseded model NETGEAR XAVB1301 (200 Mbps) Powerline adapters I bought in 2012. Powerline adapters conforming to the HomePlug AV standard work together, so these had no problem communicating. A schematic diagram of my home network is shown below. To keep things simple, only some of the devices are shown. As you can in the diagram, a NETGEAR XAVB1301 adapter was used to connect the BT Smart Hub 2 to the network; some of the computers were connected via NETGEAR XAVB5221 adapters, and others via NETGEAR XAVB1301 adapters.

Simplified schematic diagram of my original home network

I could find no mention of IPv6 for its Powerline adapters in NETGEAR’s documentation and on the NETGEAR Web site. The NETGEAR user manual for the XAV1301 is dated ‘September 2011’ and it lists, under SPECIFICATIONS, compliance with IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.3u. The data sheet (no user manual available) for the XAVB5221 is dated ‘2014’ and it lists, under SPECIFICATIONS, compliance with IEEE 1901 and IEEE 802.3.

The Wikipedia page for IEEE 1901-2010 mentions IPv6, so support for IPv6 is relevant to the protocol:

“An IETF RFC Draft address the higher layers of the protocol, namely the specifics of passing IPv6 packets over the PHY and MAC layers of PLC [power-line communication] systems like IEEE 1901.”

I think the following draft Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) document must be the latest version of the IETF Draft mentioned on the above-mentioned Wikipedia page for IEEE 1901:

Transmission of IPv6 Packets over PLC Networks

Anyway, all this lead me to wonder if the NETGEAR XAVB1301 does not fully comply with IEEE 1901 and does not support IPv6. So I decided to try connecting the BT Smart Hub 2 to the network via a NETGEAR XAVB5221 adapter instead of the older model XAVB1301, as shown in the schematic diagram below.

Simplified schematic diagram of my latest home network

What I then found was that any computer connected to the network via a NETGEAR XAVB5221 adapter was assigned an IPv6 address in addition to an IPv4 address, and showed public IPv6 and IPv4 addresses in a Web browser on the device. However, any computer connected to the network via a NETGEAR XAVB1301 adapter was assigned an IPv6 address in addition to an IPv4 address but displayed ‘IPv6 not detected’ in a Web browser. So it transpired that NETGEAR XAVB5221 adapters can handle IPv6 but the older XAVB1301 model cannot.

Although not essential, I toyed with the idea of replacing the older NETGEAR XAVB1301 adapters with XAVB5221 adapters, but that model is no longer on sale. The latest available Powerline adapter model from NETGEAR for wired networking is the PL1000 (1000 Mbps). However, its documentation does not mention IPv6 or IEEE 1901, and the following question on the Amazon UK Web site about IPv6 support for the PL1000, and NETGEAR’s answer on 5 May 2020 makes it clear that the PL1000 does not support IPv6:

Question: Does this model support ipv6? netgear xav1301 adapters only support ipv4. my router & pcs support ipv6 but can’t use ipv6 with my xav1301 adapters.

Answer: Thank you for your interest in the NETGEAR PL1000.

The PL1000 supports IPv4.

If you have any questions, you can also check out our NETGEAR Community at any time.

Best regards,

Unlike NETGEAR, the TP-Link Web site makes it clear that all TP-Link Powerline adapters currently on sale support IPv6:

Most frequently asked questions about TP-Link powerline devices – Part3: Other questions about Powerline Device

Q3.12: Can TP-Link Powerline devices transfer IPv6 packets?

A: Yes, all the on sale TP-Link powerline devices can transfer IPv6 packets. Kindly note this is supported by default and does not require any configuration, our powerline products do not have setting entries for IPv6 either.

I also asked someone I know who uses TP-Link Powerline adapters and a BT Smart Hub 2, and he confirmed that the TP-Link adapters can handle IPv6.

Therefore, the bottom line is: if you want to use Powerline adapters and IPv6, avoid buying NETGEAR Powerline adapters and look at other manufacturers’ adapters instead. I have only investigated TP-Link’s adapters, which do support IPv6. A number of other companies also manufacture Powerline adapters, but you would need to check if they support IPv6; if necessary contact the manufacturer to be sure.

Jitsi Meet, my favourite video conferencing platform (and a way to share audio when using it in Linux)

During the current COVID-19 lockdown I have been using video conferencing platforms a lot for family virtual meet-ups, quizzes and multi-player games by Jackbox Games. Zoom seems to be the most popular video conference platform at the moment, although several articles in the media have pointed out some of its security limitations (see, e.g., ‘‘Zoom is malware’: why experts worry about the video conferencing platform‘). Although many people like Zoom, my favourite video conferencing platform is Jitsi Meet.

For an excellent third-party video introduction to Jitsi Meet, watch the video: ‘Using Jitsi: A free, no-registration video conferencing site‘. WIRED Magazine’s recent article on Jitsi Meet is also worth reading: ‘Want to Ditch Zoom? Jitsi Offers an Open-Source Alternative‘.

The reasons I prefer Jitsi Meet to Zoom include the following:

  1. no subscriptions are required to use all the features of Jitsi Meet;
  2. unlike Zoom, Jitsi Meet does not require you to sign up;
  3. unlike Zoom, Jitsi Meet does not require the installation of an application — it runs in Google Chrome or Firefox;
  4. unlike the free version of Zoom, Jitsi Meet does not impose a time limit on the length of the meeting;
  5. unlike the free version of Zoom, Jitsi Meet does not have a limit on the number of meeting attendees;
  6. Jitsi Meet provides end-to-end encryption for one-to-one video calls*;
  7. I find the performance of Jitsi Meet better than Zoom, which seems to be corroborated in basic benchmarking by Jitsi Meet’s developers (‘WebRTC vs. Zoom – A Simple Congestion Test‘);
  8. I find image quality better in Jitsi Meet;
  9. I find Jitsi Meet on a desktop/laptop more intuitive and easier to use than Zoom;
  10. if I share audio in Zoom for Linux, the audio is very distorted**;
  11. I find the UI of the Jitsi Meet app for Android easy to use (the app can be installed via Google Play);
  12. Jitsi Meet is open-source, so anyone can inspect the source code;
  13. if I wanted to, I could download the Jitsi software to my own server and set up a Jitsi Meet server to handle meetings instead of using the Cloud server provided by 8×8, Inc. (the company that develops the Jitsi Meetings software).

* Neither platform currently provides end-to-end encryption for group meetings, although the developers of Jitsi Meet are apparently working on implementing end-to-end encryption for group meetings using a new feature of Google Chrome called ‘Insertable Streams’.

** There is a work-around for this problem in Zoom for Linux; see my answer to the Unix & Linux Stack Exchange question ‘Play audio output as input to Zoom’. In the case of Jitsi Meet in Linux, PulseAudio Volume Control can be used to share audio, as I explain further down.

Jitsi Meet requires no installation; it runs in a browser window. Either Google Chrome or Firefox can be used, although I find it runs better in Google Chrome. Actually, an Ubuntu 16.04 user told me that Firefox hangs when he tries to join a Jitsi Meet meeting, but Jitsi Meet works fine in Firefox in my two Gentoo Linux installations and in my family’s Lubuntu 18.04 installation. When using Google Chrome, to be able to share your screen you need to install the Google Chrome extension ‘Jitsi Meetings’ by in the Google Chrome Web Store.

One of my family here at home has a laptop running Windows 10. Google Chrome, but not Firefox, displays a ‘Share audio’ tick box when the ‘Share your screen’ icon is clicked (see ‘Jitsi Meet features update, April 2020‘). The ‘Share audio’ feature is needed when, for example, you are casting via the Internet to remote players a multi-user game running on your machine. During the current COVID-19 lockdown we have been having fun playing Jackbox Games Party Pack 6 this way with family and friends in different locations (see ‘(My Solution) Best method for Virtual Couch Multiplayer‘). Each household connects a laptop to their TV via HDMI and joins the Jitsi Meet meeting. The Jackbox Games games are cast via Jitsi Meet from the laptop at my house, and the group of players in each household can view and hear the game on their TV and participate using their mobile phones as per the Jackbox Games paradigm.

Jitsi Meet provides a ‘Share audio’ function in Windows only, but I found a work-around to to be able to share any application’s audio in Linux if I ever want to use my Linux machines to cast games by Jackbox Games or other suppliers. For once, I have found PulseAudio useful! I use PulseAudio Volume Control to redirect the audio output from the desired application (be it a game, music player, video player or whatever) to the microphone input. The precise way to do this depends on the audio hardware your machine has, but an example is given in the blog post: ‘Redirect Audio Out to Mic In (Linux)‘.

My family’s desktop machine running Lubuntu 18.04 uses a Webcam with an integral microphone connected via USB, and external powered speakers connected to the machine’s Line Out green-coloured 3.5 mm jack socket. The contents of the tabs in PulseAudio Volume Control when no applications that produce audio are running are shown in the following screenshots:

PulseAudio Volume Control - Configuration

PulseAudio Volume Control - Playback

PulseAudio Volume Control - Recording

PulseAudio Volume Control - Output Devices

PulseAudio Volume Control - Input Devices

I make sure ‘All Streams’ is selected on the ‘Playback’ and ‘Recording’ tabs, ‘All Output Devices’ is selected on the ‘Output Devices’ tab, and ‘All Input Devices’ is selected on the ‘Input Devices’ tab.

Let us say I have launched Audacious to play some music and I want to cast that music to members of a Jitsi Meet meeting. When I am using Jitsi Meet for a meeting in Google Chrome, the contents of the PulseAudio Volume Control tabs on this machine are as follows:

PulseAudio Volume Control - Playback

PulseAudio Volume Control - Recording

PulseAudio Volume Control - Output Devices

PulseAudio Volume Control - Input Devices

To redirect the audio from e.g. Audacious to the meeting members, I select (click on the square button with the green disc and white tick) ‘Monitor of Built-in Audio Analogue Stereo’ on the ‘Input Devices’ tab, and on the ‘Recording’ tab I click on Chrome input: RecordStream from ‘Camera Analogue Mono’ and select Chrome input: RecordStream from ‘Monitor of Built-in Audio Analogue Stereo’, as shown below.

PulseAudio Volume Control - Recording

PulseAudio Volume Control - Input Devices

With the above settings in PulseAudio volume control, all the members of the meeting will be able to hear clearly the audio from Audacious. To switch back to my microphone to speak, I simply click on Chrome input: RecordStream from ‘Monitor of Built-in Audio Analogue Stereo’ on the ‘Recording’ tab and select Chrome input: RecordStream from ‘Camera Analogue Mono’ again.

Installing and using NeXT OPENSTEP in VirtualBox for Linux

Introduction and some history

My first micro computer was an Apple II+, which I used extensively both for work and leisure. In fact I liked it so much that I bought a //e when Apple Computer, Inc. released that model. I was not tempted by the Apple /// or Lisa when they were released, although I did quite fancy the IIGS but could not justify buying one. The //c was a nice portable, and a family member bought one on my recommendation. I was not at all tempted by the first Macintosh and subsequent models using the so-called Classic Mac OS, but I drooled when Steve Jobs founded NeXT, Inc. in 1985 and launched the magnesium-cased NeXT workstations: the cube-shaped NeXT Computer (Motorola 68030 CPU) in 1989 and in 1990 the second generation (Motorola 68040 CPU) NeXTcube and the NeXTstation (commonly referred to as ‘the slab’) running the NEXTSTEP operating system. The hardware build quality and aesthetic were fabulous, and the machines and NEXTSTEP were way ahead of their time. NEXTSTEP, which was built around Unix and therefore fully multi-tasking, looked amazing when compared to the competition and its performance was superior. Drooling was all I could do, though, because the price of any NeXT machine was totally out of my league.

OPENSTEP 4.2 Desktop in a VirtualBox VM

OPENSTEP 4.2 Desktop in a VirtualBox VM.

By the way, Tim Berners-Lee invented HTTP, HTML and the first HTML browser using NEXTSTEP on a NeXTcube at CERN: see The Science Museum, London – The World Wide Web: A global information space.

Following Apple’s acquisition in 1997 of NeXT, which by then was only a software company (NeXT Software, Inc.), Apple developed Mac OS X based on OPENSTEP (the successor to NEXTSTEP). Even today some of the features in macOS are the same as in NEXTSTEP and OPENSTEP: NeXTSTEP vs Mac OS X – System Demo and Comparison. The final release of NEXTSTEP was NEXTSTEP 3.3, succeeded by OPENSTEP, the final release of which was OPENSTEP 4.2. OPENSTEP was effectively NEXTSTEP 4.

So, even though the NeXT company only sold around 50,000 machines during its relatively short existence as a manufacturer between 1988 and 1993, its impact on modern computing has been significant. Below are a few links to interesting videos about the company and some of its products. You’ll find plenty more videos about NeXT on YouTube.

You can still find the occasional second-hand NeXT computer on eBay, but they are either incomplete or very expensive. As I write this there is a complete and pristine-looking NeXTcube system, including (non-working) NeXT laser printer, in Portugal listed on eBay at US$35,000 plus US$750 shipping! So I will never get to play with a real NeXT computer. But, thanks to VirtualBox, I can at least install the i386 release of OPENSTEP 4.2 in a VM (virtual machine) to try it out for fun. I decided to install the OS and the type of applications I would typically use (assuming I could find packages on the Web, that is). I wanted to find out how usable the OS was, how good the applications were, and whether I could access Unix easily from the GUI. As NeXT hardware and software are obsolete I had to spend a lot of time searching the Web for applications that would actually install and work. Some applications work in both NEXTSTEP and OPENSTEP, but plenty of applications have different packages for the two versions of the OS, which made my searches more complicated. Some OPENSTEP packages are so-called ‘fat binaries’ containing executables for some or all the different CPU types that OPENSTEP supported, and I found a few such packages on the Web. I wanted to install and try to use at least a Web browser, a word processor, a spreadsheet, an mp3 player and a video player. I also wanted to see if I could access files on a server on my home network using Samba.

There are quite a few tutorials and videos available on the Web explaining how to install OPENSTEP in a VM, but I did not find any on installing applications in OPENSTEP. Also, many of the OS installation tutorials I found are incomplete, for example not covering either audio or networking. I am not going to give a step-by-step explanation here of how I installed the OS and the applications, but I will explain what I installed, how I rated it, and any other information I found interesting or useful. Hopefully the tips I provide will be of some help if you fancy installing the OS and any applications yourself. I should also mention that you will have an advantage if you are a Unix and/or Linux user and are au fait with using the command line. OPENSTEP 4.2 provides the C Shell (csh). I did come across a package for the Bourne Again Shell (bash), but have not tried to install it. Sometimes I had to resort to the Unix command line to change ownership or permissions of a file and to move applications to folders owned by the root user. The pwd, cd, ls, su, cp, mv, chmod and chown commands came in handy a few times. By the way, unlike Linux the ls -la command does not display the group to which a file belongs, only its owner; you need to use the command ls -lag to show both. Also, the chown command accepts the notation but not owner:group when changing attributes.

Installation of OPENSTEP/Mach 4.2 for Intel i386 in VirtualBox

‘Mach’ refers to the Mach kernel, a microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University. OPENSTEP was available for Motorola 68k, Intel i386 and Sun SPARC CPUs. VirtualBox supports both 32-bit and 64-bit Intel CPUs, so the 32-bit OS can be installed in a VirtualBox 32-bit VM. NEXTSTEP also supported Hewlett-Packard’s PA-RISC CPU, but NeXT dropped support for that CPU in OPENSTEP.

Regarding the spelling of the two OSs, apparently the APIs are spelt ‘NeXTStep’ and ‘OpenStep’, and the OSs are spelt ‘NEXTSTEP’ and ‘OPENSTEP’. Confusing, or what? It’s no wonder these are used interchangeably all over the Web.

I found a reasonable tutorial on the installation of OPENSTEP 4.2, including links to download the image files of the CDROM and floppy disks required. Unlike many tutorials on the Web, it also explains how to get network access working, and I was able to ping other nodes on my home network and the Internet once I had completed the tutorial: ‘Installing NextStep OS (OPENSTEP) in VirtualBox‘. There were only one or two minor differences between the tutorial and what I saw on screen, and installation in VirtualBox for Linux was essentially painless. One of the packages that has to be installed (OS42MachUserPatch4.pkg) includes a Y2K patch for the OS. The tutorial tells you to use the command line to install that package, and I followed the instructions in the tutorial but, having now learned how to install packages via the OPENSTEP GUI by selecting a package and then ‘Services’ > ‘Open Sesame’ > ‘Open As Root’ > ‘Login’ to launch the Installer, I could have used only the GUI instead of the command line to install OS42MachUserPatch4.pkg (which I have checked). No matter, though, because using the OPENSTEP command line in is a good learning exercise. The tutorial does not mention some other things I had to configure in VirtualBox. To get audio working I had to select ‘SoundBlaster 16’ for the Audio Controller, install a driver in OPENSTEP and reboot the VM (see details further on), and under ‘Network’ in VirtualBox Manager I had to select ‘Bridged Adapter, PCnet-PCI II (Am79C970A)’ with ‘Promiscuous Model: Allow All’. I also enabled ‘Serial Ports’ and disabled ‘USB Controller’ (USB had not yet been invented back then!).

The OS installer installs US English support and offers the option of installing support for any of five other languages too: Swedish, Spanish, Italian, German and French. I unticked all those and completed the installation. Later I decided it might be useful to have support for those additional languages, and I found it very easy to install them retrospectively: I simply loaded the OPENSTEP-Install-4.2.iso file into the VM’s ‘optical drive’, browsed the CDROM’s contents, selected and then ‘Workspace’ > ‘File’ > ‘Open as Folder’. I found the language packages (SwedishEssentials.pkg etc.) in the folder ‘NextCD’ > ‘Packages’. I could then select each language package and use ‘Services’ > ‘Open Sesame’ and so on to install it, as explained earlier.

To get sound working in OPENSTEP running in VirtualBox the procedure given in a 2009 tutorial ‘Installation of OPENSTEP 4.2 in VMware 3.0 and VirtualBox‘ miraculously still worked for me:

Audio: Alejandro Diaz Infante (aka astroboy) managed to make the OPENSTEP Sound Blaster driver work under VMWare and VirtualBox.
The solution: use the drivers created by University of Glasgow (Thanks, developer(s) of them, wherever you are, for drivers you never imagined would be so useful in the future).

  1. Download SBSoundMidi.I.b.tar.gz and SBMixer.I.tar.gz
  2. Install SBSoundMidi driver for either Vibra16Cpnp or AWE32pnp. Both work great! (I use the default irq and io, but the second DMA I put it on 7, ’cause it was the detected one when used VMWare to test Windoze. Anyway, I didn’t detect any failure when using the second DMA in its default of 5, so I guess it could be up to you. In VirtualBox I didn’t change any default setting, just select the driver “SoundBlaster 16” in VirtualBox audio setting before installing.
  3. Install SBMixer to have better control of your sound card.

That’s it. Put those audio CD’s and multimedia apps back!

After copying SBSoundMidi.I.b.tar.gz to OPENSTEP I double-clicked on it to unpack it, and then double-clicked on SBSoundMidi.config to install the SoundBlaster 16 drivers. I then navigated to ‘openstep’ > ‘NextAdmin’ > ‘’, selected the loudspeaker icon and specified the driver ‘SBSoundMidi driver for SoundBlaster AWE32 PnP (v3.38)‘.

SBMixer works, and OPENSTEP’s Sound Inspector can play .snd files without having to install additional software, although I found that some .snd files would not play completely. TheNeXTSong.snd (16-bit Linear format) which I downloaded from one of the OPENSTEP software repositories on the Web (see links at the end of this post) plays perfectly (and is amusing), but the shorter Welcome-to-the-NeXT-world.snd (8-bit muLaw format) stalls. I did manage to install a couple of audio players (see further down).

The only minor problem that occurs every time you login if the floppy disk drive is empty is a pop-up window with the message ‘The floppy disk is unreadable’. You can just click on ‘Eject’ but, to stop this happening, you can change the boot order in VirtualBox Manager and load one of the OPENSTEP floppy disk image files in the VM’s floppy disk drive (‘Settings…’ > ‘Storage’ > ‘Floppy Drive’ in VirtualBox Manager). Actually, I copied Driver_Floppy.img to Work_Floppy.img, loaded the latter in the VM’s floppy disk drive and I changed the Boot Order from ‘Floppy’|’Optical’|’Hard Disk’ to ‘Hard Disk’|’Optical’|’Floppy’ (‘Settings…’ > ‘System’ > ‘Motherboard’ > ‘Boot Order’ in the VirtualBox Manager). Furthermore, although not essential, I selected Work_Floppy in File Viewer, then in the Workspace menu I selected ‘Disk’ > ‘Initialize…’ and initialised (formatted) the floppy disk. Its icon disappears momentarily from File Viewer, then reappears after it has been formatted.

The command ifconfig on my VM host computer running Lubuntu 18.04 tells me that the IP address of the host machine is (I had previous configured my router to always assign this address to this machine), the netmask is and the broadcast IP address is My router’s Management page in a Web browser has the DHCP network range configured as –, so I decided the OPENSTEP VM would have a static IP address of The router’s Management page also told me that the ISP’s Primary DNS IP address is and the Secondary DNS IP address is Therefore, in accordance with the OPENSTEP installation tutorial I followed, I edited the file /etc/hostconfig in OPENSTEP to have the following shell variables:

# /etc/hostconfig
# This file sets up shell variables used by the various rc scripts to
# configure the host.  Edit this file instead of rc.boot.
# Warning:  This is sourced by /bin/sh.  Make sure there are no spaces
#           on either side of the "=".
# There are some special keywords used by rc boot and the programs it
# calls:
#       -AUTOMATIC-     Configure automatically
#       -YES-           Turn a feature on
#       -NO-            Leave a feature off or do not configure

I also created the file /etc/resolv.conf as specified in the tutorial, containing the following two lines with the ISP’s nameserver IP addresses I found from my router:


It was not specified in the tutorial, but to get NFS working later I found it was necessary to edit the file /etc/hosts to comment out the list of IP addresses and to add the hostname I had chosen (openstep) for the OPENSTEP VM plus the IP address ( and hostname (aspirexc600) of the VM host machine running Lubuntu 18.04:

# NOTE: This file is never consulted if NetInfo or Yellow Pages is running.
# To do anything on the network, you need to assign an address to your
# machine.  This default host table will get you started.  "myhost"
# can be used for the first machine on the network, and client[1-8]
# can be used for subsequent machines.  You must make sure that no two
# machines have the same address.  If you need to add more machines
# just keep adding entries.  Each digit in the four digit number must
# be between 1 and 254 inclusive.
#	myhost
#	client1
#	client2
#	client3
#	client4
#	client5
#	client6
#	client7
#	client8
# This is the reserved address for the loopback interface.  Don't muck
# with it.
#       localhost       openstep    aspirexc600

While setting up networking in the VM I also temporarily disabled the firewall in the VM host to make sure the VM host was not interfering in any way with the network connection of the VM, then enabled it again once I was happy it was not causing any problems. Later, when I configured the VM host as an NFS server and the VM as an NFS client, I had to create the appropriate rules for NFS in the VM host’s firewall (see further down).

You will see NetInfo mentioned in the OPENSTEP networking apps. You should ignore NetInfo unless you are going to network a cluster of machines running NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP, as it is an obsolete NeXT networking system configuration database and we don’t want to use it.

Installation of utilities and applications

After installing the OS neither the ‘me’ account nor the root account are password protected. You can use the OS like this if you wish, but I set up a password for the ‘me’ account by navigating to ‘openstep’ > ‘NextApps’ > and clicking on the padlock icon. Then I logged out and logged in to the root account and did the same to set up a password for the root user. If you want to save a bit of time during installation of applications, you could do this after installing all the packages.

OPENSTEP comes with quite a few utilities, such as,,, (possibly useful if your host computer has a microphone socket and you enabled audio input in VirtualBox Manager),,, (yes, a full dictionary),,, (to grab snapshots of all or parts of the screen and save them to .tiff files), (an image file viewer),, and others. You can try these and they are reasonably intuitive so I won’t dwell on them here, instead concentrating on how I installed third-party apps and utilities.

I had to trawl the Web to find packages and applications suitable for OPENSTEP/Mach 4.2 for i386. I find the filenames of the files stored on these Web sites confusing. I think.s‘ in the filename of a compressed file means it contains source code, and ‘.b‘ means it contains binary code, i.e. executable. However, some filenames have ‘.bs‘ but only contain source code, so I could be wrong. Also, I’m not sure what the letters ‘N‘, ‘I‘, ‘H‘ and ‘S‘ represent in these filenames; NeXT (Motorola 68k), Intel, Hewlett-Packard PA-RISC and SPARC, presumably? Some OPENSTEP packages are called ‘fat binaries’ as they contain binaries for several or all the supported CPU types, thus enabling the package to be installed in OPENSTEP on different hardware. So my guess about the letters in the filenames could be correct.

Without a Web browser in OPENSTEP, the easiest way to copy files to the OPENSTEP VM initially is to use the Linux mkisofs command to create an ISO file and then to load it into the VM’s optical drive. For example, let’s say I want to copy the file OpenUp-1.01.tar to the VM, I would type the following on the host machine:

$ mkdir ~/ToCopy
$ cp ~/Downloads/OpenUp-1.01.tar ~/ToCopy
$ mkisofs -o ToCopy.iso ~/ToCopy

I then use the VirtualBox Manager GUI (‘Settings’ > ‘Storage’ > ‘Choose Virtual Optical Disk File…’) to insert the ToCopy.iso file into the VM’s optical drive. OPENSTEP mounts the ‘CDROM’ automatically and it becomes visible in the OPENSTEP File Viewer window. When I click on the CDROM icon a window opens and I see it contains the file openup_1.tar which I can then drag to the Shelf or to another folder directly.

Packages for installation using the OPENSTEP Installer have a ‘.pkg‘ suffix (e.g. ParaSheet.pkg) and are actually a folder, not a file. Applications have a ‘.app‘ suffix (e.g. and are also a folder, not a file. Some of the compressed files I found for OPENSTEP on the Web are tarballs of OPENSTEP packages (e.g. OpenWrite.2.1.8.NIHS.b.tar.gz contains OpenWrite.pkg), others are tarballs of OPENSTEP applications (e.g. mpap.1.0.m.I.b.tar.gz contains which require unpacking but no installation, just copying to a folder. The mkisofs command truncates filenames to the Short Filename format (a.k.a. DOS 8.3 format), so if I had any uncompressed .pkg files, .app files and indeed any other files (.pdf, .mp3 or whatever) to transfer to the VM, I compressed them first as .tar files before creating the .iso file. Even though the .tar filename is truncated to DOS 8.3 by mkisofs, the filenames of the packed files are not.

Installing a package in OPENSTEP 4.2.

a) Installing a package in OPENSTEP 4.2.

Installing a package in OPENSTEP 4.2.

b) Installing a package in OPENSTEP 4.2.

Once you get the hang of installing packages in OPENSTEP, it is actually simple. For example, to install the package ParaSheet.pkg, I drag the .tar file from the CDROM to the Shelf, and from there to the folder /me. I double-click on the .tar file which opens a window showing the ParaSheet.pkg inside. I drag that to the /me folder. Then I select the package, and select ‘Workspace’ > ‘Open Sesame’ > ‘Open As Root’ > ‘Login’ and the Installer GUI opens. I then click on ‘Set…’ to specify the folder into which I want to install the application (e.g. /LocalApps/Office, as I had created the Office folder beforehand using and then ‘Install’, and the Installer takes care of the rest.

In the case of applications that are not packaged and are just .app folders, I do not need to use the Installer, I just copy the .app folder to the folder I wish (/LocalApps/, /me/LocalApps/ or just /me/).

I found that, as-installed, OPENSTEP 4.2 can unpack .tar files from the GUI but does not have a GUI app for unpacking .tar.gz files, so the first thing I did was to install the OpenUp utility: OpenUp-1.01.m.NI.b.tgz which can be found at and works very well. Of course, I could have instead unpacked .tar.gz files in the host machine first and copied the .tar files to OPENSTEP using the mkisofs method I explained above, which the OPENSTEP GUI can unpack when I double-click on the .tar file. But OpenUp is well worth installing. After I had installed OpenUp and the OmniWeb browser in OPENSTEP, I was also able to download .tar.gz files directly in OPENSTEP from the various file repositories on the Web (see links at the end of this post) and unpack them in OPENSTEP.

By the way, see the links at the end of this post for user documentation. The OPENSTEP GUI is intuitive but I didn’t realise I could rename files from the GUI by clicking on the filename below the icon to get a cursor and typing directly (just like macOS), and I also didn’t know that I could use the ‘shelf’ at the top of the File Viewer as a temporary place to put copies of files to copy files between folders as an alternative to opening another File Viewer window. I also wondered how to select multiple files in a window when they are not adjacent, since using the mouse to select the group of files is not feasible in that case. It turns out the you hold down the Shift key and click on each file you want to select, which is analogous to holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on each file in Linux. I also found that I can copy a file between two File Viewer windows by clicking on it and holding down the Alt Gr key then dragging across to the other window.

Installation of a Web browser

This is where things start to get trickier. Bear in mind that NEXTSTEP and OPENSTEP were created in the 1980s and 1990s when the Web was in its infancy. As I mentioned earlier, the first Web browser was written on a NeXTcube at CERN, and that machine was the first Web server in existence. The best Web browser I could find for the platform is OmniWeb 3.1 for OPENSTEP. Before installing it, you need to install Omni Frameworks 1998G2. Also, the browser does not support HTTPS, Javascript and Flash out of the box and you have to install plugins. Unfortunately the plugins for these are very flaky, so you are severely limited in which sites and pages you can browse. Note that Netscape Communications created HTTPS in 1994, Netscape Communications and Sun Microsystems released JavaScript in December 1995, and Macromedia released Flash in November 1996. I don’t know if the OmniWeb plugins for HTTPS, JavaScript and Flash for OPENSTEP that I found are the latest or best versions for this version of OmniWeb, but they are what I could find online. JavaScript in Web pages results in a lot of pop-up error messages and made opening pages even less likely to be successful, so in the OmniWeb menu I navigated to ‘Info’ > ‘User Preferences…’ > ‘JavaScript’ and unticked ‘Display panel for errors’. I also navigated to ‘Info’ > ‘Administrator Preferences’ > ‘HTTPS – SSL’ and ticked ‘Enable TLSv1’, which seemed to enable a few HTTPS Web pages to load, at least partially.

You have to install OpenSSL before installing the HTTPS plugin for OmniWeb. I installed the package OpenSSL.0.9.5a.m.NIS.b.tar.gz which I downloaded from Then I installed the package HTTPS.1.09b.m.NIS.b.tar.gz from the same site, which installs the file (folder) HTTPS.plugin, which needs to be in the folder /LocalLibrary/Plugins/ (‘NEXTSTEP’ > ‘LocalLibrary’ > ‘Plugins’).

Then I downloaded and installed the two packages JavaScript-OWPlugin-1999-07-20-OSM-NIS.tar.gz (installs JavaScript.plugin) and Flash-OWPlugin-19990621-OSM-NIS.tar (installs Flash.plugin) which also need to be in the folder /LocalLibrary/Plugins/ (‘NEXTSTEP’ > ‘LocalLibrary’ > ‘Plugins’ in the File Viewer). I found these two packages via a BetaArchive post [offer] OmniGroup software (NeXTSTEP, OpenStep & Rhapsody), which has a link to a .rar file at

Unfortunately, even with the HTTPS and JavaScript plugins installed, almost all Web pages fail to load in OmniWeb, one exception being Old HTTP Web sites do load providing they are simple, but any JavaScript seems to cause a problem.

Installation of a PDF file reader

The best PDF file reader I could find for the platform is OmniPDF 3 for OPENSTEP. If you have not already installed Omni Frameworks, you first need to install Omni Frameworks 1998G2.

Installation of an image viewer

The best (supposedly) image file viewer I could find for the platform is OmniImage 4.0 for OPENSTEP. If you have not already installed Omni Frameworks, you first need to install Omni Frameworks 1998G2. However, according to the file /OmniImage.pkg/ it is a beta release and, in addition to Omni Frameworks, requires ‘Omni Plugins’:

Title OmniImage 4.0 beta for OPENSTEP/Mach 4.2
Version 4.0 beta 4 (1-Oct-1998)
Description This package contains a beta version of OmniImage. This beta release only supports viewing of images, not saving them. This release will not run unless the the Omni Frameworks (version 1998G2) are installed, and will not be fully functional (e.g., images may not be rendered) unless the Omni PlugIns (version 3.0 beta 8) are also installed. This software requires OPENSTEP/Mach 4.2.

I found the file OmniPlugIns-3.0b8-OSM-NIS.pkg.tar.gz in the BetaArchive post mentioned earlier in this post. I downloaded the tarball, created an ISO file containing it, loaded the ISO file in the VM CDROM drive, unpacked the tarball to /me/OmniPlugIns.pkg and installed the package using the OPENSTEP GUI Installer using the procedure explained earlier in this post. The Omni PlugIns were installed in the folder /LocalLibrary/PlugIns/ and I then found that OmniImage can open JPG files, even a 3456×2304 pixel JPG file with the following properties (as reported by the file command in Linux):

JPEG image data, JFIF standard 1.01, resolution (DPI), density 300x300, segment length 16, Exif Standard: [TIFF image data, big-endian, direntries=4, manufacturer=Canon, model=Canon EOS 600D], baseline, precision 8, 3456x2304, frames 3

Installation of wordprocessor and spreadsheet apps

OpenWrite and ParaSheet in use

OpenWrite and ParaSheet in use.

I created the folder /LocalApps/Office/ and installed OpenWrite from OpenWrite.2.1.8.NIHS.b.tar.gz which I downloaded from Index of /OpenStep/Soft/misc/NEXTTOYOU/97.1-Fruehjahr/APPSTOYOU. If you have not already installed it, before installing these apps you need to install Omni Frameworks 1998G2.

In the folder /LocalApps/Office/ I also installed ParaSheet from ParaSheet-1.7.pkg.tar.gz which I downloaded from Index of /NeXTfiles/Software/NEXTSTEP/Apps/Lighthouse_Design/ParaSheet. If you have not already installed Omni Frameworks, before installing these apps you need to install Omni Frameworks 1998G2.

The first time you launch OpenWrite and ParaSheet you will be notified that you cannot use the application until you enter a licence key. Exit the application and use ‘Open Sesame’ (see earlier) to launch the application as root user, and then you well be able to enter the licence. You will find a list of licences for these packages on the Web page Index of /NeXTfiles/Software/NEXTSTEP/Apps/Lighthouse_Design.

Installation of audio players

mpap and MMP audio players in action

mpap and MMP audio players in action.

The only audio players I could find that actually worked (partially) in OPENSTEP are mpap 1.0 (download mpap.1.0.m.I.b.tar.gz) and MMP 2 (download mmp2.I.b.tar.gz). mpap can play some, but not all, of the mp3 files I have, whereas I could not get MMP to play mp3 files at all, although it can play .snd files. MMP can also play MIDI files, but I had to download the Timidity patches instruments.tar.gz (not so easy to find!) and follow the instructions in the MMP Info Panel in order to install the instruments patch file. It works fine! mpap cannot play an mp3 file which the files command in Linux tells me is an ‘Audio file with ID3 version 2.4.0, contains:MPEG ADTS, layer III, v2.5, 32 kbps, 11.025 kHz, Stereo’ but it can play an mp3 file which is an ‘Audio file with ID3 version 2.4.0, contains:MPEG ADTS, layer III, v1, 192 kbps, 44.1 kHz, Stereo’. mpap has a basic playlist feature, but it is not as sophisticated as any of the modern audio players.

Installation of video players

MPLAY and Movie players in action

MPLAY and Movie players in action.

This is where OPENSTEP is severely lacking in comparison to any modern OS; apparently we’re talking 5.5 or 6 frames per second and e.g. 288×224 pixels on NeXT hardware, and no sound. I only managed to find a couple of basic video players, both at Index of /OpenStep/Soft/video/apps: MPlay 3.0 ( unpacked from MPlay.3.0.NIHS.b.tar.gz) and Movie 3.0 (Movie3.0 folder unpacked from MPlay is only designed to play MPEG (.mpg and .mpeg) files, which I found it can do for the old, tiny MPEG files I downloaded from Web repositories of NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP files. I found that Movie can also only play MPEG files, despite the app’s README file stating it can play (without sound) MPEG, TIFF sequences, ‘QuickTime and other formats’. Movie comes with a couple of demo videos (no audio), the largest of which is hula_full.mpg in the mpeg1video format, consisting of 39 frames of 352×240 pixels, with a desired frame rate of 8 fps which actually plays at between 8 and 9 frames per second in OPENSTEP in the VM, i.e. it plays for around 4 to 5 seconds. In a video player in Linux on my desktop machine it plays for just over 2 seconds at 15 frames per second. These videos and players may have been state-of-the-art in the 1980s and early 1990s, but they certainly are not now!

I could not find an app package to play .avi files. The page I linked to above has a source-code tarball named VideoStreamV1.OSrc.tar.gz for an app named VideoStream, the README of which claims the app can play .avi files, but I have not found an executable package. Anyway, the README file states it cannot play videos with sound, so obviously I didn’t bother trying to install it.


I am not particularly interested in computer games, but a few are installed by default with the OS:, and (a clone of Breakout). More games for OPENSTEP can be found on the Web (for example at Index of /OpenStep/Soft/). The computer game Doom was originally developed in NEXTSTEP on NeXT computers, and a version for OPENSTEP can be downloaded from the Web, although I have not tried it.

File sharing

NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP was designed to use NFS (Network File System). However I don’t use NFS in my home network; I use SMB and have a dedicated Linux SMB server which works well with all SMB clients (Linux, Windows and Android) on my home network. Unsurprisingly I could only find early versions of Samba packages for NEXTSTEP and OPENSTEP. I also came across ramba, a Unix clone of Samba later renamed to Sharity-Light. I downloaded them both and briefly tried to get OPENSTEP to connect to my network Samba server. I was unsuccessful, which does not surprise me as the version of Samba for NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP I found is Version from May 2000, and the obsolete version of rumba I found is Version 0.4 from February 1997. In NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP the Samba configuration file smb.conf is located in the directory /usr/samba/lib/ rather than /etc/samba/. I did not spend much time trying to get Samba/Rumba working as I assume there would be incompatibility between the early SMB protocol used by Samba V2.0.7.1 / Rumba V0.4 with Samba V4.* running in the Linux SMB server on my network. Perhaps I could have made it work, but I decided to try to make the VM’s host computer ( a NFS server to see if I could get the VM ( to access it as a NFS client. The Web page OpenStep on Microsoft Windows PC Emulators states the following, which indicates that NFS works:

Device: Network
OpenStep Configuration: AMD PCnet-32 PCI Ethernet Adapter
VirtualBox Configuration: Bridged Adapter, PCnet-PCI II, Promiscuous Mode All
Observations: This works fine. Using SimpleNetworkStarter I was able to give OpenStep an IP address on my subnet, using my real router and real DNS servers. This allowed OpenStep to be ‘seen’ on the subnet. Standard networking facilities such as FTP and NFS work. It may help to run the a command such as the following from the VirtualBox installation directory, where “OpenStep” is whatever you name the virtual machine and “” depends on your local subnet:

VBoxManage modifyvm OpenStep --natnet1 ""

As I had named the VM ‘OPENSTEP4.2’ in VirtualBox Manager, I used the following command:

$ VBoxManage modifyvm OPENSTEP4.2 --natnet1 ""

However I doubt this made any difference, because I had set the VM’s network adapter to ‘Bridged Adapter’ in the VirtualBox Manager, not ‘NAT’. I had to select ‘Bridged Adapter’ because I could not get the VM to connect to the network otherwise.

I also made sure the adapter in the VirtualBox Manager is set to ‘PCnet-PCI II (Am79C970A)’ and Promiscuous Mode is set to ‘Allow All’.

In addition to the network configuration notes in the OPENSTEP installation tutorial I mentioned earlier, for information only see the old tutorial ‘NeXTStep/OpenStep Ethernet-Based Network Configuration For Cable Modems, DSL, LANs, Etc…‘.

Anyway, below is what I did to get NFS working. The crucial thing to note is that OPENSTEP 4.2 uses NFSv2. I spent many hours unsuccessfully trying to get NFS working between the NFS server (a machine with IP address and the NFS client (a VM with IP address 192.168.63) until I realised this. The NFS server is running Lubuntu 18.04, which uses NFSv4 by default. Therefore I had to configure the NFS server to use NFSv2 as well. Not only that, but I had to configure NFSv2 to use static ports, because the ports can change randomly in NFSv2 which would stop NFS working if there is a firewall enabled on the host machine.

In the NFS server (Lubuntu 18.04 running on a desktop machine)

N.B. My NFS server is running in Lubuntu 18.04 on a machine with an IP address of, and my NFS client is running in OPENSTEP 4.2 on a VM with IP address of Change the IP addresses below to suit your situation.

1. Install the NFS server software

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server

2. Create a mountpoint for the NFS shared directory

$ sudo mkdir /var/nfs
$ sudo chown nobody:nogroup /var/nfs
$ sudo chmod 777 /var/nfs

3. Configure the NFS export

$ sudo nano /etc/exports

3.1 Choose which of the following types of share you want to have

3.1.1 Less secure:


If ‘no_root_squash‘ is used, remote root users are able to change any file on the shared file system and leave trojaned applications for other users to inadvertently execute.

3.1.2 More secure:


3.2 Update the current table of exports for the NFS server

$ sudo exportfs -a

You can check the current table settings:

$ sudo exportfs -s

If you wanted to clear the table (unexport the shared directories) you would do:

$ sudo exportfs -u
$ sudo exportfs -u
$ sudo exportfs -s

4. Load the NFSv2 kernel module

If lockd is built as a module (which it is in Lubuntu 18.04), create file /etc/modprobe.d/nfsv2.conf containing the following:

options lockd.nlm_udpport=4001 lockd.nlm_tcpport=4001
$ sudo modprobe nfsv2

If you want to make that permanent so it happens automatically when booting/rebooting add ‘nfsv2‘ (without the quotes) to the file /etc/modules-load.d/modules.conf (which in Lubuntu 18.04 is symlinked to /etc/modules).

5. Configure the NFS server

See ‘How can I make the nfs server support protocol version 2 in Ubuntu 17.10?‘.

Edit /etc/default/nfs-kernel-server to include NFSv2 and to specify static ports:

$ sudo nano /etc/default/nfs-kernel-server
# Number of servers to start up

# Runtime priority of server (see nice(1))

# Options for rpc.mountd.
# If you have a port-based firewall, you might want to set up
# a fixed port here using the --port option. For more information, 
# see rpc.mountd(8) or
# To disable NFSv4 on the server, specify '--no-nfs-version 4' here
RPCMOUNTDOPTS="--manage-gids -p 32767"
# -p 32767 above added by Fitzcarraldo

# Do you want to start the svcgssd daemon? It is only required for Kerberos
# exports. Valid alternatives are "yes" and "no"; the default is "no".

# Options for rpc.svcgssd.

# All options below this comment were added by Fitzcarraldo
# Options to pass to rpc.statd
# ex. RPCSTATDOPTS="-p 32765 -o 32766"
RPCSTATDOPTS="-p 32765 -o 32766"
# Options to pass to rpc.rquotad
# ex. RPCRQUOTADOPTS="-p 32764"
RPCNFSDOPTS="--nfs-version 2,3,4 --debug --syslog"
# To confirm above mods are in effect after service restart use
#    cat /run/sysconfig/nfs-utils
#  or 
#    service nfs-kernel-server status

Edit /etc/default/nfs-common to specify static ports for rpc-statd:

# If you do not set values for the NEED_ options, they will be attempted
# autodetected; this should be sufficient for most people. Valid alternatives
# for the NEED_ options are "yes" and "no".

# Options for rpc.statd.
#   Should rpc.statd listen on a specific port? This is especially useful
#   when you have a port-based firewall. To use a fixed port, set this
#   this variable to a statd argument like: "--port 4000 --outgoing-port 4001".
#   For more information, see rpc.statd(8) or
STATDOPTS="-o 32766 -p 32765"
# -o 32766 -p 32765 above were added by Fitzcarraldo

# Do you want to start the gssd daemon? It is required for Kerberos mounts.

(I had to edit /etc/default/nfs-common to specify the ports for rpc-statd in STATDOPTS because specifying the ports in RPCSTATDOPTS in /etc/default/nfs-kernel-server did not make the status ports static.)

Edit /etc/sysctl.conf to add a static port mapping for lockd:

$ sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf
# All lines below added by Fitzcarraldo
# TCP Port for lock manager
fs.nfs.nlm_tcpport = 4001
# UDP Port for lock manager
fs.nfs.nlm_udpport = 4001

Modify the lockd kernel parameters now during runtime rather than having to reboot:

$ sudo sysctl -p

Note that it is necessary to specify static ports in the configuration files so that tight rules can be added to the firewall in the NFS server.

6. Start the NFS server

Either the sysvinit way, which still works in Lubuntu 18.04:

$ sudo service nfs-kernel-server start

or the systemd way, which also works in Lubuntu 18.04:

sudo systemctl start nfs-kernel-server

If you want, you could enable the service so it starts automatically after the system is rebooted:

$ sudo systemctl enable nfs-kernel-server

7. Start the NSM (Network Status Monitor) daemon

Either the sysvinit way, which still works in Lubuntu 18.04:

$ sudo service rpc-statd start

or the systemd way, which also works in Lubuntu 18.04:

$ sudo systemctl start rpc-statd

If you want, you could enable the service so it starts automatically after the system is rebooted:

$ sudo systemctl enable rpc-statd

8. Check that NFSv2 is running and the ports are the ones specified in the config files

$ rpcinfo -p
   program vers proto   port  service
    100000    4   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    4   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   udp    111  portmapper
    100005    1   udp  32767  mountd
    100005    1   tcp  32767  mountd
    100005    2   udp  32767  mountd
    100005    2   tcp  32767  mountd
    100005    3   udp  32767  mountd
    100005    3   tcp  32767  mountd
    100003    2   tcp   2049  nfs
    100003    3   tcp   2049  nfs
    100003    4   tcp   2049  nfs
    100227    2   tcp   2049
    100227    3   tcp   2049
    100003    2   udp   2049  nfs
    100003    3   udp   2049  nfs
    100227    2   udp   2049
    100227    3   udp   2049
    100021    1   udp   4001  nlockmgr
    100021    3   udp   4001  nlockmgr
    100021    4   udp   4001  nlockmgr
    100021    1   tcp   4001  nlockmgr
    100021    3   tcp   4001  nlockmgr
    100021    4   tcp   4001  nlockmgr
    100024    1   udp  32765  status
    100024    1   tcp  32765  status

9. Configure the firewall in Lubuntu 18.04

I used Gufw (LXDE Menu > ‘Preferences’ > ‘Firewall Configuration’) to add the following two UFW rules:

111,2049,4001,32765:32768/udp ALLOW IN
111,2049,4001,32765:32768/tcp ALLOW IN

The above rules permit NFSv2 to function consistently because I had configured the NFS ports to be static. If I had not done that the firewall would sometimes stop NFS from working because NFSv2 ports change randomly otherwise.

In OPENSTEP running in the VM

10. Make sure basic networking has been configured

I navigated to ‘openstep’ > ‘NextAdmin’ > ‘’ and did the following:

  • Unticked ‘Maintain the master copy of network administrative data.’
  • Selected ‘Use the network, but don’t share administrative data.’
  • Entered the Hostname ‘openstep‘ (no quotes) and IP address
  • Clicked on ‘Network Options…’. In the window that opened I did the following:
    • Made sure router IP is set to
    • Made sure NIS Domain Name is set to ‘None’
    • Made sure Netmask is set to
    • Made sure Broadcast Address is set to
    • ‘Limit access to local NetInfo data to the local network’ is unticked.
    • Clicked on ‘Set’.
  • Clicked on ‘Configure’.

11. Create the shared NFS director[y,ies]

N.B. I could probably have created the directory /mnt/nfs/nfsshare and/or /mnt/nfs/var/nfs (whichever you chose to create — see 3.1 above) using ‘openstep’ > ‘NextAdmin’ > ‘’ instead of using the command line, but I opened a Terminal window in OPENSTEP and did the following:

openstep> su
openstep:1# mkdir /mnt
openstep:2# mkdir /mnt/nfs
openstep:3# mkdir /mnt/nfs/nfsshare
openstep:4# mkdir /mnt/nfs/var
openstep:5# mkdir /mnt/nfs/var/nfs

12. Mount the NFS share(s)

openstep:6# mount /mnt/nfs/nfsshare
openstep:7# mount /mnt/nfs/var/nfs

Use the df command to check they are mounted correctly:

openstep:8# df

13. Test the shared director[y,ies]

In Lubuntu on the machine with hostname ‘aspirexc600‘, copy a file into /var/nfs/ (or /home/fitzcarraldo/nfsshare/). You should see it appear in /mnt/nfs/var/nfs/ (or /mnt/nfs/nfsshare/) in OPENSTEP in the VM with hostname ‘openstep‘.

In OPENSTEP on the VM with hostname ‘openstep‘, copy a file into /mnt/nfs/var/nfs/ (not /mnt/nfs/nfsshare/, as that will not be allowed). You should see it appear in /var/nfs/ in Linux in the machine with hostname ‘aspirexc600‘.

In Lubuntu on the machine with hostname ‘aspirexc600‘, delete the file in /var/nfs/ and you should see it removed from /mnt/nfs/var/nfs/ in OPENSTEP on the VM with hostname ‘openstep‘.

In Lubuntu on the machine with hostname ‘aspirexc600‘, delete the file in /home/fitzcarraldo/nfsshare/ and you should see it removed from /mnt/nfs/nfsshare/ in OPENSTEP on the VM with hostname ‘openstep‘.

14. If you later want to unmount the NFS shared folder(s)

openstep:9# umount /mnt/nfs/nfsshare
openstep:10# umount /mnt/nfs/var/nfs

15. If you want OPENSTEP to mount the NFS shared folder(s) automatically when it boots

I was unable to get OPENSTEP to mount NFS shared folders automatically at boot by adding the appropriate lines in /etc/fstab, but OPENSTEP does mount them automatically if I add the mount commands to /etc/rc.local like so:

#!/bin/sh -u
# This script is for augmenting the standard system startup commands. It is 
# executed automatically by the system during boot up. 
# Copyright (C) 1993 by NeXT Computer, Inc.  All rights reserved.
# In its released form, this script does nothing. You may customize
# it as you wish.

fbshow -B -I "Starting local services" -z 92

# Read in configuration information
. /etc/hostconfig

# (echo -n 'local daemons:')                                    >/dev/console
# Run your own commands here
mount /mnt/nfs/var/nfs
mount /mnt/nfs/nfsshare
# (echo '.')                                                    >/dev/console

File sharing: Summary

So, I managed to get NFS working, albeit not using OPENSTEP’s tool. Had I known more about OPENSTEP networking I probably could have used the OPENSTEP GUI utilities to configure NFS, but at least I have proved it is possible to copy files to and from an NFS server (which happens to be the host machine of the VM) running Lubuntu 18.04 and the VM running OPENSTEP 4.2. Mind you, NFSv2 is old. NFSv4 would be the protocol to use had OPENSTEP supported it. Also, bear in mind that NFSv2 cannot encrypt the connection, so it is not secure. Another reason to have a good firewall enabled in the VirtualBox host machine and in my router too.


I have had fun installing and tinkering with OPENSTEP and its applications over the last few days. Getting file sharing to work was by far the most difficult part, but I got there in the end once I had discovered OPENSTEP only supports NFSv2. It is a pity OPENSTEP and the applications for it have not been developed for many years and are all obsolete. If development of OPENSTEP drivers, networking software, productivity applications and multimedia applications had continued, the OS itself would still have been perfectly usable on modern hardware, albeit not as straightforward to use as any of the main Desktop Environments in Linux. But the OS still feels quite modern; it was definitely ahead of its time. Tinkering with OPENSTEP 4.2 has given me a new respect for Steve Jobs, for the talented hardware and software engineers in the NeXT company, and indeed for Mac OS X and macOS. The choice of Unix for NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP was truely inspired.

In this blog post I have not covered the sophisticated development tools for NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP, which were also way ahead of their time. I’ll leave you to read the articles, documents and videos available on the Web about the development tools.

Please comment below if you notice any errors or omissions in this post, or if you know a better way of doing something in OPENSTEP, or you know of newer versions of the OPENSTEP software than the versions I have mentioned. I’d also be interested to hear from anyone who has a NeXT machine and/or is still using one; let me know what you have and how you’re using it.

Useful links

These are just a few of the many Web pages and sites I browsed when installing OPENSTEP 4.2 and looking for applications and ways to get various things to work.


Software repositories

Sometimes differences between NEXTSTEP and OPENSTEP may mean a NETSCAPE application cannot be installed in OPENSTEP or, if it can, may not work. Furthermore, be aware that different revisions of the same application/utility exist online, so you need to try and find the latest revisions.

Replacing the KDE Plasma widget ‘Thermal Monitor’ with ‘Kargos’ in Gentoo Linux

The KDE Plasma widget Thermal Monitor has not been working correctly in my Gentoo Linux installations for quite some time. I notice Thermal Monitor’s repository has not been updated for a couple of years, despite several new versions of KDE Plasma having been released. Perhaps that is the reason.

On my laptop running the Stable Branch of Gentoo Linux, Thermal Monitor displays the GPU and HDD temperatures automatically but CPU temperatures were only displayed if I right-clicked on the widget and selected ‘Reload Temperature Sources’. I managed to get the widget to display the CPU temperatures automatically by editing the file ~/.local/share/plasma/plasmoids/org.kde.thermalMonitor/contents/ui/main.qml and commenting out a line as shown in the file excerpt below:

        onSourceAdded: {

            if (source.indexOf(lmSensorsStart) === 0 || source.indexOf(acpiStart) === 0) {
 *                systemmonitorAvailableSources.push(source)
                var staIndex = systemmonitorSourcesToAdd.indexOf(source)
                if (staIndex > -1) {
                    addToSourcesOfDatasource(systemmonitorDS, source)
                    systemmonitorSourcesToAdd.splice(staIndex, 1)



The above modification is suggested in a comment to Issue #53 in the widget’s repository.

However, the above-mentioned edit does not fix Thermal Monitor on my laptop running the Testing Branch of Gentoo Linux, and Thermal Monitor no longer displays the GPU temperature either. Actually, the CPU’s four core temperatures and the GPU temperature are no longer listed in the Thermal Monitor configuration window, only a single CPU temperature. Not surprisingly, none of the suggested changes to the file ~/.local/share/plasma/plasmoids/org.kde.thermalMonitor/contents/ui/main.qml that I found in Web searches made a difference. However, while researching the problem I came across a Manjaro Forums post by user bogdancovaciu about the Kargos Plasma widget, a KDE Plasma port of GNOME Argos and OSX BitBar. Kargos enables you to create a Plasma widget that runs your own script, which can be written in any language, providing its output adheres to a specified format. I also found a repository named k-argos-plugins containing further example scripts for Kargos. As none of the solutions suggested for Thermal Monitor in that Manjaro thread worked for me, I decided to try the Kargos widget instead. It works a treat.

kargos widget on KDE Plasma Panel

kargos widget on KDE Plasma Panel of my Compal NBLB2 laptop

Below I explain what I did to install and configure the Kargos widget on my KDE Panel in Gentoo Linux (see screenshot). The packages lm-sensors and hddtemp were already installed in my case, but if they had not been, I would have needed to install and configure them, so I have included those steps below.

1. Install and configure lm-sensors

root # emerge lm-sensors
root # rc-update add lm_sensors default
root # sensors-detect

In my case sensors-detect created the file /etc/modules-load.d/lm_sensors.conf containing only the following:

# Generated by sensors-detect on Sun Oct 27 03:07:08 2019

2. Start lm-sensors now, rather than rebooting

root # /etc/init.d/lm_sensors start

3. I wanted to use the nc command in my shell script for Kargos, so I installed its package

root # emerge netcat

4. Install and configure hddtemp

root # emerge hddtemp
root # rc-update add hddtemp default

Specify in the config file /etc/conf.d/hddtemp which drives to check:

# Copyright 1999-2012 Gentoo Foundation
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

# the hddtemp executable

# various options to pass to the daemon

# a list of drives to check

5. Start hddtemp now, rather than rebooting

root # /etc/init.d/hddtemp start

6. Install Kargos

On the KDE Plasma Desktop, click on the ‘Desktop’ menu icon (the three horizontal lines in the top right corner of the Desktop) and select: ‘Unlock Widgets’ > ‘Add Widgets…’ > ‘Get New Widgets…’ > ‘Download New Plasma Widgets’. Search for, and install, ‘kargos’ widget.

7. Create the Bash script ~/ containing the following:

temp=$(sensors | grep -oP 'Core.*?\+\K[0-9.]+')
temp0=$(sensors | grep 'Core 0' | cut -c '16-17')
temp1=$(sensors | grep 'Core 1' | cut -c '16-17')
temp2=$(sensors | grep 'Core 2' | cut -c '16-17')
temp3=$(sensors | grep 'Core 3' | cut -c '16-17')
hdd_temp=$(nc localhost 7634 | cut -c '33-34')
gpu_temp=$(sensors | grep -A 2 'radeon' | grep 'temp1' | cut -c '16-17')
echo "<br><font size='1'>CPU1&nbsp;&nbsp;CPU2&nbsp;&nbsp;CPU3&nbsp;&nbsp;CPU4&nbsp;&nbsp;GPU&nbsp;&nbsp;HDD</font><br>${temp0%%.*}°&nbsp;&nbsp;${temp1%%.*}°&nbsp;&nbsp;${temp2%%.*}°&nbsp;&nbsp;${temp3%%.*}°&nbsp;${gpu_temp}°&nbsp;${hdd_temp}°| font=Hack-Regular size=10"
# Uncomment the lines below if you want to be able to click on the kargos widget and display a pop-up TOP
#echo "---"
#TOP_OUTPUT=$(top -b -n 1 | head -n 20 | awk 1 ORS="\\\\n")
#echo "$TOP_OUTPUT | font=monospace iconName=htop"

The script above is specifically for the temperature sensors in my Clevo NBLB2 laptop. To find out which temperatures are available, and which characters to extract, use the following command:

root # sensors

Don’t forget to make the script executable:

user $ chmod +x ~/

Note that the ‘.3s‘ in the script name is optional but, if included, will override the kargos configuration (see further on) and run the script every 3 seconds. I could have specified another frequency, such as ‘.5s‘ or whatever.

8. Add the kargos widget to the KDE Panel.

9. Right-click on the kargos widget on the KDE Panel and select ‘Configure kargos…’.

10. Configure the kargos widget

In the first box in the configuration window, enter the full path of the script:


In the second box leave ‘Interval in seconds’ as ‘1‘. This is overridden anyway if the script filename includes the interval.

In the third box leave ‘Rotation delay in seconds’ as ‘6‘.

On the KDE Plasma Desktop, click on the Desktop menu icon (three horizontal lines) and select: ‘Lock Widgets’.

11. Depending on the font configuration for the KDE Desktop, it may be necessary to edit the Bash script ~/ to change the font name or size, the number of non-breaking spaces between the names displayed on the top line, and the number of non-breaking spaces between the temperature values displayed on the bottom line.

Creating a RAID of USB pendrives in Linux

USB hub and USB pendrives used as RAID10 with my laptop

USB hub and pendrives used as RAID10 with my laptop.

If you’re not familiar with the RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) concept and the different types of array, the article ‘RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10 Explained with Diagrams‘ gives a quick summary (and links to another article ‘RAID 2, RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 6 Explained with Diagram‘). Another helpful article is ‘RAID Levels Explained‘.

A few years ago I came across a YouTube video by a Mac user, titled ‘Use a bunch of USB Flash drives in a RAID array‘. Purely out of interest he had experimented with creating RAIDs using USB pendrives (also known as ‘USB flash drives’ or ‘USB memory sticks’). The creation of a RAID using USB pendrives for his Apple Macs was very easy, and, since then, I had wanted to try this using one of my laptops running Linux, just to satisfy my curiosity. I have previously created software RAIDs in a Linux server using internal 3.5-inch HDDs, for the root, home and swap partitions, and for file storage partitions for a Cloud server and NAS. However, I had never created a RAID using external USB drives. This week I happened to have a spare four-port USB 3.0 hub and four old 4GB USB 2.0 pendrives, so I finally got the chance to create a RAID with USB pendrives (see photo). I decided to use my main laptop, which has Gentoo Linux with OpenRC, elogind, eudev and KDE installed. That installation does not have an initramfs so I did not need to rebuild an initramfs to assemble the RAID. Anyway, early assembly of a RAID by an initramfs would only be needed if the RAID were being used to hold the directories required by the OS (the root partition, for example). As my RAID would be pluggable external storage, I wanted to mount it manually rather than adding it to /etc/fstab to be mounted automatically at boot. As I had not used a RAID on this laptop before, I had not enabled the RAID drivers in the kernel configuration, so I needed to do that and rebuild the kernel. I opted to make the RAID drivers kernel modules rather than built into the kernel, so that I could load only the relevant module for whichever type of RAID I wished to create.

I had to decide which filesystem to use in the RAID. I have always used ext4 in my RAIDs using HDDs. However, F2FS is an interesting filesystem developed by Samsung for devices using flash memory, such as SD cards, USB pendrives and SSDs. So I decided to format the pendrives to use F2FS, and create an F2FS RAID. As I had not used F2FS previously on this laptop, I had not enabled the F2FS driver in the kernel configuration, so I enabled the F2FS driver in the kernel at the same time as I enabled the RAID drivers. As with the RAID drivers, I opted to make the F2FS driver a kernel module rather than built into the kernel, so that I could load it and unload it whenever I wanted.

Not only did it turn out to be easy to create a RAID using USB pendrives, I found that the Linux RAID module gets loaded automatically when I connect the USB hub. Furthermore the RAID is recognised by KDE and listed under ‘Places’ in the Dolphin file manager’s windows, which I can click on to mount and unmount the RAID. So I did not even need to configure the OS to load the RAID module at boot (the OS does not load the module automatically at boot if the hub is not connected).

DigitalOcean produced a good tutorial on creating RAIDs in Ubuntu: ‘How To Create RAID Arrays with mdadm on Ubuntu 16.04‘. The procedure is essentially the same in Gentoo Linux, the only differences being the path of the mdadm.conf file and the method of updating an initramfs (which I did not need to do anyway in this particular installation).

As I had four spare USB pendrives and a four-port hub, I decided to create a RAID10 array. Below is a summary of the steps I took.

1. I rebuilt the kernel in order to build the RAID and F2FS modules. The relevant kernel configuration parameters I set are shown below:

root # grep RAID /usr/src/linux/.config | grep -v "#"
root # grep F2FS /usr/src/linux/.config | grep -v "#"
root # uname -a
Linux clevow230ss 4.19.72-gentoo #2 SMP Tue Oct 15 01:36:57 BST 2019 x86_64 Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4810MQ CPU @ 2.80GHz GenuineIntel GNU/Linux

2. I installed the mdadm tool:

root # eix -I mdadm
[I] sys-fs/mdadm
     Available versions:  4.1^t {static}
     Installed versions:  4.1^t(01:52:17 15/10/19)(-static)
     Description:         Tool for running RAID systems - replacement for the raidtools

3. I installed the F2FS tools:

root # eix -I f2fs
[I] sys-fs/f2fs-tools
     Available versions:  1.10.0(0/4) 1.11.0-r1(0/5) 1.12.0-r1(0/6) ~1.13.0(0/6) {selinux}
     Installed versions:  1.12.0-r1(0/6)(02:05:17 15/10/19)(-selinux)
     Description:         Tools for Flash-Friendly File System (F2FS)

4. I rebooted the laptop.

5. The f2fs module was not loaded automatically, therefore I loaded it manually and edited /etc/conf.d/modules to add the module name so that it would be loaded automatically in future:

root # modprobe f2fs
root # lsmod | grep f2fs
f2fs                  466944  0
root # nano /etc/conf.d/modules
root # grep ^modules /etc/conf.d/modules
modules="fuse bnep rfcomm hidp uvcvideo cifs mmc_block snd-seq-midi iptable_raw xt_CT uinput f2fs"

6. I plugged the four USB pendrives into the USB hub, and connected the hub to the laptop.

7. I launched GParted, deleted the existing partition on each pendrive (three had been formatted as FAT32, one as exFAT), reformatted them individually as F2FS and gave them each a label (USBPD01 to USBPD04). I could have done all that from the command line but it is easier using GParted, and I like an easy life.

Note that the mdadm USE flag in Gentoo Linux needed to be set when GParted was merged, so GParted would need to be re-merged with USE="mdadm" if that is not the case. Furthermore, GParted will only include F2FS in the list of available filesystems if either the F2FS module is loaded or the F2FS driver has been built into the kernel.

8. I ascertained the names of the USB pendrives:

sda    698.7G        disk
├─sda1   128M ext2   part
├─sda2    16G swap   part [SWAP]
├─sda5   128G ext4   part /
├─sda6   256G ext4   part /home
└─sda7 298.5G ntfs   part /media/NTFS
sdb      3.8G        disk
└─sdb1   3.8G f2fs   part
sdc      3.8G        disk
└─sdc1   3.8G f2fs   part
sdd      3.8G        disk
└─sdd1   3.8G f2fs   part
sde      3.8G        disk
└─sde1   3.8G f2fs   part

As you can see above, the four USB pendrives are sdb to sde.

9. I loaded the raid10 module:

root # modprobe raid10
root # lsmod | grep raid
raid10                 57344  1

10. I created the RAID10 array:

root # mdadm --create --verbose /dev/md0 --level=10 --raid-devices=4 /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd /dev/sde
mdadm: layout defaults to n2
mdadm: layout defaults to n2
mdadm: chunk size defaults to 512K
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdb
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdb but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdc
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdc but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdd
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sdd but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sde
mdadm: partition table exists on /dev/sde but will be lost or
       meaningless after creating array
mdadm: size set to 3913728K
Continue creating array? y
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.

It takes a while for the RAID to be created, so I checked progress periodically as follows:

root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      [>....................]  resync =  2.8% (222272/7827456) finish=23.8min speed=5308K/sec
unused devices: <none>
root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      [========>............]  resync = 44.0% (3449856/7827456) finish=12.9min speed=5637K/sec
unused devices: <none>
root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      [==============>......]  resync = 74.0% (5797760/7827456) finish=5.9min speed=5698K/sec
unused devices: <none>
root # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid10]
md0 : active raid10 sde[3] sdd[2] sdc[1] sdb[0]
      7827456 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
unused devices: <none>

11. I formatted the RAID:

root # sudo mkfs.f2fs -f /dev/md0

        F2FS-tools: mkfs.f2fs Ver: 1.12.0 (2018-11-12)

Info: Disable heap-based policy
Info: Debug level = 0
Info: Trim is enabled
Info: Segments per section = 1
Info: Sections per zone = 1
Info: sector size = 512
Info: total sectors = 15654912 (7644 MB)
Info: zone aligned segment0 blkaddr: 512
Info: format version with
  "Linux version 4.19.72-gentoo (root@clevow230ss) (gcc version 8.3.0 (Gentoo 8.3.0-r1 p1.1)) #2 SMP Tue Oct 15 01:36:57 BST 2019"
Info: [/dev/md0] Discarding device
Info: This device doesn't support BLKSECDISCARD
Info: This device doesn't support BLKDISCARD
Info: Overprovision ratio = 2.300%
Info: Overprovision segments = 179 (GC reserved = 94)
Info: format successful

The option ‘-f‘ forces mkfs to overwrite any existing filesystem. (I believe the same option is ‘-F‘ in Ubuntu, rather than ‘-f‘.)

12. I created a mount point so I could mount the RAID from the command line if I wanted:

root # mkdir -p /mnt/md0

13. I mounted the RAID from the command line and checked its size. In the case of RAID10 I would expect the size to be double the size of one of the formatted USB pendrives, i.e. approximtely 2 x 3.8GB = 7.6GB):

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # df -h -x devtmpfs -x tmpfs
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/root       126G   36G   84G  31% /
/dev/sda6       252G  137G  103G  57% /home
/dev/sda7       299G  257G   43G  86% /media/NTFS
/dev/md0        7.5G  419M  7.1G   6% /mnt/md0
root # blkid | grep -v sda
/dev/md0: UUID="d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272" TYPE="f2fs"
/dev/sdb: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="45a488a0-5126-0b95-0c28-eb1f743f77c7" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdc: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="ef7de228-cf4d-c6bf-c74a-462a0e27f8bd" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdd: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="b5dd5c41-3ab2-fa38-bd28-0b965883775c" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sde: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="16149e7e-5a96-ece6-65ba-25721bcee49f" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"

So /dev/md0 looked correct.

14. I checked that nothing was already configured in mdadm.conf and added the array’s details to it:

root # grep -v "#" /etc/mdadm.conf
root # mdadm --detail --scan | sudo tee -a /etc/mdadm.conf
ARRAY /dev/md0 metadata=1.2 name=clevow230ss:0 UUID=d1288120:a1614809:3e89bb5f:967df69b
root # grep -v "#" /etc/mdadm.conf
ARRAY /dev/md0 metadata=1.2 name=clevow230ss:0 UUID=d1288120:a1614809:3e89bb5f:967df69b

15. As the RAID will have only a partition for file storage, and as the RAID array will not always be connected to the laptop, it does not need to be assembled automatically early during boot, so there is no need to add mdadm.conf to an initramfs (which this laptop does not have anyway) and no need to specify /dev/md0 in /etc/fstab to be mounted at boot.

16. I left the USB hub connected to the laptop and rebooted.

17. I checked that the modules were loaded at boot:

root # lsmod | grep raid
raid10                 57344  1
root # lsmod | grep f2fs
f2fs                  466944  0

18. I checked that the RAID had been assembled correctly at boot:

root # blkid | grep -v sda
/dev/sdb: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="45a488a0-5126-0b95-0c28-eb1f743f77c7" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdc: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="ef7de228-cf4d-c6bf-c74a-462a0e27f8bd" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdd: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="b5dd5c41-3ab2-fa38-bd28-0b965883775c" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/md0: UUID="d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272" TYPE="f2fs"
/dev/sde: UUID="d1288120-a161-4809-3e89-bb5f967df69b" UUID_SUB="16149e7e-5a96-ece6-65ba-25721bcee49f" LABEL="clevow230ss:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"

19. I rebooted a few times with and without the USB hub connected. The module raid10 only gets loaded if the USB hub is connected. If I reboot without the hub connected, raid10 is no longer loaded automatically at boot. If I plug in the hub after the laptop has booted, raid10 gets loaded and the RAID array is recognised by the OS.

20. I mounted the RAID from the command line and copied a file to it as root user:

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/md0
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:40 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 ..
root # cp ./Paper_sheet_sizes.png /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/md0
total 268
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root   4096 Oct 15 08:07 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root   4096 Oct 15 07:42 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 265760 Oct 15 08:07 Paper_sheet_sizes.png
root # umount /dev/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/md0
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 ..

However, /mnt/md0/ is owned by the root user, so user fitzcarraldo cannot copy files into it. Therefore I changed the ownership:

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/
total 28
drwxr-xr-x  7 root root 4096 Oct 15 07:42 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root root 4096 Oct  6 08:31 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root root    0 Apr  9  2015 .keep
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Apr 19  2015 cdrom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Jan 16  2017 floppy
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Oct 15 08:07 md0
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Apr 17  2015 pendrive
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Mar 18  2016 usbstick
root # chown fitzcarraldo:fitzcarraldo /mnt/md0
root # ls -la /mnt/
total 28
drwxr-xr-x  7 root         root         4096 Oct 15 07:42 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root         root         4096 Oct  6 08:31 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root         root            0 Apr  9  2015 .keep
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Apr 19  2015 cdrom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Jan 16  2017 floppy
drwxr-xr-x  2 fitzcarraldo fitzcarraldo 4096 Oct 15 08:07 md0
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Apr 17  2015 pendrive
drwxr-xr-x  2 root         root         4096 Mar 18  2016 usbstick
root # umount /dev/md0

21. ‘Places’ in Dolphin shows /mnt/md0 as ‘7.5 GiB Hard Drive’.

22. I can still mount the RAID from the command line:

root # mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0
root # df -h /dev/md0
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/md0        7.5G  420M  7.1G   6% /mnt/md0
root # umount /dev/md0

23. If I want to use the RAID in KDE I must use Dolphin to mount it, not mount it from the command line. To do this I click on the RAID ‘7.5 GiB Hard Drive’ listed under ‘Places’, and a window pop-ups prompting me to enter the root user’s password.

If I mount /dev/md0 via Dolphin instead of via the command line, KDE mounts it on a different directory:

root # df -h /run/media/fitzcarraldo/d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272/
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/md0        7.5G  420M  7.1G   6% /run/media/fitzcarraldo/d565c117-37e0-48eb-b635-a2fe70b83272

If I want to unmount it, I right-click on the RAID in ‘Places’ and select ‘Unmount’ in the right-click menu. Once it has been unmounted, I can unplug the hub from the laptop. If I plug the hub back into the laptop, the RAID is detected and can be mounted as usual.

So, it works! A USB hub and pendrives are a handy way to:

  • experiment with creating the various types of RAID;
  • compare the capacity of the RAID with the capacity of the USB pendrives used;
  • measure the time to write and read a large file to/from the RAID and compare those times with the time to write and read the same file to/from a single USB pendrive of the same model.

50th anniversary of Apollo 11

I recall watching on live TV in 1969 Neil Armstrong stepping onto the Moon for the first time. I still think the Apollo programme is mankind’s greatest technological achievement to date, especially taking into account the state of the art in the 1960s, albeit massive funding, around 400,000 professionals and some 5,000 companies working on the project helped immensely.

If you have a technical background and are interested in learning a bit about the technical aspects of the equipment and the mission, I can recommend W. David Woods’ book ‘How Apollo Flew to the Moon’. I found the sections on guidance particularly interesting. The book even addresses eating, ablution, urinating, defecating and waste disposal on the journey.

On the 40th anniversary of Apollo 11 I wrote a short post in the Sabayon Linux forums on using Audacity to analyse the recording of Neil Armstrong’s famous “One small step”, which I refreshed in this blog for the 42nd anniversary (see One small step for [a] man… revisited using Audacity).

To mark the 50th anniversary of the launch of Apollo 11, on 16 July this year I went to the cinema to watch the Todd Douglas Millar’s documentary ‘Apollo 11’ (see Apollo 11 [Official Trailer]), which has received good reviews due to its use of 65mm and 70mm footage. Actually, although I very much enjoyed it, quite a lot of the footage used is not 65mm or 70mm, and I found the soundtrack too loud, often making it difficult for me to make out what the controllers and astronauts said. Anyway, if you have not been to see it, I can still recommend it.

This week the UK TV channel BBC Four showed the US PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) excellent multi-part documentary ‘Chasing the Moon‘, which I found riveting. In fact, I much preferred it to Todd Douglas Millar’s ‘Apollo 11’, although the two documentaries are different animals and not really directly comparable. Anyway, if you are interested in the US-USSR space race, the internal politics behind the Apollo programme, and the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programmes, I can thoroughly recommend ‘Chasing the Moon’, which is to be released shortly on DVD if you do not have the chance to catch it on TV or to stream it. I found the comments by Sergei Krushchev (the son of Nikita Khrushchev) particularly interesting, especially his mention about the hushed-up death of a Soviet cosmonaut in a fire during a test with a pure-oxygen environment prior to the Apollo 1 accident. If the Americans had known about this, it might have prevented the equally gruesome deaths of Grissom, White, and Chaffee in 1967.

YouTube is a gold mine if you are interested in old and newer films, documentaries and vlogs on the Apollo programme. There are hundreds of videos about it. If you are a computer buff, the videos on the AGC (Apollo Guidance Computer) are fascinating. The recent series of videos on the restoration to working condition of a privately-owned scrapped AGC are fascinating. Below are a few of the documentaries and videos I have watched this week to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11. I have included links to a couple of the videos in the above-mentioned series on restoration of an AGC; you will be able to find the others in the series if you are interested.

  1. Chasing the Moon
  2. Spacecraft Films The Mighty Saturns Part I The Early Saturns
  3. Spacecraft Films The Mighty Saturns Part II The Saturn V
  4. Moon Machines: Command Module (2/6)
  5. Moon Machines: Navigation Computer (3/6)
  6. Moon Machines: Lunar Module (4/6)
  7. MIT Science Reporter – Computer for Apollo (1965)
  8. MIT Science Reporter – Landing on the Moon (1966)
  9. MIT Science Reporter – Returning from the Moon (1966)
  10. MIT Science Reporter – Food For Space Travelers (1966)
  11. The Real Story Behind the Apollo 11 Computer Error | WSJ
  12. The Journeys of Apollo
  13. The Apollo 4 Mission (1967)
  14. The Flight Of Apollo 7 (1968)
  15. Apollo 8 – Go For TLI (1969)
  16. Apollo 10 – To Sort Out The Unknowns (1969)
  17. Apollo 11 Saturn V Launch Camera E-8
  18. Restored Apollo 11 Moonwalk – Original NASA EVA Mission Video – Walking on the Moon
  19. Moon in Google Earth – Apollo 11 Landing
  20. Hear Buzz Aldrin tell the story of the first moon landing
  21. NASA: Moon Landing – Apollo 11 Descent Film and LRO [Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter] Imagery
  22. Apollo 11: The Complete Descent
  23. Why were there missing rungs on the Lunar Lander’s Ladder?
  24. Apollo AGC Part 1: Restoring the computer that put man on the Moon
  25. Apollo AGC Part 23: Flying realistic Apollo 11 moon landings with the Apollo Guidance Computer
  26. An Audience with Neil Armstrong (2011 interview)
  27. Apollo 11 crew member [Buzz Aldrin]
  28. WATCH: Astronaut Michael Collins discusses the Apollo 11 launch 50 years later
  29. Apollo’s Most Important Discovery (Inside NASA’s Moon Rock Vault!)
  30. Where does NASA keep the Moon Rocks? – Smarter Every Day 220
  31. APOLLO MOON SUIT: demonstration of functioning, and manufacturing (1969)
  32. Moon Machines: Space Suit (5/6)
  33. The Space Suit Special

Conspiracy theories and their debunking

  1. NASA: Moon Landing – Apollo 11 Descent Film and LRO [Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter] Imagery
  2. Moon-Landing Hoax Still Lives On, 50 Years After Apollo 11. But Why?
  3. Apollo and the moon-landing hoax
  4. Moon landing conspiracy theories – Hoax claims and rebuttals
  5. A Brief History of Moon Hoaxes – Why do people still believe in them?
  6. Why Faking the Moon Landing Was Impossible
  7. Debunking the Myth that the Moon Landing Was a Hoax
  8. Nvidia Debunks Conspiracy Theories About Moon Landing
  9. Moon Hoax: Debunked!
  10. The Space Suit Special


And, finally, these videos about the USSR’s failed attempt to put a man on the Moon are worth watching:

  1. Why Russia Did Not Put a Man on the Moon – The Secret Soviet Moon Rocket
  2. Soviet N1 Moon Rocket Documentary

Amazing that the NK-33 closed-cycle engines originally developed for the N1 were purchased by a US company, modified and finally used in a new launcher in 2013. The later and larger RD-180, also a Russian closed-cycle engine, is – if I understand correctly – still used to power US Atlas rockets until US-designed replacements are available.